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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

David J. Hickson

It is still not completely understood what speeds up or slows down the decision‐making process. The duration of decision making may range from a month to four years, but…

Abstract

It is still not completely understood what speeds up or slows down the decision‐making process. The duration of decision making may range from a month to four years, but usually takes about 12 months. Most processes run into disruptions and interruptions, which lengthen the time taken. Measuring decision making is difficult since it is virtually impossible to define the beginning and end of the process. The evidence for this comes from an extensive study of how top managers and administrators in the public and private sectors move towards a conclusion. A database was established of 150 cases of strategic decision making obtained by interviewing. Six cases were traced back by intensive case study methods. Short, medium and long decision processes are examined using case examples. One of the curious features of decision making is what happens before the deliberation process starts. Impediments and delays are discussed and whether committees slow the process.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

David Cray, Ruth McKay and Robert Mittelman

A dynamic global economy has increased the need for cross-cultural flexibility and cultural intelligence (CQ). While a large literature has examined various means to…

Abstract

Purpose

A dynamic global economy has increased the need for cross-cultural flexibility and cultural intelligence (CQ). While a large literature has examined various means to increase CQ in student and expatriate populations, its importance for teachers in cross-cultural settings has been largely unexamined. This paper aims to use the experiences of a group of professors in an MBA programme in Iran to investigate the effect of their activity on their cross-cultural skills.

Design/methodology/approach

Using structured interviews and content analysis, the authors draw on the experiences of business faculty from a Canadian business school who helped deliver an MBA programme in Iran to investigate how their experiences in a country new to them were reflected in the components of CQ.

Findings

Using an established model of CQ, the authors find contributions to all three facets, knowledge, mindfulness and behaviour, indicating that such exchanges can be regarded as important for students and teachers alike in an international educational context.

Originality/value

With more and more teaching extending across cultural boundaries in both domestic and international settings, the capacity of instructors to read, interpret and react to the attitudes, beliefs and behaviours of their students is an important factor in the success of these programs. To this point, at least within the business education literature, the influence of such encounters on the instructors involved has been neglected.

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Journal of International Education in Business, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-469X

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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Louise A. Heslop, Irene R.R. Lu and David Cray

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a longitudinal country‐people image effect model involving a significant negative international incident between…

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3004

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose and test a longitudinal country‐people image effect model involving a significant negative international incident between countries; study how such a model changes over time; and study the extent of image recovery in terms of how the offending country, people, and its products are perceived.

Design/methodology/approach

Australian consumers were surveyed before, during, and a decade after the French nuclear testing in the Pacific in 1995. Model testing was conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques.

Findings

The model was strongly supported in all three‐time points. During the crisis, negative feelings toward France/French rose and consumers' response to French products dropped. Country‐people competency has risen over country‐people character in explaining product evaluations. In the final period, the Australian views on country‐people character and product response had more than recovered. The country‐people character beliefs now play a significant role in influencing product evaluations after the crisis than before, while the impacts of country‐people competency on product evaluation and response have diminished dramatically. Product evaluation is fairly stable over time.

Originality/value

Studies to date have focused on country image at a point in time in relatively stable environmental conditions. The proposed model is helpful in understanding the processes of country‐product image effects through the study of all attitude components and through differentiation of beliefs about country and people production‐related and non‐production related characteristics. The cross‐temporal validation of the model indicates its usefulness for general applicability in country image effects research.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Louise A. Heslop, David Cray and Anahit Armenakyan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effects of brand name (BN) of wine and country‐of‐origin (COO) on perceptions of the personality image…

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1297

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the direct and interaction effects of brand name (BN) of wine and country‐of‐origin (COO) on perceptions of the personality image of the wine, expected price, and willingness to engage with the wine.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment in which label information for a fictitious wine was presented to wine consumers with a questionnaire on wine perceptions and response measures. The label information was manipulated across subjects using four BNs and three COOs.

Findings

The study confirms BN and COO effects on perceived wine personality and responses to the wine. Findings also indicate the effects of BN and COO as well as a BN‐COO interaction effect on price expectations.

Research limitations/implications

Findings link different personality dimensions to the two different cues, suggesting greater independence of the cues than originally expected. However, some BN‐COO incongruity effects are found particularly regarding price perceptions. A small set of wine BNs and COOs are tested and sample size/treatments are limited. With larger sample sizes, some weak effects might prove more significant. For more substantive support of these findings, the study could be repeated in different locations with different BN and COO examples.

Practical implications

The results suggest consumers are open to some fluidity in brand name use across wine‐producing countries with appropriate pricing strategies. They also highlight the importance of understanding consumer perceptions of wine personality in assessing consumer responses and price expectations.

Originality/value

The research addresses BN and COO direct and interaction effects on many aspects of wine evaluation and the central role of personality dimensions in wine assessments. The paper provides evidence of value in a rapidly evolving marketplace for wine and insights into the ongoing strategic changes in the wine market. It also contributes to theory and research on information cue use and cue incongruity effects.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

James D. Doyle, Louise A. Heslop, Alex Ramirez and David Cray

The blogosphere is an active arena for the communication of topic‐area claims by marketer and non‐marketer sources. Determinants of influence in the blogosphere have not…

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3437

Abstract

Purpose

The blogosphere is an active arena for the communication of topic‐area claims by marketer and non‐marketer sources. Determinants of influence in the blogosphere have not been well documented. The purpose of this paper is to investigate trust in bloggers, in a framework involving characteristics of bloggers and blogs and blog reading outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Blog‐reader perceptions of bloggers and blogs are derived and tested on a sample of blog readers for their effects on trust formation. Tests of mediation examine the role of perceived personal outcomes of blog reading in trust‐formation processes.

