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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Luke R. Potwarka, Ryan Snelgrove, Laura Wood, Georgia Teare and Daniel Wigfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify cognitive and affective mechanisms associated with post-event intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of youth spectators (n = 362) who experienced the 2016 Milton International Track Cycling Challenge completed pre- and post-event questionnaires to assess intention to participate and cognitive and affective components of their spectator experience.

Findings

Respondents' intentions to participate post-event were significantly higher than pre-event. Results also indicated that state inspiration mediated relationships between three cognitive dimensions of sport spectator experiences (i.e. fantasy, flow, evaluation) and intention to participate.

Practical implications

Sport managers should design youth day events to engage with youth prior to the event to increase their knowledge of the sport. This prior engagement may help youth to evaluate performances effectively. Moreover, event experience should be designed to incorporate vicarious and immersive experiences tailored to youth spectators.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to assess intentions to participate among youth spectators at multiple time points (i.e. before and after an event) and identifies specific mechanism within the spectator experience that may lead to a demonstration effect.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Cameron A. Hecht, Stacy J. Priniski and Judith M. Harackiewicz

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no…

Abstract

As intervention science develops, researchers are increasingly attending to the long-term effects of interventions in academic settings. Currently, however, there is no common taxonomy for understanding the complex processes through which interventions can produce long-lasting effects. The lack of a common framework results in a number of challenges that limit the ability of intervention scientists to effectively work toward their goal of preparing students to effectively navigate a changing and uncertain world. A comprehensive framework is presented to aid understanding of how interventions that target motivational processes in education produce downstream effects years after implementation. This framework distinguishes between three types of processes through which interventions may produce long-term effects: recursive processes (feedback loops by which positive effects can build on themselves over time), nonrecursive chains of effects (“domino effects” in which proximal outcomes affect distinct distal outcomes), and latent intrapersonal effects (changed habits, knowledge, or perceptions that affect how students respond in different situations in the future). The framework is applied to intervention research that has reported long-term effects of motivation interventions, evidence for the processes described in this framework is evaluated, and suggestions are presented for how researchers can use the framework to improve intervention design. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how the application of this framework can help intervention scientists to achieve their goal of positively influencing students’ lifelong trajectories, especially in times of change and uncertainty.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

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Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dana A. Robertson, Evelyn Ford-Connors, Susan Dougherty and Jeanne R. Paratore

Purpose: To describe how an approach to instruction that intentionally considers elements of motivation and engagement, intensity of instruction, and cognitive challenge…

Abstract

Purpose: To describe how an approach to instruction that intentionally considers elements of motivation and engagement, intensity of instruction, and cognitive challenge can accelerate the reading achievement of lower-performing readers by giving them access to and support to meet reading and knowledge building with success.

Design: The authors discuss a set of high-leverage practices squarely under the teacher’s control. Grounded in longstanding and rigorous research, the integrated set of practices have been shown time and time again to accelerate achievement beyond typical growth while also intentionally considering the experiences, cultures, and linguistic knowledge students bring to the classroom. The re-conceptualized approach forefronts student agency and engages students in meaningful interactions with text to build knowledge of the world they live in.

Findings: The authors illustrate the comprehensive approach through a composite vignette drawn from work with teachers and students in school and clinical contexts. The focus of the vignette is on the actions of the classroom teacher who is working to meet the needs of three struggling readers within the broader context of her 5th-grade classroom, while also establishing a coherent instructional approach with fellow teachers.

Practical Implications: By re-conceptualizing their approaches to working with struggling readers, teachers increase the likelihood that students will not only develop component skills related to reading but also integrate these components and develop the conceptual expertise that anchors future reading and learning.

Details

What’s Hot in Literacy: Exemplar Models of Effective Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-874-1

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Luis M. Romero-Rodríguez, María Soledad Ramírez-Montoya and Jaime Ricardo Valenzuela González

This paper aims to analyze the interrelationship that exists between expectancy-value and achievement goals as factors that are decisive for participants’ higher…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyze the interrelationship that exists between expectancy-value and achievement goals as factors that are decisive for participants’ higher engagement in 12 massive open online courses (MOOCs) on energy sustainability and to determine the profile of participants achieving higher success rates.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative–quantitative study of correlational and descriptive scope is carried out on two instruments based on pre- and post-tests of 6,029 participants, which is followed by a qualitative data analysis distributed by code families to identify participants’ main motivations to take MOOCs.

