Presents a case study in systems modelling for product improvementin a large manufacturing company. Summarizes the background to andpurpose of systems modelling as a…
Presents a case study in systems modelling for product improvement in a large manufacturing company. Summarizes the background to and purpose of systems modelling as a change management tool as a prelude to introducing the case and its use in understanding a particular paradox.
Care planning is important in the provision of good‐quality care and serves a variety of functions, including acting as a communication tool. An accessible format for care…
Care planning is important in the provision of good‐quality care and serves a variety of functions, including acting as a communication tool. An accessible format for care plans is therefore important. The National Minimum Care Standards in England now require that all residents in care homes have a service user plan. This study examined the format and content of 117 blank care plan documents used in Manchester and Cheshire care homes in 2001/02. Sixty‐eight per cent of homes used a problem‐orientated care plan document, 25% used a problem‐orientated care plan with assessment domains defined, 15% used standard care plans and five per cent used daily care plans. Although the government has stressed the importance of involving the user in the care planning process, only 16% of homes had a care plan that specifically asked for a resident's signature or agreement. There were also differences in content of care plans by home type, which may reflect the professional background and training of staff in nursing homes. The variety in types and format of care plans suggests that the interpretation and recording of care planning may not be uniform across homes and there is a need for further detailed work in this area using interviews or observational approaches.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of offence type, prior imprisonment and various socio-demographic characteristics on mortality at 28 and 365 days…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of offence type, prior imprisonment and various socio-demographic characteristics on mortality at 28 and 365 days following prison release.
Using whole-population linked, routinely collected administrative state-based imprisonment and mortality data, the authors conducted a retrospective study of 12,677 offenders released from Western Australian prisons in the period 1994-2003. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the association between mortality at 28 and 365 days post-release and offence type, prior imprisonment, and a range of socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, social disadvantage and Indigenous status).
Overall, 135 (1.1 per cent) died during the 365 days follow-up period, of these, 17.8 per cent (n=24) died within the first 28 days (four weeks) of their index release. Ex-prisoners who had committed drug-related offences had significantly higher risk of 28-day post-release mortality (HR=28.4; 95 per cent CI: 1.3-615.3, p=0.033), than those who had committed violent (non-sexual) offences. A significant association was also found between the number of previous incarcerations and post-release mortality at 28 days post-release, with three prior prison terms carrying the highest mortality risk (HR=73.8; 95 per cent CI: 1.8-3,092.5, p=0.024). No association between mortality and either offence type or prior imprisonment was seen at 365 days post-release.
Post-release mortality at 28 days was significantly associated with offence type (with drug-related offences carrying the greatest risk) and with prior imprisonment, but associations did not persist to 365 days after release. Targeting of short-term transitional programmes to reduce preventable deaths after return to the community could be tailored to these high-risk ex-prisoners.