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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Regi Alexander, John Devapriam, Dasari Michael, Jane McCarthy, Verity Chester, Rahul Rai, Aezad Naseem and Ashok Roy

The purpose of this paper is to describe key policy and practice issues regarding a significant subgroup of people with intellectual disability – those with offending…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe key policy and practice issues regarding a significant subgroup of people with intellectual disability – those with offending behaviour being treated in forensic hospitals.

Design/methodology/approach

The reasons why psychiatrists continue to be involved in the treatment of people with intellectual disability and mental health or behavioural problems and the factors that may lead to patients needing hospital admission are examined. Using two illustrative examples, three key questions – containment vs treatment, hospital care vs conditional discharge and hospital treatment vs using deprivation of liberty safeguards usage in the community are explored.

Findings

Patients with intellectual disability, mental health problems and offending behaviours who are treated within forensic inpatient units tend to have long lengths of stay. The key variable that mediates this length of stay is the risk that they pose to themselves or others. Clinicians work within the framework of mental health law and have to be mindful that pragmatic solutions to hasten discharge into the community may not fall within the law.

Originality/value

This paper makes practical suggestions for the future on how to best integrate hospital and community care for people with intellectual disability, mental health and offending behaviours.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Sherva Elizabeth Cooray, Sab Bhaumik, Ashok Roy, John Devapriam, Rahul Rai and Regi Alexander

The 11th revision of the International Classification of diseases which sets global standards for defining, reporting and managing health conditions is under way. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The 11th revision of the International Classification of diseases which sets global standards for defining, reporting and managing health conditions is under way. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) underpinning principle of clinical utility is currently poor for persons with Disorders of Intellectual Development (DID) and mental disorders. This impedes access to healthcare resources; services and social inclusion thereby further aggravating their vulnerability. The purpose of this paper is to present a critical overview and evidence informed recommendations within the context of an international collaborative programme, undertaken by the Faculty of Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability, Royal College of Psychiatrists, UK with support from the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors carried out: first, a systematic review (SR) of literature, using PRISMA guidelines regarding the reliability, validity and utility of the ICD-10/Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic criteria in people with DID (PWDID); second, a national and international consultation exercise with partners, stakeholders and experts; third, a multicentric survey of problem behaviours in PWDID; and finally, information dissemination/dialogues including presentations and workshops at key scientific events, consultation networking, data gathering and consensus building.

Findings

The SR revealed a dearth of robust studies – most consisting of weak research methodologies. Significant difficulties were highlighted regarding the application of diagnostic criteria in the current classificatory systems – particularly in people with severe/moderate DID. Recommendations supported the introduction WHERE APPROPRIATE of modifications based on observed phenomena (signs) in PWDID in lieu of reported symptoms to facilitate DIAGNOSIS AND better access to healthcare and the community. Heterogeneity precluded quantitative pooling and meta-analysis. The consensus building exercise globally revealed that problem behaviours were the commonest reasons for referral to healthcare services with significant numbers without a diagnosed mental disorder being prescribed psychoactive medication.

Research limitations/implications

The consensus gathering exercise WAS SELECTIVE AND did not cover all of the 194 member states of WHO due to resource and time constraints and this constitutes the main limitation of our study. Based on the SR and expert consensus, the authors submitted evidence informed pragmatic proposals to the WHO aimed at addressing the shortcomings of the ICD-10. The key recommendations focused on improving clinical utility within the context of epistemic iteration which would consolidate and strengthen the future evidence base. It was also recommended that self-injurious behaviour should form a standalone sub category in view of its relevance for healthcare services and resources which underpin clinical utility.

Practical implications

The ICD-11 is a global, multidisciplinary and multilingual development for public health benefit with 70 per cent of the world's health expenditures assigned using this system for resource allocation. Currently mental disorders in PWDID can be misinterpreted, unrecognised and under reported resulting in barriers to access to treatment and healthcare resources. Conversely disorders may be over diagnosed when the inherent discrepancies between the chronological age and the developmental level of functioning are not considered. Conclusions and recommendations from this study will result in better diagnosis of mental disorders and healthcare resources in this population.

