Search results

1 – 10 of 21
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 15 January 2020

Jason D. DeBode, Dana L. Haggard and K. Stephen Haggard

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of broad cultural dimensions, as well as those of religion and legal origin, on countries’ economic freedom…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of broad cultural dimensions, as well as those of religion and legal origin, on countries’ economic freedom, i.e., trade freedom, investment freedom, business freedom, labor freedom, monetary freedom, as well as a composite measure of economic freedom.

Design/methodology/approach

Linear regression of publicly available data regarding economic freedom (Miller et al., 2018) on cultural dimensions (Hofstede, 2009), legal origin and religion (LaPorta et al., 1999) for 52 countries was performed to determine the impact of these factors on economic freedom.

Findings

Results indicated femininity was the cultural dimension associated with the most measures of economic freedom. Short-term-oriented cultures were predictive of greater business freedom, while more restrained cultures were associated with greater business and monetary freedoms. Higher individualism was predictive of greater monetary freedom. Catholicism positively predicted investment freedom and negatively predicted business freedom. French civil law negatively predicted labor freedom, while socialist legal origins positively predicted trade freedom, but negatively predicted business freedom.

Originality/value

This is the first study to examine the impacts of culture, law and religion on economic freedom. One practical implication of this research is that countries would be wise to emphasize more feminine aspects in their cultures, as these are associated with greater economic freedom. Even minor adjustments that move in the direction of cooperation and fair processes might help increase economic freedoms and the many benefits that stem from such freedoms.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2011

Dana L. Haggard and K. Stephen Haggard

This study provides insight into the proportion of the variation across countries in the desirable outcomes of freedom and peace that can be accounted for using a set of…

Abstract

This study provides insight into the proportion of the variation across countries in the desirable outcomes of freedom and peace that can be accounted for using a set of national characteristics which are difficult, if not impossible, to change. The majority of prior studies in this area have utilized bivariate (correlational) analysis. While these studies have made important contributions to the field, they have not been able to disentangle the effects of other important national characteristics from the effect of culture on freedom and peace. Through our multivariate framework, we are able to shed light on the relative importance of these national characteristics in explaining the variation in freedom and peace across countries.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2017

Dana L. Haggard and K. Stephen Haggard

We examined stock market reactions to announcements of CEO appointments as a proxy for the perceived value created by these appointments. We examined differences in market…

Abstract

We examined stock market reactions to announcements of CEO appointments as a proxy for the perceived value created by these appointments. We examined differences in market reactions to the appointments of minority and women CEOs compared to white males. Our results indicate additional value creation through the appointment of African- American CEOs, but not through the appointment of female or Hispanic CEOs. We provide a potential explanation for this differential valuation of differing types of diversity.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2008

Dana L. Haggard and K. Stephen Haggard

Prior studies of the role of risk in executive compensation focus on market risk and firm risk, neglecting the role of industry risk in explaining executive compensation…

Abstract

Prior studies of the role of risk in executive compensation focus on market risk and firm risk, neglecting the role of industry risk in explaining executive compensation. We include industry risk and find that the portion of CEO compensation for bearing industry risk is greater than the portion of CEO compensation for bearing market risk. Consistent with the human capital of a CEO being non-diversifiable, CEOs also receive compensation for bearing firm-specific risk, in contrast to investors, who can diversify their risk over many assets. CEOs are compensated for bearing firm-specific risks through all the compensation tools we examine; salary, bonus, option grants and option exercises. CEOs are compensated for bearing market and industry risk primarily through stock option grants.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

Dana L. Haggard and Stephen Haggard

We proposed a model in which culture plays a dominant role, along with religion and legal origin, in determining the quality of governance in a country. We examined four…

Abstract

We proposed a model in which culture plays a dominant role, along with religion and legal origin, in determining the quality of governance in a country. We examined four dimensions of culture and four measurements of governance quality across 71 countries. Our empirical results demonstrated the dominant role played by culture, over and above religion and legal origin, in explaining governance quality. As culture is persistent and unlikely to be easily changed, efforts to improve governance quality might be doomed to failure in nations with cultural values that are hostile to good governance.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 12 November 2018

Dana L. Haggard and K. Stephen Haggard

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of culture, legal origin and religion on four measures of the ease of starting a new business; the number of procedures…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of culture, legal origin and religion on four measures of the ease of starting a new business; the number of procedures required, the number days required, the ease of getting credit and the cost to start a business.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use linear regression to test the hypotheses using publicly available data on legal origin and religion from La Porta et al. (1999), cultural dimension information from Hofstede (2009) and measures of the ease of starting a business from the World Bank’s (2017) Doing Business Initiative. The final sample consists of 71 countries for which information was available on all the variables of interest.

Findings

Legal origin affects the number of procedures and the length of time needed to start a business, as well as the ease of getting credit. Culture (power distance) and religion are important for explaining gender differences in the ease of starting a business. The cost of starting a business is unrelated to culture, legal origin or religion.

Originality/value

Economic development is an important determinant of a country’s political stability and standard of living. Although politicians play a significant role in how a friendly a country is toward business, the study demonstrates that other longer-term and less dynamic factors have a material influence on economic development.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Dana L. Haggard, Serge P. da Motta Veiga and Melody W. LaPreze

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an approach/avoidance coping framework to examine the relationships of job search co-rumination (i.e. engaging in repeated and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to adopt an approach/avoidance coping framework to examine the relationships of job search co-rumination (i.e. engaging in repeated and excessive conversations with a friend about job search problems) and job search talk avoidance (i.e. persistently seeking to escape conversations about the job search) on job search intensity and job search procrastination.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors surveyed 196 new labor market entrants (i.e. graduating students) at two points in time during their last semester in college.

