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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Margaret M.C. Humphreys

The research asked: How do daughters take the lead in their family businesses? What are the relevant issues that characterize the succession process for daughters, what…

Abstract

Purpose

The research asked: How do daughters take the lead in their family businesses? What are the relevant issues that characterize the succession process for daughters, what are the attributes of daughter successors, and what, if any, features distinguish their leadership style?

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative research comprised reflective interviews with 14 daughter successors. Thematic data analysis was used to analyze data, build models and link to previous research.

Findings

The shifting landscape of women's roles in family businesses is evidenced through the experiences of daughters who have taken over the top leadership positions in their family firms. Skill and commitment override gender in successor selection. The women were intrinsically motivated to take over their family businesses and owned significant shares in their firms. The findings confirm the centrality of the successor‐incumbent relationship and reveal mentoring, frequently by the incumbent, as the principal vehicle for the transfer of business leadership. Emotional competence emerged as a key successor quality.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on a single perspective, that of the successor. The accounts may include elements of performance, that is, selection of content based on the audience and the participant's desired results.

Originality/value

The paper provides an alternate view to female invisibility in the family business, and the practice of primogeniture. This is new research on succession and women's roles in family business.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Boris Urban and Ruth Palesa Nonkwelo

Literature considers the succession process to be successful when both the continuity of the business and harmony within the family are preserved. This study empirically…

Abstract

Purpose

Literature considers the succession process to be successful when both the continuity of the business and harmony within the family are preserved. This study empirically investigates intra-family dynamics with regard to daughters as potential successors in family businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The study takes place in South Africa where family businesses represent a significant amount of all listed businesses on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange. A structured survey instrument is used to collect primary data from family businesses in South Africa. The study hypotheses are statistically tested using regression analyses.

Findings

Results highlight the importance of the business context (BC), intra-family cohesion (IFC), intra-family adaptability (IFA) as well as the parent-daughter relationship (PDR) in successful daughter succession planning (SP). An important insight which emerges from the findings is the extent to which a harmonious business environment is conducive in accommodating the daughter as a successor to the business.

Practical implications

Family business owners need to be aware of the often conflicting pressures that daughters face as potential successors. Evidence-based and fit for purpose to the South African family BC processes and directives must be formulated that guide the implementation of SP. The provision of training specifically focused on gender bias issues and women empowerment programmes in family business is recommended.

Originality/value

Investigating theoretical and practical problems related to daughters in SP in South Africa is important considering that firms in African countries in general tend to be poorly managed.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2007

Ruth Rossier and Brigitta Wyss

In Switzerland farm succession is predominantly patrilinear and controlled by a patriarchal system of succession. A postal survey on farm succession in Switzerland in 2004…

Abstract

In Switzerland farm succession is predominantly patrilinear and controlled by a patriarchal system of succession. A postal survey on farm succession in Switzerland in 2004 elucidated the gender patterns of conditions of succession: the current share of female farm operators stands at 6%. There are no trends towards change. The number of potential female successors ready to take over the farm in the next generation cited by the present operator is again 6% (Rossier & Wyss, 2006). In Switzerland by law women and men are considered equal in all ambits of life. The Act on Gender Equality came into force in 1996. Since then all federal laws that treated women differently from men have been amended.

Details

Gender Regimes, Citizen Participation and Rural Restructuring
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1420-1

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2019

Filippo Ferrari

This paper aims to investigate and explain the power dynamics involving the mother (as the founder) and the daughter (as the successor) during the business transmission process.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate and explain the power dynamics involving the mother (as the founder) and the daughter (as the successor) during the business transmission process.

Design/methodology/approach

This qualitative research was conducted on a sample of Italian family SMEs. The adopted approach is consistent with the narration paradigm, where the biographical features of the participant are investigated to highlight the culture, value systems and other background features.

Findings

This research suggests that if the founder is her mother, the daughter faces further challenges. Findings suggest that during business transmission, it is also important to consider the cultural and contextual factors, such as gender biases, both in the family and in the workplace. This paper seems to suggest that power is important in itself, regardless of the gender of those who exercise it.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should investigate, quantitatively, the same issues considered in this research, to assess the reliability and validity of the evidence discussed here.

Practical implications

This paper suggests how to overcome dysfunctional dynamics in mother–daughter business transmission.

Social implications

Family firms are the most widespread type of firm in the world; as a consequence, systematic failures in business transmission represent a prominent socio-economical problem for policymakers and institutions.

