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Daniel T. Rooney, N. Todd Castello, Mike Cibulsky, Doug Abbott and Dongji Xie
The mechanical integrity of solder joint interconnects in PWB assemblies with micro ‐ BGA, chip scale, and LGA packages are being questioned as the size and pitch…
The mechanical integrity of solder joint interconnects in PWB assemblies with micro ‐ BGA, chip scale, and LGA packages are being questioned as the size and pitch decrease. Three‐point cyclic bend testing provides a useful tool for characterizing the expected mechanical cycling fatigue reliability of PWB assemblies. Cyclic bend testing is useful for characterizing bending issues in electronic assemblies such as repetitive keypad actuation in cell phone products. This paper presents the results of three‐point bend testing of PWB assemblies with fine pitch packages. The methodology of materials analyses of the metallurgy of solder interconnects following mechanical bending and thermal cycle testing is described.
Daniel Kilvington, Jonathan Cable, Sophie Cowell, Glyn Mottershead and Chris Webster
This work critically investigates online fan responses towards the implementation of the affirmative action policy, the Rooney Rule, within English professional football…
This work critically investigates online fan responses towards the implementation of the affirmative action policy, the Rooney Rule, within English professional football. It explores systemic and structural racism and the history of the Rooney Rule, before analysing football fans' Twitter comments concerning the policy within English football across an 18-month period.
This research utilised a bespoke search programme to identify and analyse Tweets which focused on the Rooney Rule in English football. A total of 205 posts were thematically analysed and a series of codes were created.
The findings illustrated that fans were generally divided over the Rooney Rule. Over half of the participants welcomed counter measures against structural racism although many caveated responses by critiquing the Rule's approach and scope. For others, however, the policy is yet another example of ‘reverse racism’ and ‘political correctness gone mad’. The findings illustrate that there is an undercurrent of hostility towards anti-racist action and a belief that sport is inherently meritocratic and fair.
While much research has focused on examining online reactions to ‘trigger events’, this chapter provides an empirical insight into contemporary football fan responses towards anti-racist action in the ‘beautiful game’. It demonstrates that there are a series of common misconceptions and misunderstandings towards affirmative action policies in sport. Once we become aware of such misunderstandings, we can attempt to remedy them in order to aid the efficacy of anti-racist action.
Rakibul Hasan, Park Thaichon and Scott Weaven
The main objective of this chapter is broadening the understanding of anthropomorphic artificial intelligence (AI) (e.g. avatars, humanoid robots, chatbots) in both…
The main objective of this chapter is broadening the understanding of anthropomorphic artificial intelligence (AI) (e.g. avatars, humanoid robots, chatbots) in both physical and digital environments. The chapter strives to demonstrate how organisations can curate relationship marketing and enhance customer experience by employing anthropomorphic AI. To achieve this, the chapter extends existing understanding in three ways. First, it explains the interconnectivity between relationship marketing and customer experience. Second, it presents anthropomorphic AI along with its different characteristics and technologies. Third, it offers some real-life uses cases and examples of such AI drawing from practical insights into five selected industries. Overall, the chapter provides some food of thoughts concerning the successful application and deployment of anthropomorphic AI in marketing practices.
Cheri L. Bradish, Julie A. Stevens and Anna H. Lathrop
Few would question that one of the most significant determinants of growth in the sport industry — from a sport management, marketing, and sponsorship perspective — has…
Few would question that one of the most significant determinants of growth in the sport industry — from a sport management, marketing, and sponsorship perspective — has been the inf luence of globalization. Product expansion and communication messages have targeted the 'global consumer,' and the recognition of a 'global brand' has come to epitomize successful sport marketing. Or, has it? Although global management practices present the possibility of expanded consumer markets, a number of marketing strategists have recently begun to question the use of standardized global marketing campaigns that lack national or regional distinctiveness. At issue, is the positioning of 'regionalism' within global sport marketing strategies. This paper will investigate the role of 'regionalism' in sport marketing through; a) an examination of the regional sport marketing strategy of a leading Canadian all-sports television cable network (Rogers Sportsnet) that targets four distinct regions across Canada, and b) a survey of Canadian Generation Y youth sport participation and spectatorship trends across four regions. Implications for regional positioning within sport marketing strategies will also be discussed.
Daniel C. Funk, Daniel F. Mahony, Makoto Nakazawa and Sumiko Hirakawa
A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event…
A 30-item Sport Interest Inventory (SII) was developed and validated for measuring ten unique motives related to consumer interest at an international sporting event. Spectators (N=1,321) attending five different US venues during the 1999 FIFA Women's World Cup were administered the SII. Analysis revealed that sport and team interest, excitement, supporting women's opportunity in sport, aesthetics and vicarious achievement explained 35 per cent of the variance in spectators' interest in the event. Results provide sport marketers with consumer-based marketing strategies, particularly for women's sport.
Radha R. Sharma and Sir Cary Cooper
Nancy Chun Feng, Qianhua (Q.) Ling, Daniel Gordon Neely and Andrea Alston Roberts
Research in nonprofit accounting is steadily increasing as more data is available. In an effort to broaden the awareness of the data sources and ensure the quality of…
Research in nonprofit accounting is steadily increasing as more data is available. In an effort to broaden the awareness of the data sources and ensure the quality of nonprofit research, we discuss archival data sources available to nonprofit researchers, data issues, and potential resolutions to those problems. Overall, our paper should raise awareness of data sources in the nonprofit area, increase production, and enhance the quality of nonprofit research.
Francisco O. Ramirez, Haldor Byrkjeflot and Rómulo Pinheiro
The paper sets forth and examines the assumptions underlying two global ideas – world class and best practices – and their application to (higher) education and health…
The paper sets forth and examines the assumptions underlying two global ideas – world class and best practices – and their application to (higher) education and health organizations. Our basic (ex-ante) assumption is that both sectors are influenced by organizational fields that embody these ideas. However, we also assume that these sectors differ, and thus, that one should find between sector variations in the influence of such ideas. The findings suggest that both sectors have been affected by hegemonic ideas, yet in rather different ways, and that these ideas, particularly the metrics being used, pose different challenges in the two sectors.