Findings

The authors found that job search co-rumination is positively related to job search intensity, while job search talk avoidance is positively related to job search procrastination. Interestingly, though, the expected negative relationships between job search co-rumination and job search procrastination and between job search talk avoidance and job search intensity were not significant.

Practical implications

This study has implications for both job seekers and career counselors. For job seekers, understanding how their communication patterns influence their behaviors (and ultimately their success) can help them to see the benefits of a balanced approach to sharing about their job search. Furthermore, career centers could organize either job search mentoring or peer group programs to help job seekers navigate the intricacies of the job search process.

Originality/value

This study contributes to understanding whether and how talking (or not) with others (i.e. friends and relatives) about one’s job search influences one’s job search behaviors, such as intensity and procrastination.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 22 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 1903

IT is evident from the numerous press cuttings which are reaching us, that we are once more afflicted with one of those periodical visitations of antagonism to Public…

Abstract

IT is evident from the numerous press cuttings which are reaching us, that we are once more afflicted with one of those periodical visitations of antagonism to Public Libraries, which occasionally assume epidemic form as the result of a succession of library opening ceremonies, or a rush of Carnegie gifts. Let a new library building be opened, or an old one celebrate its jubilee, or let Lord Avebury regale us with his statistics of crime‐diminution and Public Libraries, and immediately we have the same old, never‐ending flood of articles, papers and speeches to prove that Public Libraries are not what their original promoters intended, and that they simply exist for the purpose of circulating American “Penny Bloods.” We have had this same chorus, with variations, at regular intervals during the past twenty years, and it is amazing to find old‐established newspapers, and gentlemen of wide reading and knowledge, treating the theme as a novelty. One of the latest gladiators to enter the arena against Public Libraries, is Mr. J. Churton Collins, who contributes a forcible and able article, on “Free Libraries, their Functions and Opportunities,” to the Nineteenth Century for June, 1903. Were we not assured by its benevolent tone that Mr. Collins seeks only the betterment of Public Libraries, we should be very much disposed to resent some of the conclusions at which he has arrived, by accepting erroneous and misleading information. As a matter of fact, we heartily endorse most of Mr. Collins' ideas, though on very different grounds, and feel delighted to find in him an able exponent of what we have striven for five years to establish, namely, that Public Libraries will never be improved till they are better financed and better staffed.

Details

New Library World, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 August 2020

Fizza Rizvi and Akbar Azam

The purpose of this research is to investigate if employees possessing good political skill face less abusive behavior from their supervisors. Moreover, the gender of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate if employees possessing good political skill face less abusive behavior from their supervisors. Moreover, the gender of the subordinate has been tested as a moderator between political skill and abusive supervision. Cultural and social factors prevailing in the research settings of Pakistan provide an ideal situation to test the relationship between political skill and abusive supervision.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected from 178 employees representing different sectors of Pakistani industry. To test the relationship between political skill and abusive supervision, simple linear regression was run and moderation was tested using PROCESS macro.

Findings

From the analysis, the major findings prove that political skill lessens abusive supervision. Moreover, due to the cultural settings, male subordinates use political skill more proficiently to avoid abusive supervision as compared to female subordinates.

Practical implications

The study suggests that in order to maintain harmony in the work environment, employees must learn political skill to avoid abusive supervision. Moreover, females must be given more chances to utilize their political skill to get positive outcomes.

Originality/value

This study fills up a significant gap in the literature, as there is scarce literature available that investigates the relationship between political skill and abusive supervision, specifically in Pakistan.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 December 2016

Gabriele Lakomski

Leader-centric views have become a dogma in contemporary accounts of school leadership, and organizational performance is seen to reduce to explanations of what…

Abstract

Leader-centric views have become a dogma in contemporary accounts of school leadership, and organizational performance is seen to reduce to explanations of what individuals do. Hence, a school’s failure is attributed to poor principal performance that may range from merely indifferent to outright unethical conduct that may exhibit “the dark side” of leadership. Judging “good” or “bad” behavior in individualistic terms has a long history and is enshrined in the doctrine of the autonomous agent in possession of “free will.” Conceived thus, the autonomous agent can be held responsible for his or her actions. This chapter examines the notion of “free will” both in its philosophical and everyday meaning and argues that biological agents, such as principals, act responsibly or irresponsibly (or unethically), not on the basis of the presence or absence of metaphysical “free will,” but on the basis of the neurobiology of non-conscious decision-making processes and the constraints of the social, organizational, environments in which they work. The argument is developed by examining two positions from social psychology and neuroscience, respectively, which raise the specter of “free will” as mere illusion, with potentially negative consequences for responsible and ethical conduct. But “free will skepticism” is not warranted and “free will,” or the ability of biological-social agents to choose, is real but is also constrained by external, non-biological, factors. While individual responsibility remains important, it is enmeshed in a much wider causal field and cannot be assumed a priori. If and when it obtains is to be determined after investigation. Some implications of the social cognitive perspective on responsible action and accountability are sketched in the last part of this chapter.

Details

The Dark Side of Leadership: Identifying and Overcoming Unethical Practice in Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-499-0

Keywords

1 – 10 of 21