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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1991

S. RAKHEJA and A.K.W. AHMED

A local equivalent linearization methodology is proposed to simulate non‐linear shock absorbers and dual‐phase dampers in the convenient frequency domain. The methodology…

Abstract

A local equivalent linearization methodology is proposed to simulate non‐linear shock absorbers and dual‐phase dampers in the convenient frequency domain. The methodology based on principle of energy similarity, characterizes the non‐linear dual‐phase dampers via an array of local damping constants as function of local excitation frequency and amplitude, response, and type of non‐linearity. The non‐linear behaviour of the dual‐phase dampers can thus be predicted quite accurately in the entire frequency range. The frequency response characteristics of a vehicle model employing non‐linear dual‐phase dampers, evaluated using local linearization algorithm, are compared to those of the non‐linear system, established via numerical integration, to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. An error analysis is performed to quantify the maximum error between the damping forces generated by non‐linear and locally linear simulations. The influence of damper parameters on the ride improvement potentials of dual‐phase dampers is further evaluated using the proposed methodology and discussed.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2002

Jinwu Xiang, Guocai Hu and Xiaogu Zhang

An equivalent linear damping model is developed for forward flight condition, with the flap/lag/pitch kinematics and nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic damper taken…

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Abstract

An equivalent linear damping model is developed for forward flight condition, with the flap/lag/pitch kinematics and nonlinear characteristics of hydraulic damper taken into account. Damper axial velocity is analyzed from the velocities of the damper‐to‐blade attachment point in time domain. For the case of blade lead‐lag oscillations without forced excitation and kinematics, the equivalent linear damping is calculated from transient response with energy balance method, Fourier series based moving block analysis and Hilbert transform based technology, respectively. Results indicate that equivalent linear damping decreases significantly with lead‐lag forced excitation and flap/lag/pitch kinematics, especially with the latter in flight condition.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 74 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Lotfi Mehai, Patrick Paultre and Pierre Léger

In a finite element model of typicaldam—foundation—reservoir systems, the presence of heterogeneousmaterial properties for the dam and the foundation produces a combined…

Abstract

In a finite element model of typical dam—foundation—reservoir systems, the presence of heterogeneous material properties for the dam and the foundation produces a combined damping matrix that is non‐proportional to the mass and/or the stiffness matrices of the system. In this case, the undamped real free‐vibration modes cannot uncouple the damping forces such that the classical mode superposition method using real modes is not applicable. This paper presents comparative analyses of recent coordinate reduction procedures that have been developed to compute the response of linear systems with non‐proportional damping. The comparisons are based on the numerical efficiency and the accuracy of the displacement, acceleration and stress response, and on the distribution of the damping energy in the system.

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Engineering Computations, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 6 May 2014

Chun Pong Sing, P.E.D. Love and P.R. Davis

Condition assessment on reinforced concrete (RC) structures is one of the critical issues as a result of structure degradation due to aging in many developed countries…

Abstract

Purpose

Condition assessment on reinforced concrete (RC) structures is one of the critical issues as a result of structure degradation due to aging in many developed countries. The purpose of this paper is to examine the sensitivity and reliability of the conventional dynamic response approaches, which are currently applied in the RC structures. The key indicators include: natural frequency and damping ratio. To deal with the non-linear characteristics of RC, the concept of random decrement is applied to analyze time domain data and a non-linear damping curve could be constructed to reflect the condition of RC structure.

Design/methodology/approach

A full-scale RC structure was tested under ambient vibration and the impact from a rubber hammer. Time history data were collected to analyze dynamics parameters such as natural frequency and damping ratio.

Findings

The research demonstrated that the measured natural frequency is not a good indicator for integrity assessment. Similarly, it was revealed that the traditional theory of viscous damping performed poorly for the RC with non-linear characteristics. To address this problem, a non-linear curve is constructed using random decrement and it can be used to retrieve the condition of the RC structure in a scientific manner.

