Notes that the management of subsidence cases often involves both engineering consultants and contractors. In order to obtain information on current trends in subsidence…
Notes that the management of subsidence cases often involves both engineering consultants and contractors. In order to obtain information on current trends in subsidence management, a survey of both consultants and contractors who deal with subsidence cases was undertaken. Presents the findings of the survey which highlight both elements of good practice and areas for improvement. Also reveals inconsistencies in the procedures adopted by different firms as well as differences between the approaches adopted by consultants and contractors. The results of the survey are being incorporated into the development of a knowledge‐based system for the management of subsidence cases.
States that trees often contribute to subsidence damage to low‐rise buildings, particularly in areas with shrinkable clay sub‐soils. Posits that engineers investigating…
States that trees often contribute to subsidence damage to low‐rise buildings, particularly in areas with shrinkable clay sub‐soils. Posits that engineers investigating subsidence cases have to determine the extent to which any trees in the vicinity of an afflicted property are contributing. Describes the approach adopted in the development of an object‐oriented knowledge‐based system which will, among other things, enable engineers to assess more accurately the influence of trees in such situations. Presents details of the implementation of objects, classes, sub‐classes, messages, and the concept of inheritance within the system, and the operation of the system demonstrated using hypothetical examples as well as a real test case. Discusses the benefits and problems of the adopted approach.
The engineering management of housing subsidence cases is an important field of work for many UK engineers, and remains of enduring interest to householders, insurers and…
The engineering management of housing subsidence cases is an important field of work for many UK engineers, and remains of enduring interest to householders, insurers and other parties involved in the construction and maintenance of residential buildings. There are often difficulties in the diagnosis and repair of buildings subject to subsidence damage due to several factors, including the complex interaction between the various causative agents, the lack of a systematic investigation procedure, and the large number of available courses of remedial action. In many cases, inaccurate diagnosis of the subsidence problem has resulted in expensive remedial measures which are either unnecessary or inappropriate (and fail to arrest the movement). This paper reviews the management of subsidence cases and describes the development of a knowledge‐based system intended to improve existing procedures by ensuring greater accuracy, consistency and effectiveness of the management regime adopted by engineers. The system addresses three key aspects of the management procedure: initial diagnosis, choice of an appropriate course of investigations, and the specification of effective remedial measures. The benefits of the knowledge‐based system are contained in the concluding section of the paper.
The purpose of this chapter was to examine the implementation of a flexible work initiative that attempted to challenge two institutionalized precepts of contemporary…
The purpose of this chapter was to examine the implementation of a flexible work initiative that attempted to challenge two institutionalized precepts of contemporary white-collar workplaces: the gendered ideal worker norm, with its expectation of the primacy of paid work over family and personal life, and the assumption of managerial control over employees’ schedules and work location.
Using ethnographic and interview data, how the Results Only Work Environment (ROWE) was experienced by employees in four different teams within the Best Buy, Co., Inc. corporate headquarters was explored.
Comparing more and less successful implementation across teams, results suggested that collective institutional work is required for the emergence of new norms, expectations, and legitimated practices. Findings indicated that managers’ task-specific knowledge – their deep experience with the tasks that the team is charged with completing – is a structural condition that facilitates managers’ trust in employees and encourages team experimentation with new practices.
Data for this study was limited to one organization and four teams. Future research should include similar organizational change efforts in other organizations and in larger teams.
These findings may promote a better understanding, among researchers and practitioners, of the importance of manager knowledge and background and how this appears to be key to achieving institutional change.
This research is an example of an innovative approach to workplace flexibility and applies an institutional theory lens to investigate variation in the implementation of organizational change.
The purpose of this study is to particularly define the usability regarding interface of digital library Web site. It discusses the multi-dimensional constructs of…
The purpose of this study is to particularly define the usability regarding interface of digital library Web site. It discusses the multi-dimensional constructs of usability and methods applied in the evaluation of the usability of digital library Web site interface. The Usability of HEC National Digital Library Web site interface is measured in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.
For this purpose, a qualitative approach, that is, focus group technique, is used. This study includes eight members in the focus group. These members were MA students from the Department of Information Management, University of the Punjab Lahore.
