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Article

John Moriarty, Daniel Regan and Rita Honan

Individuals with intellectual disabilities who are users of day and residential services will often be assigned at least one “keyworker”, a staff member who is expressly…

Abstract

Purpose

Individuals with intellectual disabilities who are users of day and residential services will often be assigned at least one “keyworker”, a staff member who is expressly responsive to their needs and responsible for co-ordinating services with them. Keyworkers are often given their role because it is a norm in their organisation. However, given the emotionally intensive workload involved in co-ordinating care for a single individual, little attention is given to the potential stress burden of being a keyworker. The paper aims to discuss this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey study was conducted of professionals’ perceptions of the keyworker role and of levels of workplace well-being. The authors first examine differences between keyworkers and their colleagues along measures of role perception and well-being. The authors then present a new measure of keyworkers’ duties and boundaries (Key-DAB) capturing perceptions of the keyworker role by keyworkers and other staff. The measure was administered to a sample of staff (n=69) from an Irish provider of services for adults with intellectual disabilities. Alongside the new scale, the authors administered established measures of workplace well-being and locus of control (LoC) to examine construct validity and assess if perception of keyworking could be related to stress.

Findings

Some differences were detected between keyworkers and non-keyworkers: keyworkers had more internally oriented LoC and experienced lower work pressure than non-keyworking colleagues. The Key-DAB measure possessed favourable psychometric properties, including high internal reliability. External validity was also shown as keyworkers’ scale scores were related to LoC and to role demands. Results suggested: that keyworkers who are clear about what is expected of the keyworker are more satisfied with their role and perceive keyworking as beneficial to them; that role ambiguity and role conflict can undo these potential benefits and render the keyworker’s role a potentially hazardous one.

Originality/value

The authors recommend that employers provide clear guidelines and explicit training to keyworkers and suggest that the measures may be effective tools for ongoing assessment of keyworkers’ role clarity.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part

Robert E. Gilbert

Purpose – This study demonstrates that serious episodes of presidential ill health can have positive impacts on role performance.…

Abstract

Purpose – This study demonstrates that serious episodes of presidential ill health can have positive impacts on role performance.

Design/methodology – The author utilizes both primary source materials (personal interviews with White House physicians and several other physicians who treated Reagan at the hospital, and the writings of key Reagan aides and family members) and secondary source materials (writings of political scientists, historians, and journalists).

Findings – Reagan was at first in critical condition. It was then that his Secretary of State appeared to make a bold grab for power, an act that contributed materially to the end of his political career. Additionally, the administration’s failure to invoke the presidential disability amendment allowed the official chain of command to be in doubt. Finally, the significant increase in Reagan’s popularity that flowed from his light-hearted demeanor after he was shot is examined here in terms of the President’s subsequent legislative successes.

Originality/value – This study suggests strongly that Reagan’s impressive legislative achievements in mid-1981 were due significantly to his heroic response to having been shot.

Details

The world of biology and politics: Organization and research areas
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-728-3

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Article

Lisa Marzano and Joanna R. Adler

Research has consistently shown that staff working with people who self‐harm tend to experience a range of anxieties and negative emotions. Very little has been written on…

Abstract

Research has consistently shown that staff working with people who self‐harm tend to experience a range of anxieties and negative emotions. Very little has been written on the particular issues and needs of staff in prisons, where rates of self‐harm are high. The current study gathered information about existing sources of support for staff dealing with prisoners who self‐harm, and identified positive practice examples. A postal survey was sent out to the Suicide Prevention Team Leaders from every HM Prison Service Establishment in England and Wales (139 in total). Fifty‐four surveys (38.8%) were completed and returned. Findings indicate that staff support services were reportedly in place in virtually all 54 establishments. However, the data suggest that even when present, provisions may not have adequately met the needs of staff working with prisoners who self‐harm, particularly when dealing with ‘repetitive’ self‐harming behaviours. These findings are discussed in relation to organizational health literature. Their practical and theoretical implications are considered, together with directions for further studies in this under‐researched area.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article

Maria Karanika‐Murray and Andrew K. Weyman

The purpose of this paper is to discuss contemporary approaches to workplace health and well‐being, articulating key differences in the intervention architecture between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss contemporary approaches to workplace health and well‐being, articulating key differences in the intervention architecture between public and workplace health contexts and implications for intervention design.