Social implications

PWDID are a vulnerable sector of the population with an increased prevalence of mental health problems who are marginalised and discriminated by society. Early detection, treatment and management of these conditions will prevent further decompensation and stigmatisation.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors knowledge this is the first comprehensive, large-scale study which evaluates the ICD classificatory system within the context of clinical utility for PWDID, including experts and stakeholders from both lower/middle- and high-income countries. The international consultation/consensus building process culminating in the formulation of evidence informed recommendations, aimed at improving the clinical utility of the ICD-11 for this population, has the potential to improve access to appropriate healthcare and treatment and consequent enhancement of their quality of life.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Abedalmuhdi Almomany, Ahmad M. Al-Omari, Amin Jarrah and Mohammad Tawalbeh

The problem of motif discovery has become a significant challenge in the era of big data where there are hundreds of genomes requiring annotations. The importance of…

Abstract

Purpose

The problem of motif discovery has become a significant challenge in the era of big data where there are hundreds of genomes requiring annotations. The importance of motifs has led many researchers to develop different tools and algorithms for finding them. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new algorithm to increase the speed and accuracy of the motif discovering process, which is the main drawback of motif discovery algorithms.

Design/methodology/approach

All motifs are sorted in a tree-based indexing structure where each motif is created from a combination of nucleotides: ‘A’, ‘C’, ‘T’ and ‘G’. The full motif can be discovered by extending the search around 4-mer nucleotides in both directions, left and right. Resultant motifs would be identical or degenerated with various lengths.

Findings

The developed implementation discovers conserved string motifs in DNA without having prior information about the motifs. Even for a large data set that contains millions of nucleotides and thousands of very long sequences, the entire process is completed in a few seconds.

Originality/value

Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed implementation; as for a real-sequence of 1,270,000 nucleotides spread into 2,000 samples, it takes 5.9 s to complete the overall discovering process when the code ran on an Intel Core i7-6700 @ 3.4 GHz machine and 26.7 s when running on an Intel Xeon x5670 @ 2.93 GHz machine. In addition, the authors have improved computational performance by parallelizing the implementation to run on multi-core machines using the OpenMP framework. The speedup achieved by parallelizing the implementation is scalable and proportional to the number of processors with a high efficiency that is close to 100%.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Joseph Calandro, Ranganna Dasari and Scott Lane

This paper aims to illustrates the use of the modern Graham and Dodd valuation methodology as a corporate M&A tool by way of case study.

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2946

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to illustrates the use of the modern Graham and Dodd valuation methodology as a corporate M&A tool by way of case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a case study of the 1995 Berkshire Hathaway acquisition of GEICO and draws on previously published Graham and Dodd methodological materials as well as GEICO's publicly available financial information. The valuation presented in the case is the sole work of the authors.

Findings

The paper finds that, while Graham and Dodd‐based valuation is a popular investment methodology it has thus far received scant attention as a corporate M&A tool. The results of the GEICO case suggest that Graham and Dodd valuation could be applied successfully to corporate M&A.

Research limitations/implications

The paper explains modern Graham and Dodd valuation in the context of Berkshire Hathaway's 1995 GEICO acquisition. It demonstrates how that acquisition contained a reasonable margin‐of safety, or price discount to estimated intrinsic value, even though it was taken private at a 25.6 percent premium over the $55.75/share market price at the time. The case demonstrates the practical utility of Graham and Dodd‐based valuation in corporate M&A, and provides recommendations for its use in that context.

Originality/value

While Graham and Dodd valuation has been well covered from an investment perspective this is the first work, as far as the authors are aware, that seeks to apply it to corporate M&A.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Kuljit Heer, Michael Larkin, Ivan Burchess and John Rose

This study aims to explore the cultural context of care‐giving amongst South Asian communities caring for a child with intellectual disabilities in the United Kingdom.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explore the cultural context of care‐giving amongst South Asian communities caring for a child with intellectual disabilities in the United Kingdom.

Design/methodology/approach

In the context of the United Kingdom's Children's Intellectual Disability Services, the study set out to develop a culturally sensitive account of Sikh and Muslim parents' experiences of caring for a child with intellectual disabilities. Focus groups were conducted with parents from Sikh and Muslim support groups who were all accessing intellectual disability services for their children. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, a qualitative technique.

