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The relationships among firm size, profitability and diversification are examined for a sample from the top 400 industrial firms in Canada in 1975. Account is taken of…
The relationships among firm size, profitability and diversification are examined for a sample from the top 400 industrial firms in Canada in 1975. Account is taken of industry‐specific factors and of foreign ownership. The main findings are that increasing firm size is not associated with higher profitability, larger firms do appear to experience greater prof it stability, and the relationship between firm size and diversification is positive but weak. Industry factors are far more important than firm size in determining inter‐firm variations in diversification, implying that diversification is not undertaken as a means to stabilise profits by all large firms.
Since at least the 1970s, the American research university system has experienced episodic periods of austerity, frequently accompanied by expressions of concern about the threats that these conditions pose to U.S. scientific and technological leadership. In general, austerity has been tied to fluctuations in Federal Government funding of academic research and macroeconomic fluctuations that have shrunk state government budget revenues. Even amidst these episodes, the system has continued to expand and decentralize. The issue at present is whether this historic resiliency, of being a marvelous invalid, will overcome adverse contemporary trends in Federal and state government funding, as well as political trends that eat away at the societal bonds between universities and their broader publics. The paper juxtaposes examinations of the organizational and political influences that have given rise to the American research university system, trends in research revenues and research costs, and contemporary efforts by universities to balance the two. It singles out the secular decline in state government’s support of public universities as the principal reason why this period of contraction is different from those of the past. Rather though then these trends portending a market shakeout, as some at times have predicted, the projection here is that the academic research system will continue to be characterized by excess capacity and recurrent downward pressures on research costs. Because the adverse impacts are concentrated in the public university sector, they may also spill over into political threats to the current system of awarding academic research grants primarily via competitive, merit review arrangements.
The purpose of this paper is to rigorously determine the tensile properties of a selective laser sintering (SLS) material. Emphasis was placed on the anisotropy and…
The purpose of this paper is to rigorously determine the tensile properties of a selective laser sintering (SLS) material. Emphasis was placed on the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the material, the repeatability of the SLS process, and the effect of age (actually moisture absorption) on the material properties.
Two builds of 144 dogbone tensile specimens each were tested, with 18 specimens stored for 43 days in a non‐desiccated environment before testing. Specimens were distributed throughout the build volume and aligned with the apparatus' principal axes. Tensile properties were treated statistically, using the t‐test to determine the differences between various samples.
The material was transversely isotropic in Young's modulus and strain to failure, and generally orthotropic in ultimate tensile strength. The material was inhomogeneous throughout the build volume and affected by age, with a 57 per cent reduction in University of Technology after 43 days (the changes in properties were suggested to be due to moisture absorption). Properties varied by up to 25 per cent from build‐to‐build with no change in nominal process parameters.
It was not possible to confirm the “ageing” effect was caused by moisture absorption, and further work is suggested in this area. The causes of inhomogeneity and the effect of re‐coater action should also be studied further.
This is the most complete study of an SLS material's mechanical properties to date. The statistical analyses used further allow increased confidence in the conclusions drawn. This is also the only study to use cross‐fill scanning to produce specimens, and, therefore, isolate the effect of the re‐coater action.
Purpose – To highlight ways to overcome challenges in conducting authentic assessments and using data effectively in program planning.Approach – To help teachers…
Purpose – To highlight ways to overcome challenges in conducting authentic assessments and using data effectively in program planning.
Approach – To help teachers investigate the definition and purpose of assessments available for use in today's diverse classrooms, and use assessment results to inform instruction.
Practical implications – A school team analysis framework focused on teacher collaboration when conducting evaluations of districts' reading programs, a data use cycle, and a reflective questionnaire are provided for professional development.
Social implications – Social justice and differentiated instruction require balanced assessment methods and portfolio use as an implementable and manageable method to document student progress.
Originality/value of paper – This chapter engages teachers in the reality that they can be the driving force behind assessments for learning in their classrooms, schools, and districts.
“PC Boards for the '80s” is the theme of the 1977 Annual Symposium sponsored by the California Circuits Association and scheduled for Tuesday and Wednesday, October 25–26, at the Airporter Inn, Irvine, California.
