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This exploratory research examines environmental, institutional, and behavioral factors that affect interorganizational knowledge development and transfer between United…
This exploratory research examines environmental, institutional, and behavioral factors that affect interorganizational knowledge development and transfer between United Kingdom business schools and business. Three theoretical bases—transaction cost economics, extension of transaction cost economics, and power properties—are integrated in order to understand and identify the antecedents and dynamics of the interorganizational interface. Results support the hypothesis that interface collaboration and face‐to‐face communications are important mediators of academic‐business outcomes—learning business practices and cooperative research.
The resource view of strategy holds internal resources as a source of unique and inimitable competitive advantage. This strategic perspective, applied to Human Resource…
The resource view of strategy holds internal resources as a source of unique and inimitable competitive advantage. This strategic perspective, applied to Human Resource Management (HRM), suggests that aligning HRM sub‐systems with a strategy will produce behaviors and outcomes consistent with the strategy. A current popular strategy attempts to foster intrapreneurial behavior among employees by seeking breakthrough performance and product innovation. A survey of corporate executives shows that infusing HRM sub‐systems with entrepreneurial thrusts will produce more intrapreneurial behaviors and greater organization outcomes.
Proposes that by redirection performance appraisal can become apivotal force for translating, articulating and instilling commitment toan organization′s strategy. Presents…
Proposes that by redirection performance appraisal can become a pivotal force for translating, articulating and instilling commitment to an organization′s strategy. Presents a framework for assessing the success and failure of performance appraisal systems in achieving their evaluation and development role on several dimensions. Resolves the limitations of conventional systems by transcending the dysfunctional conflict between evaluation and development. The transformational performance appraisal system is consistent with the new ways of managing and with new organizational forms.
This article investigates personal value systems in Iraq, in a sample of managers. The results indicate that the dominant values are those that compose the…
This article investigates personal value systems in Iraq, in a sample of managers. The results indicate that the dominant values are those that compose the outward‐directed category: tribalistic, conformist and socio‐centred. In comparison American managers score high on manipulated values and the inner‐directed category is dominant. The results are discussed in relation to changes in Iraqi society and the functions of management.
This study demonstrates the value of employing a TQM perspective in institutions of higher education. Using data collected from a Mid‐Atlantic…
This study demonstrates the value of employing a TQM perspective in institutions of higher education. Using data collected from a Mid‐Atlantic university,Importance‐Performance Analysis and Intra‐Organizational Impact Analysis are introduced. An integration of the results of the two analyses identifies those areas within the university where cooperative arrangements are necessary to achieve improved performance and customer satisfaction.
In today's world the words “strategic”, “networking”, and “synergism” are often used in explaining how to be a world‐class competitor in a knowledge‐based society. With the advent of downsizing and right‐sizing, major changes have been made inside organizations. New structures based on integration and cooperation are replacing rigid hierarchies. Similar changes are taking place at the industry level with firms combining at national and international levels to establish new competencies and competitive advantages. Whether it is Toyota's joint ventures with other auto manufacturers and its special relationships with its suppliers and dealers, or the matrix of cooperative efforts of computer firms, the integration of activities and knowledge is everywhere. Well, it is almost everywhere. In large part, institutions of higher education have not established new ways of integrating the process of knowledge creation and distribution with non‐academic institutions. Even those universities that have expanded external programs continue to use the traditional model of the dispenser of knowledge. For example, many universities have expanded overseas. Fairleigh Dickinson University has a beautiful campus in Wroxton, England. A semester at Wroxton is a treat for any student, but the model is largely traditional with English instead of American professors dispensing knowledge to students. Between academia and business there is a lack of interactive learning, what Argyris calls double‐loop learning.
Organization structures are as important to competitiveness as strategy because structures enable both performance and learning. Yet, organization design factors and…
Organization structures are as important to competitiveness as strategy because structures enable both performance and learning. Yet, organization design factors and considerations are often overlooked. The matrix structure and similar types of adhocracies have the potential to transform organizational learning and thereby create a continuous acceleration of innovation. Unlike some adhocracies, the matrix structure focuses on performance and learning. Because of deficiencies in organization culture and management skills, the matrix structure has been less than fully effective. This paper seeks to clarify the issues that continue to block organizational competitiveness as they relate to performance and learning in matrix structures.
The purposr of this paper is to introduce a new perspective on the organization's role, purpose, and relationships, both within and among organizations, that holds the…
The purposr of this paper is to introduce a new perspective on the organization's role, purpose, and relationships, both within and among organizations, that holds the promise of more ecologically sustainable and economically competitive business practices.
The paper analyzes critiques of the current corporate perspective of organizations and builds upon Roome's framework for sustainable management to articulate a new model for organizational relationships that engage value‐chain members in an enterprise‐based competitiveness model. The paper offers examples to illustrate the potential of the new model.
The new model requires a shift in the mind‐set of executives and major shareholders, but that shift holds the theoretical potential to improve long‐term competitiveness and environmental sustainability.
The enterprise perspective model (EPM) holds the promise of improving competitive strength for firms and reducing negative environmental impacts from their operations. Executives who have embraced this model also find renewed energy and sense of purpose in their work.
This paper introduces the EPM and provides a framework for thinking about the assumptions and practices that need to change to move from the corporation perspective model to the EPM. The paper raises important research questions about implementing the EPM.
This paper reports on a comprehensive study of business schools in the UK. Data were obtained from two mail surveys ‐ one of faculty members and the other of deans from…
This paper reports on a comprehensive study of business schools in the UK. Data were obtained from two mail surveys ‐ one of faculty members and the other of deans from all of the UK business schools. Among the factors studied were demographic and institutional characteristics; the time faculty spends on major activities; faculty rewards, competencies and networks; faculty interaction with business; receptivity and support for increased interaction; benefits of increased interaction; characteristics of faculty who do applied research; barriers to applied research; and the role of advisory boards. The results show an internal alignment of activities and rewards for teaching and research, but limited support for applied and collaborative research, and a divergence between the two principal activities ‐ academic research and teaching. Interaction by business school with business appears to be mostly information passing.
Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a…
Supermaxes across the United States detain thousands in long-term solitary confinement, under conditions of extreme sensory deprivation. Almost every state built a supermax between the late 1980s and the late 1990s. This chapter examines the role of federal prisoners’ rights litigation in the 1960s and 1970s in shaping the prisons, especially supermaxes, built in the 1980s and 1990s in the United States. This chapter uses a systematic analysis of federal court case law, as well as archival research and oral history interviews with key informants, including lawyers, experts, and correctional administrators, to explore the relationship between federal court litigation and prison building and designing. This chapter argues that federal conditions of confinement litigation in the 1960s and 1970s (1) had a direct role in shaping the supermax institutions built in the subsequent decades and (2) contributed to the resistance of these institutions to constitutional challenges. The history of litigation around supermaxes is an important and as-yet-unexplored aspect of the development of Eighth Amendment jurisprudence in the United States over the last half century.