Claire Elizabeth Carlson, Paul A. Isihara, Roger Sandberg, David Boan, Kaile Phelps, Kyu Lim Lee, Danilo R. Diedrichs, Daniela Cuba, Johnny Edman, Melissa Gray, Roland Hesse, Robin Kong and Kei Takazawa
The need in disaster response to assess how reliably and equitably funding was accounted for and distributed is addressed by a standardized report and index applicable to…
The need in disaster response to assess how reliably and equitably funding was accounted for and distributed is addressed by a standardized report and index applicable to any disaster type. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
Data from the Nepal earthquake (2015), Typhoon Haiyan (2013), the Haiti earthquake (2010), Sri Lankan flood (2011), and Hurricane Sandy (2012) illustrate uses of a public equitable allocation of resources log (PEARL). Drawing from activity-based costing and the Gini index, a PEARL spreadsheet computes absolute inequity sector by sector as well as a cumulative index. Response variations guide index value interpretation.
Index values indicates major inequity in Nepal hygiene kit distribution and Haiti earthquake (both PEARL indices near 0.5), moderate inequity for the Sri Lankan flood (index roughly 0.75) and equitable distributions for Typhoon Haiyan and Hurricane Sandy (both indices approximately 0.95). Indices are useful to approximate proportions of inequity in the total response and investigate allocation under uncertainty in sector need specification.
This original tool is implementable using a website containing a practice PEARL, completed examples and downloadable spreadsheet. Used across multiple sectors or for a single sector, PEARL may signal need for additional resources, correct inequitable distribution decisions, simplify administrative monitoring/assessment, and foster greater accounting transparency in summary reports. PEARL also assists historical analysis of all disaster types to determine completeness of public accounting records and equity in fund distribution.
Researchers recommend a reorganization of the medical profession into larger groups with a multispecialty mix. We analyze whether there is evidence for the superiority of…
Researchers recommend a reorganization of the medical profession into larger groups with a multispecialty mix. We analyze whether there is evidence for the superiority of these models and if this organizational transformation is underway.
We summarize the evidence on scale and scope economies in physician group practice, and then review the trends in physician group size and specialty mix to conduct survivorship tests of the most efficient models.
The distribution of physician groups exhibits two interesting tails. In the lower tail, a large percentage of physicians continue to practice in small, physician-owned practices. In the upper tail, there is a small but rapidly growing percentage of large groups that have been organized primarily by non-physician owners.
While our analysis includes no original data, it does collate all known surveys of physician practice characteristics and group practice formation to provide a consistent picture of physician organization.
Our review suggests that scale and scope economies in physician practice are limited. This may explain why most physicians have retained their small practices.
Larger, multispecialty groups have been primarily organized by non-physician owners in vertically integrated arrangements. There is little evidence supporting the efficiencies of such models and some concern they may pose anticompetitive threats.
This is the first comprehensive review of the scale and scope economies of physician practice in nearly two decades. The research results do not appear to have changed much; nor has much changed in physician practice organization.
This chapter explores the migration decisions and motives of a group of academics who were recruited to three Australian higher education institutions during the period…
This chapter explores the migration decisions and motives of a group of academics who were recruited to three Australian higher education institutions during the period 1965–2003. The chapter furthers our understanding of historical patterns of academic mobility and the experience of academic mobility and adds to our understanding of the academic profession. The research used a micro approach to migration history and focussed on academic migrants’ decision-making processes. The research used semi-structured interviews with three groups of academics who were interviewed in 1982 and 2003. The academic migrants in this research were not committed to any particular institution or curriculum. What was most important in their migration decision was simply obtaining any academic position. Many, if not most of them, owed their academic careers to the growth in Australian higher education caused by its transition from an elite to a mass system. They obtained their academic posts because of the global nature of academic work. The question that arises from this study is what Australian universities will need to do to attract a new generation of academics as they compete in a global market for academic personnel.
– The purpose of this paper is to present historical research on marketing practices in department stores of the 1880-1930 period using primary source records from Australia.
The purpose of this paper is to present historical research on marketing practices in department stores of the 1880-1930 period using primary source records from Australia.
The paper draws from primary records including retail trade journals, mass circulation newspapers, and other contemporary sources, but mainly from the archives of The Master Retailers' Association (MRA). The MRA was the dominant industry employers' organisation in Australia, and possibly the first retail association of its kind in the Western world. Secondary sources have also been used to supplement the primary records, and to provide context, and cross-cultural comparisons.
The findings demonstrate the antecedents of a range of marketing practices that today we presume are modern, including sales promotion, trade promotion, direct mail, destination retailing, advertising, and consumer segmentation. This supports other scholars' research into marketing's long history.
This paper contributes original knowledge to the neglected field of Australian marketing history and connects the pioneering practices of retailers to the broader field of marketing. While some outstanding retail histories exist for the USA, UK, and France, the Australian story has remained largely uncovered.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the emplotment of organizational grand-narratives of a leading international organization, the Organisation for Economic…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the emplotment of organizational grand-narratives of a leading international organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The paper includes the reconstruction of the OECD’s inclusion approach as a prototype grand-narrative. Moreover, the main goal of this paper is understanding the reciprocal relationship between the organizational narratives and other organizational domains.
To study the structural process of emploting grand-narratives, which combines reciprocal dependencies across organizational domains, I have used process tracing, content analysis and interviews methodologies, for each domain. These methodologies were monitored by quantitative and qualitative analyses of the interactions among these domains. These methods allowed me to explore the interdependencies in the discursive and non-discursive ordering of institutional memory as a means for identifying the development of organizational narratives.
The findings of this paper confirm the reciprocal dynamics among and within three core organizational domains, narratives, organizational-epistemological settings and organizational products. These domains evolve constantly and concurrently in a three-phased process where a former organizational constellation is challenged, a consolidation takes place, and a new narrative is institutionalized. The context I chose to demonstrate this dynamic is the OECD evolving interactions between innerorganizational units and the organizational products (i.e. its activation policy recommendations), of the OECD post-Cold War inclusive approach (1989–2002).
The importance and complexity of the OECD as a global trendsetting organization, and the findings of this single case study are significant for their implications on trends and processes found in other complex grand-narratives. The transferability of these results would require further analysis.
The originality of this paper is using a transnational dynamic organization such as the OECD as the organizational model for understanding how organizations undergo emplotment processes. Moreover, this article’s analytical framework provides a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between the constraining structures and micro-level interactions.
The United States and European countries have for a long time affirmed non-pecuniary loss as a proper title of damages. On both sides of the Atlantic in the preceding…
The United States and European countries have for a long time affirmed non-pecuniary loss as a proper title of damages. On both sides of the Atlantic in the preceding decades, we have witnessed an escalation in the monetary amounts awarded for the non-pecuniary component of damages in cases of personal injury.1 As a result of this escalation, the countries referred to have embarked on a shrill debate in trying to decipher a definition of their concrete notions of non-pecuniary damages2 and on their awarding methods.3