Originality/value

This research shows that in family business, power is not dynamic and does not shift among family members, as suggested by previous research. Even once the mother retires, a stable power hierarchy remains within the family firm.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Dominique Otten‐Pappas

Amidst the perpetual evasiveness of a general succession model, successor commitment has been identified as an important factor. The purpose of this paper is to examine to…

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Abstract

Purpose

Amidst the perpetual evasiveness of a general succession model, successor commitment has been identified as an important factor. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent female successor commitment displays particular characteristics and which insights this sheds on successor commitment theory.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a review of the relevant literature, propositions concerning female successor commitment are developed. Qualitative case study data are used to explore the applicability of the multidimensional successor commitment model.

Findings

Normative commitment was only observed in female successors at a time of crisis or when no other successor was available. It was found to be a dynamic concept and the data indicated a general shift towards affective commitment. A combination of calculative and affective commitment was found when the female successor chose a career in the family business, to be able to combine career and child care responsibilities, indicating the need to include personal cost in the antecedents for calculative successor commitment.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest amendments to consider for the successor commitment model and the calculative commitment type in particular. The most important implication for future research is the development of assessment tools to be able to measure and quantify different types of commitment and their relative strength, in order to be able to make inferences about co‐occurrence and change.

Originality/value

The paper takes a female perspective to explore the successor commitment issue and thereby allows identifying issues hitherto invisible to the successor commitment discussion.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2020

Ilse Matser, Jelle Bouma and Erik Veldhuizen

Family farms, in which business and family life are intricately interwoven, offer an interesting context for better understanding the interdependence between the family…

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1373

Abstract

Purpose

Family farms, in which business and family life are intricately interwoven, offer an interesting context for better understanding the interdependence between the family and business system. Many family farms struggle to survive, and the succession process is a key period in which the low returns on investment become evident but also the emotional attachment of the family to the farm and the willingness to transfer the business to the next generation. We take the perspective of non-succeeding siblings since they are crucial for a successful succession but their role and position in this process is far from clear. This study will help to increase our knowledge of how fairness is perceived by non-successors and of the impact of perceived (in)justice on the family business system.

Design/methodology/approach

To analyze the effect on sibling relationships of an unequal outcome of the succession process, we choose the family farm context. We used interview data from multiple family members from several family farms in the Netherlands in different stages of succession. We utilized a framework based on justice theory to analyze perceptions of fairness among non-succeeding siblings. The central research question for this study is as follows: How do non-succeeding siblings perceive justice with regard to family firm succession?

Findings

The acceptance of the outcomes of the succession process by non-succeeding siblings is influenced by their perception of the fairness of the process itself and decisions made by the incumbent and successor with regard to these outcomes. It seems that stakeholders who occupy multiple roles with conflicting justice perspectives handle these contradictions with the help of an overarching goal—in this study, preserving the continuity of the family farm—and by prioritizing and adjusting the justice perspectives accordingly. The findings further show that both distributive justice and procedural justice are important and interact with each other.

Originality/value

Our study contributes to the literature by applying the theoretical framework of distributive and procedural justice to the context of family farm succession. This helps us to understand the position of non-succeeding siblings and their role and position in the succession process, which is important because sibling relationships have a significant impact on family harmony, with potential consequences for the business as well.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2019

Jacob Donald Tan, Hendrawan Supratikno, Rudy Pramono, John Tampil Purba and Innocentius Bernarto

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and explain how predecessors (incumbents) of ethnic Chinese family small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia or appropriately called Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs nurture their successors in procuring transgenerational entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 25 participants were involved in this qualitative study which employed a multi-method triangulation design with the following research instruments: semi-structured in-depth interviews with experts, incumbents and successors of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs, field notes from conversations and observations during engagement with participants affiliated to the family SMEs, a focus group discussion with academicians and literature reviews. Another key approach is source triangulation, where different participants – e.g. from among the experts, from among the incumbents, successors and family members in each family business case were interviewed and engaged outside the interview sessions.

Findings

The proposed theoretical framework depicts comprehensive attributes of nurturing Chinese-Indonesian successors to continue enterprising at the helm of family SMEs. Propositions are used to explain the impacts these attributes have on transgenerational entrepreneurship specifically. At the personal level, incumbents have to focus on discovering the successors’ passions and nurture them in formal education, childhood involvement, as well as bridging them in entrepreneurial knowledge through cultural values, mentorship, autonomy and role modelling. Incumbents also had to plan for their retirements to provide autonomy for successors. At the firm/family level, incumbents must be able to set a foothold on family governance, firm governance and ownership distribution to reduce conflicts in their family businesses. Furthermore, as a minority group with past traumatic experiences, Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs usually equip themselves with contingency plans to protect their assets for the long-term future.

Research limitations/implications

This study was conducted in Indonesia amongst Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs and thus it is not generalisable in other settings. Literature reviews on family SMEs succession are still scant, especially on the Chinese-Indonesian.