Findings

Three master themes emerged from the analysis which were: Making sense of the disability; Feeling let down by services and Looking to the future. These themes reinforce findings from previous research particularly in relation to difficulties when making sense of the disabilities and difficult interactions with services.

Practical implications

The study makes recommendations for service delivery to ethnic minority groups including being aware of intra‐group variations in the interpretations and responses of South Asian parents.

Originality/value

Ultimately, the study makes recommendations for developing culturally sensitive support and interventions for ethnic minority groups which is important given the increase in multi‐ethnic populations in the UK.

Details

Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1282

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

Joseph Calandro and Scott Lane

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the relative profitability and growth matrix and to demonstrate its use as a competitive analysis tool.

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5952

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the relative profitability and growth matrix and to demonstrate its use as a competitive analysis tool.

Design/methodology/approach

Two well‐known drivers of value are profitability and growth. After a study of 2 × 2 matrices we applied these drivers on a relative or industry comparative basis to a 2 × 2 matrix, and then we applied that matrix to competitive analyses of two industries to assess its strategic utility.

Findings

Our findings suggest that the relative profitability and growth matrix could be a useful competitive analysis screening and communications tool.

Practical and research implications

The relative profitability and growth matrix assesses a firm's profitability and growth relative to its industry and by so doing helps to identify and classify performance in a succinct format that facilitates further analysis. After such analysis has been completed the matrix can also serve as a convenient tool to communicate the analytical findings.

Originality/value

The relative profitability and growth matrix is a value‐driver based 2 × 2 matrix, the strategic utility of which is demonstrated and explained in two examples.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2008

Joseph Calandro

This paper introduces the base‐case‐valuation pattern, which is derived from the modern Graham and Dodd valuation methodology, and it demonstrates how that pattern could

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1494

Abstract

Purpose

This paper introduces the base‐case‐valuation pattern, which is derived from the modern Graham and Dodd valuation methodology, and it demonstrates how that pattern could be utilized in M&A by way of a case study.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a case study of the 2004 acquisition of Sears by hedge‐fund manager Eddie Lampert. It draws on previously published Graham and Dodd methodological materials as well as Sears' publicly available financial information. The valuation calculations presented in the case is the sole work of the author.

Findings

The results of the case suggest that base‐case valuation could be practically utilized in M&A. Significantly, it could also be utilized in the formulation of an M&A‐negotiating strategy, shareholder‐communication plan, and performance‐improvement plan.

Research limitations/implications

The paper demonstrates how that acquisition contained a reasonable margin‐of safety, or price discount to estimated value, even though it occurred at a multiple of 1.8x Sears' book value at the time.

Practical implications

This case demonstrates the practical utility of base‐case value in M&A by way of the 2004 Sears acquisition.

Originality/value

This work introduces the base‐case‐valuation pattern, and it is the first work, as far as we are aware, that applies the Graham and Dodd methodology to the Sears acquisition even though Eddie Lampert is a noted Graham and Dodd‐based practitioner.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Joseph Calandro

This paper aims to acquaint managers with a little known mergers and acquisitions (M&A) diagnostic tool that made its debut in the book Deals from Hell – M&A Lessons that

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2198

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to acquaint managers with a little known mergers and acquisitions (M&A) diagnostic tool that made its debut in the book Deals from Hell – M&A Lessons that Rise Above the Ashes (NY: Wiley, 2005) by Robert Bruner.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers a retrospective case study using Bruner's risk assessment framework to examine Berkshire Hathaway's 1998 Gen Re acquisition by CEO Warren Buffet, which proved to be a problematic deal. The case study makes use of recent post‐deal reports.

Findings

The case study supports the findings of Bruner's research regarding the utility of the M&A risk assessment framework presented in his book.

Research limitations/implications

Tthe field of real disasters could be the subject to further strategy‐based research.

Practical implications

Bruner's disaster‐based M&A risk assessment framework could be practically utilized in M&A.

Originality/value

This paper is practically‐oriented commentary on recently published M&A risk assessment research, which is analyzed via case study.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

Keywords

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