Usability evaluation was made by using effectiveness, efficiency, learnability and satisfaction constructs. It also discovers the opinion of focus group members on the “ease of use”, “organization of information”, “terminology and labeling”, “visual attractiveness” and “mistake recovery”. “Click cost” is particularly examined.
No usability study has been conducted in Pakistan about the National Digital Library of HEC. This library is a very important source of electronic content for academic community. This study will explore the usability evaluation, problems faced by users and solutions to solve these problems.
This paper discusses how a small business experiences professional management by examining the relationship between organisational networking and cultural organising in…
This paper discusses how a small business experiences professional management by examining the relationship between organisational networking and cultural organising in the workplace. A network perspective is presented in order to evaluate the ways in which workplace relations are enacted to cultural organising. A social constructionist perspective of organisational networking is proposed which emphasises how individuals attribute value and meaning to the interactions they have with co‐workers in the workplace. A work place ethnography is presented which discusses the recruitment of a “professional” manager and his attempts to introduce new working practices into the family business. The analysis highlights how organisational members shape cultural organising by invoking emotional categories to produce mutuality and a sense of belonging in the workplace. In continually re‐enacting workplace relationships in this way, it is found that individuals attempt to trade away variance, divergent views and new organising practices concerned with change. The paper concludes with a final analysis of the ethnography and its implication for small business research and training.
An ongoing debate in social exchange theory centers on the benefits and drawbacks of reciprocal versus negotiated exchange for dyadic relationships. Lawler's affect theory…
An ongoing debate in social exchange theory centers on the benefits and drawbacks of reciprocal versus negotiated exchange for dyadic relationships. Lawler's affect theory of social exchange argues that the interdependent nature of negotiated exchange enhances commitment to exchange relations, whereas Molm's reciprocity theory suggests that reciprocal exchange fosters more integrative bonds than the bilateral agreements of negotiation. In this chapter, we use data from in-depth, semi-structured interviews with poor and working-class couples to explore the effects of both types of exchange on relationship satisfaction. Consistent with reciprocity theory, we find that couples who engage in reciprocal exchange are happier and more satisfied with their relationship than those who explicitly negotiate the division of labor in their households and that the expressive value of these exchanges play an important role in this outcome. However, reciprocity is not enough. As predicted by the affect theory, the couples with the best outcomes also perceive supporting a family as a highly interdependent task, regardless of their family structure. Our results point to the complementary nature of these two theories in a natural social setting.
Evidence suggests that the hotel sector has high levels of labour turnover, especially in seaside resorts. To help explain this, at least in part, management styles and their effect on hotel workers′ perceptions of jobs was investigated. The study was undertaken in five seasonal seaside hotels from April to October 1992. All had between 30‐65 bedrooms. Interviews with managers revealed two supervisory styles; “co‐ordinative” whereby for most of the time managers did not work alongside their staff, and “hands‐on”, whereby for most of the time they did. Information about hotel jobs was elicited from managers and staff using Hackman and Oldham′s (1974) job diagnostic survey. This standard questionnaire views jobs as a composite of several “core job dimensions”, each having a possible score of 1 to 7 depending on its perceived degree of presence within a job. It was hypothesized that “hands‐on” managers would score jobs similarly to their workers and that “co‐ordinative” managers would not. Also, that workers experiencing “hands‐on” supervision would score “core job dimensions” higher than their “co‐ordinative” counterparts. The former notion was supported by the results, the latter found partial support. The results indicate that management styles may be important in motivating workers.
This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva…
This chapter examines the framing of the Black Lives Matter (BLM) Movement in mainstream media. An analytic sample of 4,303 articles collected from the Dow Jones Factiva database reveals variation in depth, breadth, and intensity of BLM coverage in the following newspapers between 2012 and 2016: The St. Louis Post-Dispatch, The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, and Al Jazeera English. We review contemporary literature on racial inequality and employ Media Framing and Critical Race Theory to discuss the implications of our findings on public perceptions, future policy formation, and contemporary social protest worldwide.