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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Christine Nittrouer, Katharine Ridgway O’Brien, Michelle Hebl, Rachel C.E. Trump-Steele, Danielle M. Gardner and John Rodgers

There has been a great deal of research published on the lower success rates of women and underrepresented (UR) students in Science, technology, engineering, and…

Abstract

Purpose

There has been a great deal of research published on the lower success rates of women and underrepresented (UR) students in Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics-related (STEM) occupations. For biomedical scientists in particular, many of the obstacles to success occur during graduate training and may be related, at least in part, to certain demographic characteristics (i.e. gender or ethnicity). In particular, women and UR students may be positioned disproportionately into labs with fewer resources and less productive faculty advisors. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study examines the distribution of biomedical science graduate students into research laboratories, based on the gender and ethnicity of both students and faculty advisors. This is archival data that were collected via publicly available information on the internet.

Findings

Results indicate that female (vs male) students and UR (vs white and Asian) students are paired with advisors who are less successful (i.e. fewer publications, lower h-indices). Additionally, the data show patterns of homophily in that female (vs male) and white and Asian (vs UR) students are more likely to be paired with female and white and Asian advisors, respectively.

Originality/value

This research uses real-world, archival data to demonstrate that phenomena suggested in previous literature (e.g. less favorable pairings for female and UR students, homophilic pairings) occurs with this specific population.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 May 2021

Danielle M. Gardner, Caitlin Q. Briggs and Ann Marie Ryan

As COVID-19 cases rose in the US, so too did instances of discrimination against Asians. The current research seeks to understand and document discrimination toward Asians…

Abstract

Purpose

As COVID-19 cases rose in the US, so too did instances of discrimination against Asians. The current research seeks to understand and document discrimination toward Asians in the US specifically linked to the global pandemic (study 1). The authors test hypotheses based in social categorization and intergroup contact theories, demonstrating perceived pandemic blame is a mechanism for discrimination (study 2).

Design/methodology/approach

In study 1, the authors survey Asians living in the US regarding experiences and perceptions of COVID-19-related discrimination. In study 2, a two-time point survey examined whether participant perceptions of pandemic blame toward China predict discriminatory behavior toward Asians.

Findings

Study 1 demonstrated that 22.5% of US-residing Asians report personally encountering pandemic-related discrimination. Study 2 indicated that COVID-19 blame attributions toward China predicted anticipated hiring bias and increased physical distancing of Asians at work, associated with higher levels of US identification.

Research limitations/implications

The findings have theoretical implications for research on blame and stigmatization, as well as practical implications regarding bias mitigation.

Originality/value

The present studies advance understanding of event-based blame as a driver of prejudice and discrimination at work and suggest organizations attend to bias mitigation in conjunction with uncertainty reduction communications in challenging times.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2021

Joshua Prasad, Danielle M. Gardner, Frederick T. Leong, Jinmei Zhang and Christopher D. Nye

This work contributes to the literature on career adaptability by examining the criterion validity of the Cooperation dimension, supporting the inclusion of cooperation…

Abstract

Purpose

This work contributes to the literature on career adaptability by examining the criterion validity of the Cooperation dimension, supporting the inclusion of cooperation into the career adaptability construct and informing the nomological network of career adaptability (Nye et al., 2018; Savickas and Porfeli, 2012). The authors also evaluate the improvements in cross-cultural generalizability argued for by Nye et al. (2018) by conducting a criterion validity study of the CAAS including cooperation using a non-Western sample.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses from a Chinese adult working sample (N = 208, 53.4% male) were analyzed via relative weights analysis, facilitating the comparison of the Cooperation dimension to other career adaptability dimensions and general adaptability.

Findings

Results demonstrate the added value of the Cooperation dimension across several work outcomes (i.e. work engagement, career commitment, occupational well-being, occupational stress) and highlight Cooperation in predicting interpersonal outcomes (i.e. supervisor and coworker satisfaction).

Originality/value

The inclusion of Cooperation, a dimension originally conceptualized as a career adaptability factor but only recently subjected to additional psychometric evaluation, within the career adaptability paradigm should promote both predictive validity and cross-cultural generalizability.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 April 2022

Jessica Herbert, Karissa Pelletier and Danielle Wallace

Given that formal training on autism is still a relatively infrequent occurrence for police officers, the objective of this study is to expose and describe the formal and…

Abstract

Purpose

Given that formal training on autism is still a relatively infrequent occurrence for police officers, the objective of this study is to expose and describe the formal and informal, nonorganizationally based means police officers receive on-the-job training regarding interactions with autistic individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

Using personal networks and snowball sampling, the authors interviewed 19 police officers from multiple US police departments who reported having known contact with an autistic individual while on duty. Interviews were transcribed and coded to identify themes describing formal training and informal means to learn about autistic persons during interactions.

Findings

The authors find that many officers received formal training on mental health, though few received specific training about autism. Most commonly, officers with a personal connection to autism (e.g. a child or loved one), passed down information and techniques to other officers on how to have positive encounters with autistic individuals. Officers also passed along field knowledge of known autistic individuals in patrol areas/beats to help others have positive interactions. Lastly, community members often assisted officers by sharing information about find where an individual may be located, may live or known personal characteristics/preferences.

