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Luca Lambertini, Sougata Poddar and Dan Sasaki

In this paper we take a close look at those strategic incentives arising in a situation where firms share the costs and profits in a multi-firm project, and bargain for…

Abstract

In this paper we take a close look at those strategic incentives arising in a situation where firms share the costs and profits in a multi-firm project, and bargain for their respective (precommitted) split of cost- and profit-shares. We establish that, when each firm's effort contribution to the joint undertaking is mutually observable (which is often the case in closely collaborative operations) and hence can form basis of the contingent cost- and profit-sharing scheme, it is not the gross economic efficiency but the super-/sub-additivity of the nett returns from effort that directly affects the sustainability of a profile of firms' effort contributions. The (in)efficiency result we obtain in this paper is of different nature from so-called “free riding” or “team competition” problems: the set of sustainable outcomes with bargaining over precommitted cost- and profit-shares is generally neither a superset nor a subset of the sustainable set without bargaining.

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The Economics of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53255-8

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The Economics of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53255-8

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The Economics of Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-444-53255-8

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Article

Yongliang Jin, Haitao Duan, Lei Wei, Song Chen, Xuzheng Qian, Dan Jia and Jian Li

This paper aims to investigate the tribological behavior and online infrared spectra of three types of lubricating oils containing dinonyl diphenylamine (DNDA…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the tribological behavior and online infrared spectra of three types of lubricating oils containing dinonyl diphenylamine (DNDA) antioxidant, which are mineral oil (MO), poly alpha olefin (PAO) and trimethylolpropane trioleate (TMPTO), during the friction process at high temperature (temperature rising at first and isothermal holding afterwards).

Design/methodology/approach

A platform of low speed four-ball tribometer equipped with a temperature controller combined with infrared spectrometer was established. MO, PAO and TMPTO base oils were mixed with 1.0 Wt.% DNDA antioxidant, coded as MOa, PAOa and TMPTOa in sequence. The friction coefficient and online infrared spectra of the oils were tested during the friction process of temperature rising at first and isothermal holding afterwards, and the wear tracks of the upper balls were measured using a confocal scanning optical microscope.

Findings

The results indicated that the DNDA antioxidant was depleted to reduce the generation of alcohols and carbonyl products, and the depletion rate of DNDA followed the sequence of MOa > PAOa > TMPTOa. In the temperature rising friction process, the critical transition of friction coefficient was confirmed. The addition of DNDA antioxidant reduced the temperature of the oils at the critical transition of friction coefficient, and the temperature followed the sequence of TMPTOa > PAOa > MOa. After the critical transition, the friction coefficient was first increased and then declined to a steady value; the friction coefficient of MOa increased and declined first, followed by PAOa and TMPTOa. In the steady stage of friction, there was no obvious effect of DNDA on the friction coefficient of the oils. Moreover, DNDA enhanced the wear properties of MOa and PAOa; no obvious improvement was revealed for the wear property of TMPTOa.

Originality/value

The established platform of low speed four-ball tribometer combined with infrared spectrometer successfully realized online testing of the structure changes of lubricating oil during high temperature friction, which can give some reference on the oxidation and friction researches of lubricating oil.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Urban Dynamics and Growth: Advances in Urban Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44451-481-3

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Article

Kaixuan Liu, Jianping Wang, Chun Zhu and Yan Hong

Currently, the researches on garment development and wear comfort evaluation mainly focus on the static condition type and seldom involved dynamic condition. Therefore…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, the researches on garment development and wear comfort evaluation mainly focus on the static condition type and seldom involved dynamic condition. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop cycling clothes’ patterns and evaluate their dynamic wear comfort.

Design/methodology/approach

First, the 3D-to-2D flattening technology was applied to develop garment patterns of a cycler’s jersey T-shirt. Then, 3D animation technology was used to simulate the scene of cycling. Next, a novel pressure-measuring method was proposed to measure static and dynamic clothing pressures in a virtual environment. Finally, the collected data were used for evaluating wear comfort.