Originality/value

The time domain analysis using random decrement can be used to construct a non-linear damping curve. The results from this study revealed that the damage of structure can be reflected from the changes in the damping curves. The non-linear damping curve is a powerful tool for assessing the health condition of RC structures in terms of sensitivity and reliability.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Hongtuo Liu, Fangwei Xie, Kai Zhang, Xinxing Zhang, Jin Zhang, Cuntang Wang and Hao Li

The shock absorber is an important component of vehicle suspension that attenuates the vehicle vibration. Its running state directly affects the performance of the vehicle…

Abstract

Purpose

The shock absorber is an important component of vehicle suspension that attenuates the vehicle vibration. Its running state directly affects the performance of the vehicle suspension. The purpose of this paper is to quantitatively study the relationship between damping characteristics and air chamber and oil properties in single-tube pneumatic shock absorber.

Design/methodology/approach

Combined with the principle of fluid dynamics and hydraulic transmission technology, the rebound stroke and compression stroke mathematical models, and damping characteristics simulation model are established to investigate the effect of the air chamber and oil property on damping characteristics.

Findings

Research results show that the initial pressure of the air chamber is the key parameter which influences the damping characteristics of the shock absorber. The change of the initial pressure has more impact on damping force, and less impact on the speed characteristic; the initial volume of the air chamber almost has no effect on the damping characteristics. The density and viscosity of the oil have certain influence on the damping characteristics. Therefore, selecting suitable damping oil is very important.

Originality/value

Using Matlab/Simulink software to build simulation models, its results are very accurate. The conclusions can provide a theoretical reference for the structure design of a single-tube pneumatic shock absorber.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Mohammad Sadak Ali Khan, A. Suresh and N. Seetha Ramaiah

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the semi-active fluid damper. It is recognized that the performance of such a damper depends upon the magnetic…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the semi-active fluid damper. It is recognized that the performance of such a damper depends upon the magnetic and hydraulic circuit design. These dampers are generally used to control the vibrations in various applications in machine tools and robots. The present paper deals with the design of magneto-rheological (MR) damper. A finite element model is built to analyze and understand the performance of a 2D axi-symmetric MR damper. Various configurations of damper with modified piston ends are investigated. The input current to the coil and the piston velocity are varied to evaluate the resulting change in magnetic flux density (B), magnetic field (H), field dependent yield stress and magnetic force vectors. The simulation results of the various configurations of damper show that higher magnetic force is associated with plain piston ends. The performance of filleted piston ends is superior to that of other configurations for the same magnitude of coil current and piston velocity.

Design/methodology/approach

The damper design is done based on the fact that mechanical energy required for yielding of MR fluid increases with increase in applied magnetic field intensity. In the presence of magnetic field, the MR fluid follows Bingham’s plastic flow model, given by the equation τ = η γ•+τ y (H) τ > τ y . The above equation is used to design a device which works on the basis of MR fluid. The total pressure drop in the damper is evaluated by summing the viscous component and yield stress component which is approximated as ΔP = 12ηQL/g3W + CτyL/g, where the value of the parameter, C ranges from a minimum of 2 (for ΔPτ ΔPη less than approximately 1) to a maximum of 3 (for ΔPτ/ΔPη greater than approximately 100). To calculate the change in pressure on either side of the piston within the cylinder, yield stress is required which is obtained from the graph of yield stress vs magnetic field intensity provided by Lord Corporation for MR fluid −132 DG.

Findings

In this work, three different finite element models of MR damper piston are analyzed. The regression equations, contour plots and surface plots are obtained for different parameters. This study can be used as a reference for selecting the parameters for meeting different requirements. It is observed from the simulation of these models that the plain ends model gave optimum magnetic force and 2D flux lines with respect to damper input current. This is due to the fact that the plain ends model has more area when compared with that of other models. It is also observed that filleted ends model gave optimum magnetic flux density and yield stress. As there is reduced pole length in the filleted ends model, the MR fluid occupies vacant area, and hence results in increased flux density and yield shear stress. The filleted ends assist the formation of dense magnetic flux lines thereby increasing the flux density and yield stress. This implies that higher load can be carried by the filleted ends damper even with a smaller size.

Originality/value

This work is carried out to manufacture different capacities of the dampers. This can be applied as vibration controls.

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2015

Linlin Li, Jiajun Yang and Wenwei Liu

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on squeeze film damping characteristics in damper of the linear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of surface roughness characterized by fractal geometry on squeeze film damping characteristics in damper of the linear rolling guide, which has not been studied so far.