Design/methodology/approach

Contemporary practice is discussed in light of calls for a paradigm shift in occupational health from a treatment orientation to an holistic approach focused on mitigation of the causes of ill health and the promotion of well‐being. In practice, relatively few organizations have or seem able to engage with a broader perspective that encompasses challenges to health and well‐being associated with contextual organizational drivers, e.g. job design/role, workload, systems of reward, leadership style and the underpinning climate. Drawing upon insights from public health and the workplace safety tradition, the scope for broadening the perspective on intervention (in terms of vectors of harm addressed, theory of change and intervention logic) is discussed.

Findings

There are important differences in scope and options for intervention between public health and workplace health contexts. While there is scope to emulate public health practice, this should not constrain thinking over intervention opinions. Increased awareness of these key differences within work organizations, and an evidence‐based epidemiological approach to learning has the potential to strengthen and broaden the approach to workplace health and well‐being management.

Originality/value

The authors argue that approaches to workplace well‐being interventions that selectively cross‐fertilise and adapt elements of public health interventions offer promise for realising a broader change agenda and for building inherently healthy workplaces.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Book part

Samantha Holland

This chapter will focus on the Netflix television series The Exorcist (2016–) starring Gina Davis as Angela Rance/Regan MacNeill and Ben Daniels as Father Marcus. The…

Abstract

This chapter will focus on the Netflix television series The Exorcist (2016–) starring Gina Davis as Angela Rance/Regan MacNeill and Ben Daniels as Father Marcus. The Rances are a well-off urban family in Chicago, with Angela, a successful and powerful professional woman. The Exorcist allows Angela Rance, a woman in midlife, to be central to the narrative, despite the paucity of positive, central roles for women over 50.

The chapter will also examine the depiction of gender through the themes of families and homes. Homes are sanctuaries but can also be a site of violence. The Rance home is the first clue that all is not well, when Angela hears noises in the walls. Families, homes, faith and betrayal are everywhere in The Exorcist, including the Rances, the Church, the priesthood, the Friars of Ascension and the homeless settlement. Traditionally, families and homes are where women can achieve creativity and some kind of agency, as well as being contained.

The third approach of this chapter will be to compare gender representations in the television series and the film The Exorcist (1973). In theory, the intervening 44 years could have seen gains for women and feminism, but 2017 has seen women’s rights eroded yet again. The film was made at the height of the women’s liberation movement and second-wave feminism, and at the start of the era of ‘video nasties’ and explicitly gory slasher and cannibal films, so I will use the historical context to frame a discussion about the two different versions.

Details

Gender and Contemporary Horror in Television
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-103-2

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Article

Andrew McVicar, Carol Munn‐Giddings and Patience Seebohm

Complex collaborative interventions are increasingly applied for stress management but outcomes are inconsistent. “Collaboration” is most highly developed in participatory…

Abstract

Purpose

Complex collaborative interventions are increasingly applied for stress management but outcomes are inconsistent. “Collaboration” is most highly developed in participatory action research (PAR). Future research might be guided by understanding features integral to successful PAR designs. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of PAR studies which had predominantly positive outcomes, in order to identify features of their designs.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 48 collaborative intervention studies (1982‐2010) were identified, and filtered according to positive outcomes (improved working environment, job performance, absenteeism, and stress levels), and PAR criteria for stakeholder engagement: 11 studies from six countries were selected for scoping review.

Findings

Organization size and sector was not important for PAR, but the extent of uptake of an intervention/change is and a “unit” of up to 100 employees was engaged in most of the studies reviewed. Study aims should not be over‐ambitious. Long‐term involvement of “change agents” or “action groups” in close communication with a steering group appears most effective in engaging employees over a long period of time, ideally 12+ months. Self‐report scales dominated evaluations (21 different scales; range 1‐7 per study) but this strategy is challenged by impacts of organizational change and staff turnover on response rates. Comparison with a non‐intervention group appears to strengthen the evaluation, but PAR also provides an opportunity to implement an innovative strategy sensitive to the workplace situation. PAR provides scope to engage managers as participants. The participatory process was least effective where this was unsuccessful.

Research limitations/implications

PAR has high potential for the engagement of management, and identification of a rigorous evaluation strategy, that would facilitate the efficacy of collaborative designs.