Findings

The results showed a positive moderate-high correlation between expectancy-value and achievement goals, which means in a practical sense that the participants’ subjective estimates of the possibility of reaching their goals prior to the beginning of the course were fulfilled, as the intentionality of the subjects-participants was positive with respect to the contents imparted.

Practical implications

The profiles of participants with a higher tendency to successfully finish the course and with high rates of engagement share the following characteristics: having previously and successfully finished more than one MOOC; taking the MOOC for work purposes (promotion, seeking better job opportunities, etc.); and having intrinsic motivation, that is, not depending on external factors such as obligations and certifications.

Originality/value

This research suggests that there are pre-educational factors that define the trend of successful completion of MOOCs, based on expectancy-value (e.g. previous experiences with other MOOCs) and achievement goals (e.g. job improvement), with external motivational issues such as completion certificates being less prevalent in the learning intention.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

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Book part
Publication date: 28 March 2012

Laurie Elish-Piper, Susan Hinrichs, Samantha Morley and Molly Williams

Purpose – To present the Assessment to Instructional Planning (ATIP) framework that uses assessment to guide instructional planning.Design/methodology/approach – The ATIP…

Abstract

Purpose – To present the Assessment to Instructional Planning (ATIP) framework that uses assessment to guide instructional planning.

Design/methodology/approach – The ATIP framework is comprised of three interconnected processes: data collection, data analysis and interpretation, and instructional planning.

Findings – In the ATIP framework, data collection includes reviewing background information and developing and implementing an assessment plan. The data analysis and interpretation process begins with scoring assessments and progresses to contextualizing results and making decisions. Instructional planning moves from setting goals to selecting instructional methods and materials, implementing instructional checkpoints, and monitoring and adjusting instruction.

Research limitations/implications – The ATIP framework provides a step-by-step process that educators can follow to use assessment to plan instruction. ATIP requires that educators already have knowledge of literacy assessment and instruction to apply the Framework appropriately.

Practical implications – The ATIP framework can be applied for students in grades K-8 in clinical settings, school-based intervention programs, and elementary and middle school classrooms.

Originality/value – This chapter provides three profiles to illustrate the ATIP framework in clinical, small-group intervention, and classroom settings with different levels of readers with varying strengths, needs, and backgrounds.

Details

Using Informative Assessments towards Effective Literacy Instruction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-630-0

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2019

Jeffrey R. Albrecht and Stuart A. Karabenick

The idea that education should be made relevant to students is long-standing and pervasive in American society. Recently, motivation scientists have clarified important…

Abstract

The idea that education should be made relevant to students is long-standing and pervasive in American society. Recently, motivation scientists have clarified important characteristics of students’ relevance beliefs, ways to intervene, and individual characteristics moderating intervention effects. Yet, there has been little consideration of the role of situational constraints and sociocultural influences on students’ relevance appraisal processes. We describe how societal changes and broader educational purposes affect the issues that students consider to be relevant to their educational experiences and the values they subsequently attribute to their studies. After differentiating components of relevance and highlighting ways in which particular components may be influenced by changing sociocultural milieus, we consider the implications of these processes for the development of subjective task value beliefs. Specifically, we show how the proposed model of relevance helps to parse out aspects of relevance appraisals that can be used to differentiate between components of subjective task value and argue that there is need to expand current models proposed in expectancy-value theory (EVT). Finally, we explore how recent global events may impact the social construction of educational relevance and constrain students’ developing beliefs about the value of their educational opportunities and implications for future research and educators.

Details

Motivation in Education at a Time of Global Change
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-613-4

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Dorothea Wahyu Ariani

This study aims to examine how students with different goals differ in their subjective well-being, including academic self-efficacy (ASE) and affect at school (AAS)…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how students with different goals differ in their subjective well-being, including academic self-efficacy (ASE) and affect at school (AAS). There are four goal orientations that motivate students to achieve academic performance. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between the four dimensions of achievement goals (AGs), ASE and AAS. It also examined five relationship models between these variables.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was conducted using a survey method with a questionnaire on 516 students at several private universities in Yogyakarta who have been studying for at least two years. After testing the validity and reliability of the measurements, correlation testing was conducted to determine the relationship between the two variables. Furthermore, testing of the five relationship models was conducted using structural equation modeling (SEM) with a two-step approach.