Design/methodology/approach

The stochastic model of film thickness between rail and damper is established by using the two-variable Weierstrass–Mandelbrot function defining multi-scale and self-affinity properties of the rough surface topography. The stochastically averaged Reynolds equation is solved by using the variables separation method to further derive the film pressure distribution, the damping coefficient, the damping force and squeeze film time. The effect of surface roughness on squeeze film damping characteristics of the damper is analyzed and discussed through simulation.

Findings

By comparing cases of the rough surface for different fractal parameters and the smooth surface, it is shown that for the isotropic roughness structure, the presence of surface roughness of the damper decreases the squeeze film damping characteristics. It is found that roughness effect on the damping coefficient is associated with the film thickness. In addition, the vibration amplitude effect is negligible for the damper of the linear rolling guide.

Originality/value

To investigate the random surface roughness effect, the rough surface topography of damper of the linear rolling guide is characterized by using the fractal method instead of the traditional mathematical statistics method.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

Yihua Cao, Mingjun Li, Yuan Su and Xiangchun Sun

An anisotropic design is introduced to the laminated damped plates in this paper. The parameter effects on the loss factor of anisotropic laminated damped plates have been…

Abstract

An anisotropic design is introduced to the laminated damped plates in this paper. The parameter effects on the loss factor of anisotropic laminated damped plates have been analyzed in detail. The damping analyses and control mechanism of laminated anisotropic damped plates have been carried out theoretically. Finally, through the software developed here, the parameter optimization has been conducted on the loss factors of the anisotropic laminated damped plates. The results indicate it may provide scientific basis for the new optimization anisotropic design of laminated damped plates used in Aircraft cabin structure for obtaining the maximum loss factor.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1986

S. Rakheja and S. Sankar

The non‐linear damping mechanisms are expressed in two general forms: velocity dependent and displacement dependent. The non‐linear damping phenomena are expressed by an…

Abstract

The non‐linear damping mechanisms are expressed in two general forms: velocity dependent and displacement dependent. The non‐linear damping phenomena are expressed by an array of ‘local constants’, whose value depends upon excitation frequency, excitation amplitude, and type of non‐linearity. Thus, the non‐linear system is replaced by several localized linear systems corresponding to every discrete frequency and amplitude of excitation. Each of the localized linear systems, thus formulated, characterizes the response behaviour of the original non‐linear system, quite accurately in the vicinity of the specific frequency and amplitude of excitation. An algorithm is developed, which expresses the non‐linear damping by an array of ‘local constants’. The algorithm then employs the usual linear design tools to generate the response characteristics almost identical to the response behaviour of the non‐linear system.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Erming Ding, Fangwei Xie, Heng Dai, Qingsong Gao, Jin Zhang, Yixian Feng and Hongtuo Liu

In order to improve the ride comfort of vehicle suspension, this paper first proposed a shock absorber with four-stage adjustable damping forces. The purpose of this paper…

Abstract

Purpose

In order to improve the ride comfort of vehicle suspension, this paper first proposed a shock absorber with four-stage adjustable damping forces. The purpose of this paper is to validate its modeling and characteristics, indicator diagrams and velocity diagrams, which are the main research points.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to validate the fluid flow modeling, a series of mathematical modeling is established and solved by using Matlab/Simulink. An experiment rig based on electro-hydraulic loading servo system is designed to test the prototype. Finally, indicator diagram and velocity diagram are obtained and compared both in simulation and experiments.

Findings

Results indicate that at the same damping position, damping force will increase with the rise of rod’s velocity: if the rod’s velocity is fixed, the damping force changes apparently by altering the damping position. The shock absorber is softest at damping position 1, and it is hardest at damping position 4; although there is no any badly empty stroke and skewness in indicator diagram by simulation, a temporary empty stroke happens at maximum displacement of piston rob, both in rebound and compression strokes.

Research limitations/implications

Compared with results of the simulation and experiments, the design of a four-stage damping adjustable shock absorber (FDASA) is validated correctly in application, and may improve the overall dynamic performance of vehicle.

Originality/value

This paper is mainly focused on the design and testing of an FDASA, which may obtain four-stages damping characteristics, that totally has a vital importance to improve the performance of vehicle suspension.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

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