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Introduces the theory of artificial neural networks (ANN).Discusses its application to the valuation of residential apartments.Compares the performance of the back…
Introduces the theory of artificial neural networks (ANN). Discusses its application to the valuation of residential apartments. Compares the performance of the back propagation neural network (BP) model in estimating sale prices of apartments against the traditional multiple regression analysis (MRA) model. Concludes that the neural network model is an easy‐to‐use, black‐box alternative to the MRA model.
This paper aims to present and discuss the results of the assessment of maturity of facilities management (FM) industries (FMi) in five countries, namely, Denmark, Hong…
This paper aims to present and discuss the results of the assessment of maturity of facilities management (FM) industries (FMi) in five countries, namely, Denmark, Hong Kong, Norway, Tanzania and the UK. The analysis is based on the “Integrated Feeder Factors Framework (I3F)”. I3F analyses maturity by assessing the progression and integration of the key factors essential for the maturity of the FMi, which are organisations practice, supply market, education, professional bodies, research and business environment.
FM experts in respective countries were interviewed. Data were also gathered from official documents and websites. The collected evidences were analysed using pattern matching.
The FM industry in the five case study countries are found at various levels of maturity. The UK exhibited high levels of maturity compared to other countries. Norway, Hong Kong and Denmark were at the same level with some notable differences, while Tanzania was at the lowest level.
The research successfully tested the I3F. This sets foundation for assessing maturity of the FM industry at a country level. The assessment of maturity at a country level is important to FM stakeholders in charting out plans for its development and longevity.
This is the first research which has assessed the maturity of FMi in five countries using an I3F. The results show the strength and weaknesses of the FMi in the five countries and point out areas which require stakeholders’ efforts to be improved or maintained.