Practical implications

Predecessors/incumbents of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs could consider implementing the proposed nurturing strategies to their successors to sustain the longevity of the business based on trust, stewardship and harmony. The theoretical research framework resulted from this study offers general suggestions on how to nurture the next generation specifically from personal/interpersonal perspectives, which must be accompanied by specific scopes of family and firm aspects. This study extends beyond indicating the factors (ingredients) by explaining how to nurture transgenerational entrepreneurship (cook the ingredients) in SMEs for a tactful transition. Hence, the incumbents play vital roles and must be poised to adjust their mindsets to certain aspects indicated in this study.

Social implications

Most overseas Chinese businesses are family-owned, and besides Indonesia constituting the largest Chinese population outside the Republic of China, this 3 per cent of Indonesia’s people are known for controlling about 70 per cent of the economy. Furthermore, SMEs play a significant role in the Indonesian economy, as they provide about 97 per cent off the country’s employment and 57.8 per cent of the gross domestic product. Hence, the longevity of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs must be well managed to bolster the economy and social welfare of the country.

Originality/value

A transgenerational entrepreneurship model in the context of Chinese-Indonesian family SMEs which incorporates the nurturing process of the successor to step up the helm of the business is proposed in the study.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2019

Kimberly A. Eddleston and Ghita Sabil

Women are becoming more and more visible in family firms. They appear to be the adhesive that bonds the family together and may, therefore, help explain why some families…

Abstract

Women are becoming more and more visible in family firms. They appear to be the adhesive that bonds the family together and may, therefore, help explain why some families are a key source of strength for their business while others struggle to maintain family harmony and business success. Yet, these women face many challenges in working for their family’s business. In this chapter, we offer a brief review of the literature as related to the historical perspectives in terms of CEO wives and daughters and concerns about primogeniture. We conclude with a discussion on progress and capture the experiences of women working in their family’s business.

Details

Go-to-Market Strategies for Women Entrepreneurs
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-289-4

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 14 February 2022

Neus Feliu and Ivan Lansberg

What are the unique challenges for daughters who inherit ownership in family enterprise? How does their path to ownership influence their impact? What dilemmas are…

Abstract

What are the unique challenges for daughters who inherit ownership in family enterprise? How does their path to ownership influence their impact? What dilemmas are associated with their ownership roles? How can women best respond to the challenges of ownership? This chapter offers preliminary answers to these questions, including suggestions for enhancing the ability of women owners—especially daughters—to engage constructively with the businesses they inherit.

We focus on daughters serving in three distinctive roles: (1) as “operating owners” working in the family company and pursuing careers and leadership roles in management; (2) as “governing owners” serving as chairs or directors on the board of the business, or as members of other governance forums such as a family council, an owners’ council or the board of the family’s philanthropic foundation; and, (3) as “engaged owners” who are neither in operational or governance roles but are keenly connected to the enterprise’s success and continuity.

Our fundamental thesis is that the active participation of daughters as operating, governing or engaged owners enhances the continuity of the enterprise by expanding the pool of managerial and governing talent available to the business and by fostering inclusion, commitment and unity among the owners. We conclude by describing three interventions that can facilitate the dilemmas daughters face as owners and empower them to engage constructively with the family enterprise: (1) education, (2) mentorship and network support, and (3) well designed structures and roles.

Details

The Power of Inclusion in Family Business
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-579-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Anne Laakkonen and Juha Kansikas

This qualitative study attempts to understand what kinds of evolutionary selection and variation occur in family businesses during the preparation of a managerial and…

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1380

Abstract

Purpose

This qualitative study attempts to understand what kinds of evolutionary selection and variation occur in family businesses during the preparation of a managerial and ownership succession.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted by interviewing members of one family business in Louisiana, USA and one in Finland in order to contribute to the understanding of succession preparation in small family businesses with two generations. Evolutionary economics was adapted for this interdisciplinary study to explain evolutionary changes in a family business succession.

Findings

The findings indicate that both selection and variation can take place through different routes during the preparatory phase of a family business succession. Selection is influenced both by the founder and next generations. However, it does not occur in company A due to the reluctance of the younger generation. In company B selection is processed through joint thinking and visioning. This will lead to variation which is shaped by both generations.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on qualitative interpretation. Limitations of the study are the small number of informants and the lack of generalization of the results.

Practical implications

This study shows that selection and variation are intertwined. If selection does not occur in a family business, it leads to no variation between the generations. However, exits are possible; death and birth of companies are part of the life cycle of family businesses.

Originality/value

Evolutionary thinking has not been studied recently among family firms except in the field of evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary thinking offers a variety of topics to study in the future.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 34 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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