Findings

Compared to static conditions, the dynamic wear comfort noticeably improved at the front neck, side neck, upper front chest, around back neck point and front shoulder, and the front neck. Compared to static conditions, the dynamic wear comfort visibly deteriorates at the back neck, below chest, outseam, back except around back neck point and around scapula, and the around scapula area. The dynamic pressure at back neck, below front chest and shoulder fluctuate wildly throughout the whole cycling. On the contrary, the dynamic pressure at the front neck, side neck, front upper chest and at the back cause it to tend to stability during cycling.

Originality/value

The 3D virtual-reality technology was applied to simulate cycling. And a novel method was proposed to measure numerical clothing pressures for evaluating the dynamic wear comfort. The proposed method can not only quantitatively evaluate the wear comfort of cycling clothes and optimize cycling clothes’ patterns, but also can be applied to other tight garment types.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article

Jean‐Louis Peaucelle and Cameron Guthrie

The aim is to identify Henri Fayol's motivations as an accomplished business manager to publish his management theory at the age of 75.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to identify Henri Fayol's motivations as an accomplished business manager to publish his management theory at the age of 75.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors retrace Henri Fayol's private life using primary sources from various French public archives including civil registry records, military and diplomatic archives, schooling records, publications from learned associations and inheritance declarations. They then use a psychological theory, namely equity theory, to interpret this new information about Fayol's private life and construct an explanation of his efforts to theorise his management experience.

Findings

Henri Fayol's schooling and his father's military career respectively influenced his perception of mathematics teaching in management training and the functioning of the army. His motivation to found a science of management was not financial but instead most probably a response to the obstacles his father encountered during his career.

Research limitations/implications

It is rarely known what motivates a manager to collaborate with specialists in management science. This research into Henri Fayol's motivations can be replicated for other managers.

Practical implications

The paper dentifies one major practical implication for managers who wish to contribute to management theory as Fayol did. Before they begin such an undertaking, it is important for them to reflect upon their motivations. Their motivations as managers, based on financial and business success are insufficient. Deeper motivations are needed, that are anchored in their own personal history to drive the considerable intellectual investment that is necessary for them to be successful contributors.

Social implications

The results encourage managers to contribute to building and improving management science. They can theorize their experiences in dealing with the management of contemporary issues such as sustainable development and social responsibility. They must do so as Fayol did: using scientific method and strongly motivated by personal beliefs.

Originality/value

The research question is original: “What motivated Fayol to build his management doctrine?”. Scholars rarely ask why individuals decide to build and organize knowledge. This question is relevant for managers today as they too can bring original contributions to management thought. The paper reports previously unpublished details about Fayol's life to answer the research question, and in doing so completes and corrects the works of Sasaki Tsuneo and Henri Verney.

Details

Journal of Management History, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1751-1348

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Abstract

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The Handbook of Road Safety Measures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-250-0

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Article

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III…

Abstract

The librarian and researcher have to be able to uncover specific articles in their areas of interest. This Bibliography is designed to help. Volume IV, like Volume III, contains features to help the reader to retrieve relevant literature from MCB University Press' considerable output. Each entry within has been indexed according to author(s) and the Fifth Edition of the SCIMP/SCAMP Thesaurus. The latter thus provides a full subject index to facilitate rapid retrieval. Each article or book is assigned its own unique number and this is used in both the subject and author index. This Volume indexes 29 journals indicating the depth, coverage and expansion of MCB's portfolio.

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Management Decision, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article

COLIN H. DAVIDSON, PHILIPPE L. DAVIDSON and KALEV RUBERG

The building industry, through its structure and its mandate, faces endemic information problems; expert systems are expected to impact positively. Expert systems are…

Abstract

The building industry, through its structure and its mandate, faces endemic information problems; expert systems are expected to impact positively. Expert systems are suited to situations of uncertainty; knowledge and reasoning are separated, allowing easier updating. Knowledge acquisition from human experts is difficult and problems of information reliability arise, suggesting the scope for cooperation between knowledge engineers and documentalists familiar with the domain. In building, prevailing conditions seem to indicate the appropriateness of expert systems, particularly during the design phase; however, written documentation and general research results are rarely consulted. This highlights the need for an information ‘refining’ stage between production and use. It is easier to set up expert systems for specialised sub‐domains; however, on‐going research is attempting to develop a comprehensive approach to project‐specific information that would be operational from initial design through to completed construction. Criteria for a comprehensive design information system can be listed.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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