Originality/value

Scholars examining police contact with autistic individuals infrequently detail the point of view and needs of officers in successfully interacting with this population. This work adds to this growing discussion by exposing how officers use personal experience, informal training and community members’ assistance as a stopgap for their general lack of training on how to interact with autistic individuals successfully and positively.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Danielle Wallace, Jessica Herbert, Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick and Sarah E. Kabourek

This paper intends to examine the behaviors autistic individuals display during police encounters, determine if there are differences in those behaviors by age and gender…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper intends to examine the behaviors autistic individuals display during police encounters, determine if there are differences in those behaviors by age and gender, then examine if any behaviors cluster or frequently co-occur.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the Survey of Parents and Caregivers of Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and focusing on a subsample of respondents who report that their autistic loved one has had prior police contact, the authors examine the frequency and clustering of behaviors displayed by autistic individuals during police encounters. The authors use chi-square tests of independence to examine age and gender differences and latent class analysis to assess behavioral clustering.

Findings

The findings show that many behaviors that autistic individuals display during police encounters are associated with social communication and interaction difficulties, such as failure to maintain eye contact and difficulty answering questions. Many of these overlap with police training on deception, compliance and passive resistance. Moreover, the authors find that there are age differences in two behaviors, fidgeting and not responding to one's name. Lastly, the authors find that many of these behaviors cluster in unexpected ways, adding a layer of complexity to encounters between the police and autistic individuals.

Originality/value

Training police officers, autistic individuals and their loved ones on interactions with the police is critical for positive outcomes. Without details on what occurs inside a police encounter, constructing those trainings is difficult. While this study provides only a small glimpse into police encounters with the autistic community, it is a first step toward understanding these multifaceted interactions better.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Chloe Holloway, Nell Munro, Kleio Cossburn and Danielle Ropar

Autistic people have reported particularly negative experiences in police custody, which can lead to significant long-term personal and legal consequences. Research has…

Abstract

Purpose

Autistic people have reported particularly negative experiences in police custody, which can lead to significant long-term personal and legal consequences. Research has suggested providing autism training to police forces would help improve the support of autistic people, but there is a distinct lack of appropriate autism training available. An evidence-based autism training package specifically tailored to the roles of custody staff was co-produced by autistic people, academics and police staff to address this. A pilot study was conducted to further understand its value in terms of perceived changes in knowledge and future behaviour intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 18 sessions were held across five police forces in England attended by police staff working in custody (n = 142). The sessions were delivered in person using a presentation and video replicating the experiences of autistic people during the custody process. Attendees completed a survey rating their perceived changes in knowledge of autism after the session and described changes they planned to make in their practice to support autistic people.

Findings

The majority of police custody officers rated the training highly on its content, delivery and informativeness about autism. Participants also reported a change in perceived knowledge about autism, with those who reported having the least amount of knowledge prior to training indicating the greatest change. Responses about intended changes to future behaviour and practice showed a clear indication of specific understanding about autism and strategies to support autistic individuals in custody.

Originality/value

This is the first study to outline, assess and evaluate the impact of the first evidence-based and co-produced autism training package specifically designed for custody staff on perceived knowledge and intended behaviour.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Danielle Morin and Mouna Hazgui

Three decades ago, the National Audit Office (NAO) in the UK acquired the powers to evaluate the extent that the British Administration was managed with economy…

1101

Abstract

Purpose

Three decades ago, the National Audit Office (NAO) in the UK acquired the powers to evaluate the extent that the British Administration was managed with economy, efficiency and effectiveness. The NAO has since adopted a dual mission: to help Parliament hold government to account and to improve public service. This study aims to investigate value-for-money (VFM) auditors’ internalisation of a dual organisational identity: “obstructive” actions as representatives of a Supreme Audit Institution (SAI) and “enabling good practice”, induced by a will stated in the mission that the NAO authorities have adopted.

Design/methodology/approach

The organisational identity held and promoted by VFM auditors working at the NAO was explored in this research project. The authors specifically examined the understanding of those who claim to be serving both Parliament and organisations audited in their quest for performance improvement. The authors prompted the auditors to explain how they manage to reconcile these seemingly incompatible roles, namely, that of guardians and watchdogs who must publicly report gaps noted and that of assistants in government’s learning process. To this end, the authors conducted a field study at the NAO in September 2012 during which 21 auditors were interviewed individually and as part of two discussion groups.

Findings

The findings indicate that the auditors interviewed do not perceive a dichotomy in NAO’s double mission, which they believe to be congruent with their audience’s expectations. They draw meaning and usefulness from their role of monitoring the Administration if they believe they have contributed to improve public affairs management. In their view, the singular role of guardian no longer suffices. The authors conclude that VFM auditors’ recently acquired identity of “moderniser” reflects a self-efficacy expectation that prevents them from recognising the apparent paradox within their dual identity and that lets them fantasise about their real influence on the Administration.