Originality/value

Insights are provided into characteristics of highly collaborative, and demonstrably effective, PAR designs.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article

Kathryn Waddington and Clive Fletcher

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gossip and emotion in health‐care organizations. It draws on findings from empirical research exploring…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gossip and emotion in health‐care organizations. It draws on findings from empirical research exploring the characteristics and function of gossip which, to date, has been a relatively under‐researched organizational phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach

A multidisciplinary approach was adopted, drawing on an eclectic range of discipline‐based theories, skills, ideas and data. Methods included repertory grid technique, in‐depth interviews and structured diary records of work‐related gossip. The sample comprised 96 qualified nurses working in a range of practice areas and organizational settings in the UK.

Findings

Template analysis was used to integrate findings across three phases of data collection. The findings revealed that gossip is used to express a range of emotions including care and concern about others, anger, annoyance and anxiety, with emotional outcomes that include feeling reassured and supported. It is the individual who gossips, while the organization provides the content, emotional context, triggers and opportunities.

Research limitations/implications

Nurses were chosen as an information‐rich source of data, but the findings may simply reflect the professional culture and practice of nursing. Future research should take into account a wider range of health‐care organizational roles and perspectives in order to capture the dynamics and detail of the emotions and relationships that initiate and sustain gossip.

Practical implications

Because gossip makes people feel better it may serve to reinforce the “stress mask of professionalism”, hiding issues of conflict, vulnerability and intense emotion. Managers need to consider what the emotions expressed through gossip might represent in terms of underlying issues relating to organizational health, communication and change.

Originality/value

This paper makes a valuable contribution to the under‐researched phenomenon of gossip in organizations and adds to the growing field of research into the role of emotion in health‐care organizations and emotion work in nursing.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 19 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article

Stefano Toderi and Cristian Balducci

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if the Management Standards (MS) Indicator Tool developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for the assessment of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate if the Management Standards (MS) Indicator Tool developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for the assessment of work-related stress is associated with positive work-related outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 326 employees of an Italian firm filled in a questionnaire including the HSE Indicator Tool (measuring MS) and validated scales investigating personal development, job performance and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB). Regression analyses were run to evaluate the explained variance of the outcomes and the demands/control interaction effect hypothesized by Karasek’s active learning hypothesis.

Findings

The MS explained variance of all the outcomes analysed and the active learning hypothesis was confirmed for personal development. Contrary to previous studies on negative stress-related outcomes, “job content” MS were the most important predictors. However, higher job demands were unexpectedly positively associated with the outcomes.

Practical implications

Taking into account positive work-related outcomes could provide organizations with additional information for the development of interventions with greater emphasis on preventive orientation (improvement of health, well-being and motivation, rather than only work stress reduction).

Originality/value

The study provides new insight into the relationship between MS and positive work-related outcomes, thus expanding the nomological network of the Indicator Tool questionnaire and giving empirical evidence to the notion of the “business case” for work stress prevention. Firms performing well on MS could expect greater worker development and higher performance.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article

Cindy Malachowski, Katherine Boydell and Bonnie Kirsh

The purpose of this paper is to make visible the ways in which peoples’ experiences of mental ill health are coordinated and produced in the workplace setting.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to make visible the ways in which peoples’ experiences of mental ill health are coordinated and produced in the workplace setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This institutional ethnography draws from data collected from 16 informants in one Canadian industrial manufacturing plant to explicate how texts organize activities and align worker consciousness and actions with company expectations of a “bona fide” illness.

Findings

The findings demonstrate how a “bona fide” illness is textually mediated by biomedical and physical work restrictions, thus creating a significant disjuncture between an experiential and ruling perspective of mental ill health.

Research limitations/implications

The work of employees living with self-reported depression becomes organized locally and translocally around the discourse of “mental illness is an illness like any other.” This presents a profound disjuncture between the embodied experience of being too unwell to mentally perform work duties, and the textually coordinated practices of what it means to access sick time for a “bona fide illness” within a biomedical-based attendance management protocol.

Originality/value

The current study adds to the literature by shedding light on the disjuncture created between the embodied experience of mental health issues and the ruling perspective of what constitutes a bona fide illness, adding a unique focus on how people’s use of attendance management-related supports in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 38 no. 5-6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article

Donald J. Davidoff

Animal rights is a growing social justice movement opposed to all forms of animal exploitation and abuse. Animal rights is not animal welfare. It is not pet therapy…

Abstract

Animal rights is a growing social justice movement opposed to all forms of animal exploitation and abuse. Animal rights is not animal welfare. It is not pet therapy, wildlife conservation, or the services of the local humane society. Although it shares concerns with other organizations interested in the welfare of animals, the animal rights movement is activist and progressive, rejecting the view that animals are resources to be used for human purposes.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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