Findings

Trust formation is predicted by engagement knowledge of the blogger, unique reading experiences, and belief that the blog improved the marketspace. Blogger authoritative knowledge negatively impacted trust intentions. Positive experiences from blog reading mediate relationships between blog and blogger characteristics and intentions to trust.

Research limitations/implications

Blog readers examined in this initial investigation may not be totally representative of the general population of blog readers. Replications with other populations are needed.

Practical implications

The paper's findings suggest knowledge is an essential characteristic of a trustworthy blogger, but knowledge unrelated to everyday information needs holds little perceived value for readers. Firms operating blogs may wish to de‐emphasize their topic‐area authoritative knowledge and project a voice of topic‐area engagement.

Originality/value

The paper identifies salient trust‐related blogger and blog characteristics and provides an indication of a domain‐specific trust‐development process that is applicable to marketer and non‐marketer information sources.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 35 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2007

Susan Freeman, David Cray and Mark Sandwell

To understand better how professional services firms (PSFs) use networks to gain entry into newly emerging markets (NEMs), to analyze how such firms are assisted in this…

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1434

Abstract

Purpose

To understand better how professional services firms (PSFs) use networks to gain entry into newly emerging markets (NEMs), to analyze how such firms are assisted in this process by prior networks and to provide a framework of this process.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology utilised in this study is qualitative and exploratory. Ten interviews across three large firms (legal, finance and media consulting) were used for the data gathering. Analysis incorporated open, axial and selective coding.

Findings

Prior networks provide impetus to the foreign entry aspirations of PSFs and are critical to the process. The specific functions of network actors in the entry process are to influence the firm and to provide intelligence‐gathering, arising from their participatory role in the foreign market. A framework is presented, supporting network theory as a key theoretical underpinning of strategy formulation, decision‐making and implementation by PSFs entering NEMs.

Research limitations/implications

The framework presented in this paper could be tested most appropriately by analysing an extended number of cases, still within a qualitative approach, prior to survey‐testing the extent of the phenomena. Within the scope of the current study, however, the framework is supported by these preliminary findings.

Practical implications

Networks are perceived by PSFs as a medium for capturing market knowledge and as a basis for strategic decision‐making in NEMs.

Originality/value

Network theory is posited as a key theoretical underpinning of core strategy formulation, decision‐making and implementation by professional services entering NEMs.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 17 August 2012

James D. Doyle, Louise A. Heslop, Alex Ramirez, David Cray and Anahit Armenakyan

The purpose of this paper is to identify trust‐building signals and signaling patterns of commercial and non‐commercial wine bloggers within a trustworthiness framework…

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1384

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify trust‐building signals and signaling patterns of commercial and non‐commercial wine bloggers within a trustworthiness framework and assess prominence of balanced versus unbalanced resource‐based or compensatory approaches for the management of consumer trust beliefs and the facilitation of positive trust intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Development and validation of theory‐based signal‐classification scheme and two‐stage content analysis of trust‐building signals embedded in wine blogs.

Findings

It is found that wine bloggers manage consumer trust beliefs using an unbalanced signaling approach emphasizing ability over character. Ability sub‐dimension signals vary by commercial orientation. Also, character signaling varies with commercial orientation.

Research limitations/implications

Only English‐language wine blogs were studied. Limitations of content analysis procedures preclude direct evaluation of signal efficacy in absolute or contextualized terms.

Practical implications

Bloggers must secure reader trustworthiness to be effective communicators. Readers are likely to possess latent concerns about the bias of commercial bloggers and abilities of non‐commercial ones. Bloggers recognize the importance of ability signaling but may not be fully exploiting their positions of perceived advantage nor fully compensating for their distinctive inherent perceived weaknesses.

Social implications

Trustworthiness signaling in wine blogs has implications for bloggers in other contexts, including consumer and non‐consumer information environments and not‐for‐profit and governmental communicators. Blog and blogger trustworthiness must be addressed by these communicators to effect audience persuasion.

Originality/value

The paper discusses deductive development and validation of a novel signal classification scheme applied to trust building by bloggers that, through analysis of signal content, sheds light on behavior of commercial and non‐commercial information sources in emerging product information environments.

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

G.R. Mallory and David C. Wilson

Central to the concerns of management and to writers of organisation theory are the considerations of strategic decision making. The Organisational Analysis Research Unit…

Abstract

Central to the concerns of management and to writers of organisation theory are the considerations of strategic decision making. The Organisational Analysis Research Unit, in the Management Centre, University of Bradford, has been researching the process of strategic decision making in thirty British organisations, a sample ranging from orchestras to a police force with industrial and service organisations in between. The research was initiated in response to the apparent lack of any systematic comparative studies of decision making appearing elsewhere.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

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Abstract

Details

International Journal of Wine Business Research, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1062

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

Alfonso Morales

This paper reports preliminary findings about how households organize street vending businesses in response to varying sources and degrees of uncertainty. The thesis is…

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183

Abstract

This paper reports preliminary findings about how households organize street vending businesses in response to varying sources and degrees of uncertainty. The thesis is that households organize themselves in different ways in response to different types of uncertainty associated with 1) earning different types of income and 2) differences as well as changes in intra‐household relationships. The important findings are twofold: first, that household members earn income from both “formal” and “informal” sources BOTH sequentially and simultaneously. The second finding is that people coordinate the efforts of household members with respect to (un)certainty to keep income flowing from the income‐earning activities the members are practicing. I review some empirical work on the informal economy and follow this discussion with data from Chicago's Maxwell Street Market.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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