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Article

Sima Siami-Namini and Darren Hudson

The purpose of this paper is to investigate both linear and/or nonlinear effects of inflation on income inequality and to test the Kuznets hypothesis using panel data of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate both linear and/or nonlinear effects of inflation on income inequality and to test the Kuznets hypothesis using panel data of 24 developed countries (DCs) and 66 developing countries (LDCs) observed over the period of 1990–2014.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the short- and long-run Granger causality relationship between inflation and income inequality using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) procedure and a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) approach. The existence of a nonlinear relationship between inflation and income inequality is confirmed implying as inflation rises income inequality decreases. Income inequality then reaches a minimum and then starts rising again. The findings of this paper show the existence of Kuznets “U-shaped” hypothesis between income inequality and real GDP per capita in DCs group, and the existence of Kuznets’ inverted “U-shaped” hypothesis for LDCs group.

Findings

The results indicate that there is no bi-directional Granger causality between inflation and income inequality in the short-run, but, there is bi-directional Granger causality in the long-run for both the DCs and LDCs group. The results help us to assess the effectiveness of monetary policy in reducing income inequality in both the DCs and LDCs group. As a policy implication, monetary policy is often aimed at controlling the annual rate of inflation in the long-run with a short-run focus on reducing output gaps and creating employment. However, managing inflation may have implications for income inequality.

Originality/value

This is original research paper which analyzes the “U-shaped” and inverted “U-shaped” paths of income inequality and real GDP per capita for large sample of two group countries including developed and developing countries, respectively. Also, this paper analyzes the nonlinear relationship between inflation and income inequality in two groups. Furthermore, this paper investigates the short- and long-run relationship between variables. The results are important for policy makers.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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Article

Sima Siami-Namini and Darren Hudson

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of growth in different sectors of the economy of developing countries on income inequality and analyze how inflation, as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of growth in different sectors of the economy of developing countries on income inequality and analyze how inflation, as a proxy for monetary policy, makes a proportionate contribution for setting a binding national target for reducing income inequality. The paper examines the existence of a linear or nonlinear effect of inflation and sectoral economic growth on income inequality using a balanced panel data of 92 developing countries for the period of 1990–2014.

Design/methodology/approach

Methods section includes several steps as below: first, the functional form of the model using panel data for investigating the contribution of economic sectors in income inequality; second, to estimate the relationship between income inequality and sector growth: testing the Kuznets hypothesis; third, to estimate the relationship between inflation and income inequality base on general functional form of the model proposed by Amornthum (2004); fourth, a panel Granger causality analysis based on a VECM approach.

Findings

The statistically significant finding shows that first agricultural growth and then industrial growth have a dominate impact in reducing income inequality in our sample. But, the service sector growth has positive effects. The results confirm the existence of Kuznets inverted “U” hypothesis for industry growth and Kuznets “U” hypothesis for service sector growth. The findings show that sector growth and inflation affect income inequality in the long-run.

Originality/value

This research is an original paper which analyzes the effect of growth in different sectors of the economy of developing countries (agriculture, manufacturing and services sectors) on income inequality and test the Kuznets hypothesis in terms of sector growth and at the same time, examine the existence of a linear/nonlinear effect of inflation and sectoral economic growth on income inequality and test Granger causality relationship between income inequality and sector growth and inflation.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

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Article

Stephen MacDonald, Suwen Pan, Darren Hudson and Francis Tuan

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of distribution channels on demand for apparel, home textiles, and other textiles (including shoes) in urban China.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of distribution channels on demand for apparel, home textiles, and other textiles (including shoes) in urban China.

Design/methodology/approach

The estimation procedure used in this study is implemented in three steps: first, the price/unit value information is estimated; second, the parameters for a set of demand systems are estimated; and third, the J‐test and likelihood ratio testing are used to determine the most suitable model for the data set.

Findings

The results indicate that households spend more on apparel than home textiles and other textile products if they purchase textile products from small stores. It also indicates that they would spend more on home textiles and other textiles if they purchase from chain stores and supermarkets.