Research limitations/implications

Admittedly, the limited number of auditors interviewed and who took part in discussion groups is not conducive to generalisation of the conclusions to all auditors in the NAO or to other SAIs. However, although modest in number, the auditor respondents have accumulated many years of VFM audit practice and have contributed to the production of many reports. The respondents could therefore rightfully speak of their work as VFM auditors and as representatives of an institution such as the NAO.

Practical implications

This study contributes to the debates about the place and role of SAIs in the control environment of Administrations. By soliciting testimonials from the actors working within the NAO, the authors could thus question certain a priori assumptions held by stakeholders in the political and administrative world for whom auditors are mere “watchdogs” of Administrations, and nothing more.

Originality/value

The dual mission that the NAO has adopted (similar to many other SAIs) has been formally and publicly stated. It was therefore worth investigating how experienced auditors such as those interviewed had internalised this mission. The authors argue that this dual mission, perhaps inspired by the managerialist culture that has shaped changes to the British Administration (and many other occidental Administrations) since the early 1980s and that is seemingly encouraged by Government, twists the legislator’s intentions, which are to consider SAIs’ auditors as guardians and watchdogs of Administrations, not as agents of change and improvement.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2022

Danielle Wallace and Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick

In this paper, the authors summarize the empirical and theoretical gaps in understanding of police contact with individuals with intellectual and/or developmental…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors summarize the empirical and theoretical gaps in understanding of police contact with individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities at the individual, interactional, organizational and systems level and introduce the special issue papers which address these gaps. The authors close with a discussion of future directions for research in this area.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ objective in producing this issue was to create a platform to generate and facilitate research in this area. The authors chose papers that represented research that could “move the needle” around the understanding of policing and intellectual and/or developmental disabilities.

Findings

The papers in this special issue reflect four thematic areas: (1) the nature of interactions between the police and individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities; (2) police interactions about individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities with criminal justice systems, social services and mental health services, (3) experiences of the police when encountering individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities and finally, (4) the experiences within police encounters of individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities.

Originality/value

Research on intellectual and/or developmental disabilities is still in its infancy, particularly within the field of criminology and criminal justice. This special issue brings together innovative international research that adds critical information surrounding the nature of interactions between the police and individuals with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, the experience for both parties during that interaction and the context of these interactions in the larger organizational ecosystem of criminal justice organizations and social service agencies.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Grace Trundle, Katy A. Jones, Danielle Ropar and Vincent Egan

This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the influence of social camouflaging on victimisation and offending in relation to autism and pathological demand avoidance (PDA) traits. Camouflaging aims to overcome or conceal difficulties in social and communication skills. Autistic individuals report camouflaging in response to threat and being verbally and physically assaulted when they have not camouflaged. Thus, camouflaging could be associated with victimisation. Camouflaging could also impact on specialist support available to an individual, potentially increasing the risk of victimisation or offending.

Design/methodology/approach

Cross-sectional study was conducted using 220 participants from the general population who completed online questionnaires measuring victimisation and offending, autism and PDA traits, camouflaging and symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Findings

Correlational analysis found positive associations between camouflaging and victimisation, and camouflaging and lifetime offending. Greater camouflaging and PDA traits predicted greater offending, whereas greater autism traits predicted fewer offending behaviours. While correlated, camouflaging was not significantly predictive of victimisation. Victimisation was predicted by symptoms of depression and PDA traits.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to consider camouflaging as an influencing factor on offending and victimisation in autistic and PDA individuals.

Details

Advances in Autism, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3868

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 April 2022

Elisabeth R. Silver, Danielle D. King and Mikki Hebl

Existing research on social inequalities in leadership seeks to explain how perceptions of marginalized followers as deficient leaders contribute to their…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing research on social inequalities in leadership seeks to explain how perceptions of marginalized followers as deficient leaders contribute to their underrepresentation. However, research must also address how current leaders restrict these followers' access to leadership opportunities. This conceptual paper offers the perspective that deficiencies in leaders' behaviors perpetuate social inequalities in leadership through an illustrative application to research on gender and leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors situate existing research on gender and leadership within broader leadership theory to highlight the importance of inclusivity in defining destructive and constructive leadership.

Findings

Previous scholarship on gender inequalities in leadership has focused on perceptions of women as deficient leaders. The authors advocate that researchers reconceptualize leaders' failures to advance women in the workplace as a form of destructive leadership that harms women and organizations. Viewing leaders' discriminatory behavior as destructive compels a broader definition of constructive leadership, in which leaders' allyship against sexism, and any other form of prejudice, is not a rare behavior to glorify, but rather a defining component of constructive leadership.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the important role of high-status individuals in increasing diversity in leadership. The authors suggest that leader inclusivity should be used as a metric of leader effectiveness.

Originality/value

The authors refocus conversations on gender inequality in leadership by emphasizing leaders' power in making constructive or destructive behavioral choices. The authors’ perspective offers a novel approach to research on social inequalities in leadership that centers current leaders' roles (instead of marginalized followers' perceived deficits) in perpetuating inequalities.

Details

Management Decision, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

1 – 10 of 27