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There can be no question that the aggregate economic performance of the United States over the 1990s was outstanding. Except for a brief recession in 1990–1991, the United…
There can be no question that the aggregate economic performance of the United States over the 1990s was outstanding. Except for a brief recession in 1990–1991, the United States experienced steady growth, rising productivity, low and falling unemployment, and little inflation. Following sharp run-ups at the start of the decade, there were also declines in other social and economic indicators such as poverty, welfare caseloads, crime, and teenage birth rates. These trends suggest there were widespread increases in economic prosperity. In fact, however, we do not know exactly how the benefits of this performance were distributed.
We investigate how household disadvantage affects the time use of 15–18 year olds using 2003–2006 data from the American Time Use Survey. Applying competing-risk hazard…
We investigate how household disadvantage affects the time use of 15–18 year olds using 2003–2006 data from the American Time Use Survey. Applying competing-risk hazard models, we distinguish between the incidence and duration of activities and incorporate the daily time constraint. We find that teens living in disadvantaged households spend less time in nonclassroom educational activities than other teens. Girls spend some of this time in work activities, suggesting that they are taking on adult roles. However, we find more evidence of substitution into unsupervised activities, suggesting that it may be less-structured environments that reduce educational investment.
In the first, by David A. Macpherson and Barry T. Hirsch, entitled “Wages and Gender Composition: Why Do Women's Jobs Pay Less?” occupational sex segregation and its relationship with wages during 1973–93 are examined. Wage level and wage change models are estimated using Current Population Survey data matched with measures of occupational skills and job disamenities. Standard analysis confirms that wage levels are substantially lower in predominantly female occupations. Gender composition effects are reduced by about a quarter for women and by over one‐half for men following control for skill‐related occupational characteristics. Longitudinal analysis indicates that two‐thirds or more of the standard gender composition effect is accounted for by occupational characteristics and unmeasured worker skill or taste differences.
How individuals allocate their time between work and leisure has important implications regarding worker well-being. For example, more time at work means a greater return to human capital and a greater proclivity to seek more training opportunities. At the same time, hours spent at work decrease leisure and depend on one's home environment (including parental background), health, past migration, and government policies. In short, worker well-being depends on trade-offs and is influenced by public policy. These decisions entail time allocation, effort, human capital investment, health, and migration, among other choices. This volume considers worker well-being from the vantage of each of these alternatives. It contains ten chapters. The first three are on time allocation and work behavior, the next three on aspects of risk in the earnings process, the next two on aspects of migration, the next one on the impact of tax policies on poverty, and finally the last chapter on the role of labor market institutions on sectoral shifts in employment.
The evolution of MIS technology has affected traditional auditing and created a new set of audit issues. This paper describes the Continuous Process Auditing System (CPAS…
The evolution of MIS technology has affected traditional auditing and created a new set of audit issues. This paper describes the Continuous Process Auditing System (CPAS) developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories for the internal audit organization that is designed to deal with the problems of auditing large paperless real-time systems. The paper discusses why the methodology is important and contrasts it with the traditional audit approach. CPAS is designed to measure and monitor large systems, drawing key metrics and analytics into a workstation environment. The data are displayed in an interactive mode, providing auditors with a work platform to examine extracted data and prepare auditing reports. CPAS monitors key operational analytics, compares these with standards, and calls the auditor’s attention to any problems that may exist. Ultimately, this technology will utilize system probes that will monitor the auditee system and intervene when needed.
Neural networks offer an alternative to numerical scoring schemes for credit granting and extension decisions. A standard back‐ propagation neural network running on a DOS…
Neural networks offer an alternative to numerical scoring schemes for credit granting and extension decisions. A standard back‐ propagation neural network running on a DOS personal computer is used with 125 credit applicants whose loan outcomes are known. Applicant characteristics are described as input neurons receiving values representing the individuals' demographic and credit information. Three categories of payment history, delinquent, charged‐off, and paid‐off, are used as the networks output neurons to depict the loan outcomes. After training on part of the data, correct classifications were made on 76–80% of the holdout sample.
Examines the thirteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched…
Examines the thirteenth published year of the ITCRR. Runs the whole gamut of textile innovation, research and testing, some of which investigates hitherto untouched aspects. Subjects discussed include cotton fabric processing, asbestos substitutes, textile adjuncts to cardiovascular surgery, wet textile processes, hand evaluation, nanotechnology, thermoplastic composites, robotic ironing, protective clothing (agricultural and industrial), ecological aspects of fibre properties – to name but a few! There would appear to be no limit to the future potential for textile applications.