Originality/value

The estimation of Chinese textile consumption presents a significant challenge to both academic researchers and industry, due to China's large population, income inequality, different consumption channels, and other related issues. First, the results presented in the paper provide a clear indication for textile producers, exporters, and others to choose their distribution channels to target specific customers; second, the disaggregated textile expenditure and price elasticity estimates from this article can be used in various analytical procedures (i.e. simulation models) to evaluate the welfare effects of domestic policies and international trade policies. Quantification of the welfare impacts of domestic policies and international trade policies would be more meaningful if disaggregate textile elasticity estimates are used in simulation models.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

Keywords

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Book part

Donna Mitchell, Darren Hudson, Riley Post, Patrick Bell and Ryan B. Williams

The objective of this chapter is to discuss the pathways between climate, water, food, and conflict. Areas that are exhibiting food insecurity or have the potential to be…

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this chapter is to discuss the pathways between climate, water, food, and conflict. Areas that are exhibiting food insecurity or have the potential to be food insecure are typically located in areas that experience poverty and government corruption. Higher rates of conflict occur in areas with lower caloric intake and poor nutrition.

Methodology/approach

We identify key pathways between these variables and discuss intervening factors and compound effects.

Findings

The pathways between water, food security, and conflict are complicated and are influenced by many intervening factors. A critical examination of the literature and an in-depth analysis of the reasons for conflict suggest that food insecurity is a multiplier, or facilitator, of the opportunities for and benefits from conflict.

Practical implications

To most effectively reduce the risks of conflict, policies must adequately and simultaneously address each of the four dimensions of food security – availability, stability, utilization, and access. Careful attention to alleviating food insecurity will help alleviate some of the underlying rationale for conflict.

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Food Security in an Uncertain World
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-213-9

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Article

Christine Ironfield‐Smith, Kevin Keasey, Barbara Summers, Darren Duxbury and Robert Hudson

Some sections of society have expressed concerns that consumer debt has risen to a dangerous level. However, there is little evidence regarding how consumers themselves…

Abstract

Some sections of society have expressed concerns that consumer debt has risen to a dangerous level. However, there is little evidence regarding how consumers themselves feel about debt. This paper reports up‐to‐date findings from the International Institute of Banking and Financial Services’ Financial Well‐being Survey about consumers’ attitudes towards debt in general and their current levels of borrowing. The implications for the financial services industry and its regulation are discussed.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

Keywords

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Book part

Darren Wishart, Bevan Rowland and Klaire Somoray

Driving for work has been identified as potentially one of the riskiest activities performed by workers within the course of their working day. Jurisdictions around the…

Abstract

Driving for work has been identified as potentially one of the riskiest activities performed by workers within the course of their working day. Jurisdictions around the world have passed legislation and adopted policy and procedures to improve the safety of workers. However, particularly within the work driving setting, complying with legislation and the minimum safety standards and procedures is not sufficient to improve work driving safety. This chapter outlines the manner in which safety citizenship behavior can offer further improvement to work-related driving safety by acting as a complementary paradigm to improve risk management and current models and applications of safety culture.

Research on concepts associated with risk management and theoretical frameworks associated with safety culture and safety citizenship behavior are reviewed, along with their practical application within the work driving safety setting. A model incorporating safety citizenship behavior as a complementary paradigm to safety culture is proposed. It is suggested that this model provides a theoretical framework to inform future research directions aimed at improving safety within the work driving setting.

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Article

Xiaoni Ren and Darren John Caudle

This paper aims to explore and compare academics’ experiences of managing work-life balance (WLB) in the British and Chinese contexts. The authors have three specific…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore and compare academics’ experiences of managing work-life balance (WLB) in the British and Chinese contexts. The authors have three specific purposes. Firstly, to investigate whether there are marked gender differences in either context, given female and male academics’ work is considered fully comparable. Secondly, to examine contextual factors contributing to gender differences that influence and shape decisions in WLB and career paths. Thirdly, to explore the gendered consequences and implications.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-national and multilevel analytical approach to WLB was chosen to unpick and explore gender land contextual differences and their influence on individual academics’ coping strategies. To reflect the exploratory nature of uncovering individual experience and perceptions, the authors used in-depth, semi-structured interviews. In total, 37 academics participated in the study, comprised of 18 participants from 6 universities in the UK and 19 participants from 6 universities in China.

Findings

This study reveals gendered differences in both the British and Chinese contexts in three main aspects, namely, sourcing support; managing emotions; and making choices, but more distinct differences in the latter context. Most significantly, it highlights that individual academics’ capacity in cultivating and using coping strategies was shaped simultaneously by multi-layered factors at the country level, the HE institutional level and the individual academics’ level.

Originality/value

Very few cross-cultural WLB studies explore gender differences. This cross-national comparative study is of particular value in making the “invisible visible” in terms of the gendered nature of choices and decisions within the context of WLB. The study has significant implications for female academics exercising individual scope in carving out a career, and for academic managers and institutions, in terms of support, structure and policy.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

Content available
Book part

Terry Gibson

Abstract

Details

Making Aid Agencies Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-509-2

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