Findings

The findings showed that each goal was directly related to students' well-being with a diverse relationship nature. Furthermore, mastery-approach goals (MApGs) were the types that most consistently have a positive effect on students' well-being. Also, performance-avoidance goals (PAvGs) consistently and negatively affected students' well-being, while performance-approach goals (PApGs) produced various influences and relationships. In addition, mastery-avoidance goals (MAvGs) are among the four AGs that still need to be studied, especially in educational settings. This is because they had no effect on ASE either directly or indirectly.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study was using cross-sectional data and self-report in data collection. Furthermore, the respondents were limited to private university students, and they were few in number.

Practical implications

MApGs had a positive effect on ASE and AAS, while PAvGs can reduce ASE and cause negative effects. Therefore, higher institutions in Indonesia need to provide a curriculum that can increase students' curiosity, creativity and involvement in the learning process. This will make them confident in their abilities and have a positive attitude in school and the society. Also, this study showed that a PApG is not a negative goal because it can increase students' confidence in their abilities. This competency feeling needs to be fostered because it encourages them to increase knowledge and learning content, as well as increase their positive effects.

Originality/value

This paper addressed the need to understand how to generate and increase students’ motivation.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2014

Arielle Silverman and Geoffrey Cohen

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their…

Abstract

Purpose

Achievement motivation is not a fixed quantity. Rather, it depends, in part, on one’s subjective construal of the learning environment and their place within it – their narrative. In this paper, we describe how brief interventions can maximize student motivation by changing the students’ narratives.

Approach

We review the recent field experiments testing the efficacy of social-psychological interventions in classroom settings. We focus our review on four types of interventions: ones that change students’ interpretations of setbacks, that reframe the learning environment as fair and nonthreatening, that remind students of their personal adequacy, or that clarify students’ purpose for learning.

Findings

Such interventions can have long-lasting benefits if changes in students’ narratives lead to initial achievement gains, which further propagate positive narratives, in a positive feedback loop. Yet social-psychological interventions are not magical panaceas for poor achievement. Rather, they must be targeted to specific populations, timed appropriately, and given in a context in which students have opportunities to act upon the messages they contain.

Originality/value

Social-psychological interventions can help many students realize their achievement potential if they are integrated within a supportive learning context.

Details

Motivational Interventions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-555-5

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2018

Kevin Daniel André Carillo, Nadine Galy, Cameron Guthrie and Anne Vanhems

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need to engender a positive attitude toward business analytics in order for firms to more effectively transform into…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need to engender a positive attitude toward business analytics in order for firms to more effectively transform into data-driven businesses, and for business schools to better prepare future managers.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper develops and validates a measurement instrument that captures the attitude toward business statistics, the foundation of business analytics. A multi-stage approach is implemented and the validation is conducted with a sample of 311 students from a business school.

Findings

The instrument has strong psychometric properties. It is designed so that it can be easily extrapolated to professional contexts and extended to the entire domain of business analytics.

Research limitations/implications

As the advent of a data-driven business world will impact the way organizations function and the way individuals think, work, communicate and interact, it is crucial to engage a transdisciplinary dialogue among domains that have the expertise to help train and transform current and future professionals.

Practical implications

The contribution provides educators and organizations with a means to measure and monitor attitudes toward statistics, the most anxiogenic component of business analytics. This is a first step in monitoring and developing an analytics mindset in both managers and students.

Originality/value

By demonstrating how the advent of the data-driven business era is transforming the DNA and functioning of organizations, this paper highlights the key importance of changing managers’ and all employees’ (to a lesser extent) mindset and way of thinking.

Details

Business Process Management Journal, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-7154

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2002

John C. Edwards, William McKinley and Gyewan Moon

Building on the enactment perspective and past work on the self‐fulfilling prophecy, this paper explores how organizational decline can be enacted through self‐fulfilling…

Abstract

Building on the enactment perspective and past work on the self‐fulfilling prophecy, this paper explores how organizational decline can be enacted through self‐fulfilling prophecies of decline. We present two self‐fulfilling prophecy‐based models of organizational decline, one in which decline is enacted unintentionally through the predictions of an organization's managers, and a second in which decline is enacted unintentionally through the predictions of external constituencies. We articulate propositions that capture the dynamics of each model and that are intended as a platform for future empirical research. We also discuss the implications of our theoretical framework for future theory development on the causes of organizational decline, and offer suggestions for managers who wish to avoid organizational decline.

Details

The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1055-3185

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