Ya Luan Hsiao, Eric B. Bass, Albert W. Wu, Melissa B. Richardson, Amy Deutschendorf, Daniel J. Brotman, Michele Bellantoni, Eric E. Howell, Anita Everett, Debra Hickman, Leon Purnell, Raymond Zollinger, Carol Sylvester, Constantine G. Lyketsos, Linda Dunbar and Scott A. Berkowitz
Academic healthcare systems face great challenges in coordinating services across a continuum of care that spans hospital, community providers, home and chronic care…
Academic healthcare systems face great challenges in coordinating services across a continuum of care that spans hospital, community providers, home and chronic care facilities. The Johns Hopkins Community Health Partnership (J-CHiP) was created to improve coordination of acute, sub-acute and ambulatory care for patients, and improve the health of high-risk patients in surrounding neighborhoods. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
J-CHiP targeted adults admitted to the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, patients discharged to participating skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and high-risk Medicare and Medicaid patients receiving primary care in eight nearby outpatient sites. The primary drivers of the program were redesigned acute care delivery, seamless transitions of care and deployment of community care teams.
Acute care interventions included risk screening, multidisciplinary care planning, pharmacist-driven medication management, patient/family education, communication with next provider and care coordination protocols for common conditions. Transition interventions included post-discharge health plans, hand-offs and follow-up with primary care providers, Transition Guides, a patient access line and collaboration with SNFs. Community interventions involved forming multidisciplinary care coordination teams, integrated behavioral care and new partnerships with community-based organizations.
This paper offers a detailed description of the design and implementation of a complex program to improve care coordination for high-risk patients in an urban setting. The case studies feature findings from each intervention that promoted patient engagement, strengthened collaboration with community-based organizations and improved coordination of care.
This aim of this work is to investigate different modelling approaches for air-cooled data centres. The study employs three computational methods, which are based on…
This aim of this work is to investigate different modelling approaches for air-cooled data centres. The study employs three computational methods, which are based on finite element, finite volume and lattice Boltzmann methods and which are respectively implemented via commercial Multiphysics software, open-source computational fluid dynamics code and graphical processing unit-based code developed by the authors. The results focus on comparison of the three methods, all of which include models for turbulence, when applied to two rows of datacom racks with cool air supplied via an underfloor plenum.
This paper studies thermal airflows in a data centre by applying different numerical simulation techniques that are able to analyse the thermal airflow distribution for a simplified layout of datacom racks in the presence of a computer room air conditioner.
Good quantitative agreement between the three methods is seen in terms of the inlet temperatures to the datacom equipment. The computational methods are contrasted in terms of application to thermal management of data centres.
The work demonstrates how the different simulation techniques applied to thermal management of airflow in a data centre can provide valuable design and operational understanding. Basing the analysis on three very different computational approaches is new and would offer an informed understanding of their potential for a class of problems.
Ponders on whether Abraham Flexner was responsible for the change in medical education in North America in the early 20th century, owing to his report of 1910. Tries to…
Ponders on whether Abraham Flexner was responsible for the change in medical education in North America in the early 20th century, owing to his report of 1910. Tries to demonstrate that medical education in the USA was part of a greater whole of major changes at that time. Concludes, though there was a philanthropic influence, Flexner (who refused to accept credit for change) was not the father of the medical reform plan.
Although recent public attention has focused on boom-and-bust cycles in industries and financial markets, organizational theorists have made only limited contributions to…
Although recent public attention has focused on boom-and-bust cycles in industries and financial markets, organizational theorists have made only limited contributions to our understanding of this issue. In this chapter, I argue that a distinctive strategic insight into the mechanisms generating boom-and-bust cycles arises from a focus on entrepreneurial inertia – the lag time exhibited by organizational founders or investors entering a market niche. While popular perceptions of boom-and-bust cycles emphasize the deleterious effect of hasty entrants or overvaluation, I suggest instead that slow, methodical entries into an organizational population or market may pose far greater threats to niche stability. This proposition is explored analytically, considering the development of U.S. medical schools since the mid-18th century.