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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Amara Emuwa and Dail Fields

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which each dimension of authentic leadership (AL) is related with employee organizational commitment (OC) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which each dimension of authentic leadership (AL) is related with employee organizational commitment (OC) and assessment of leadership effectiveness for employees in Nigeria and to investigate the moderating effects of contingent reward leadership behaviors on these relationships. By testing the dimensions of AL with employee outcomes, this study provides further validity and empirical evidence to the theoretical structure of AL theory across cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

This empirical study used cross-sectional survey data collected from a sample of 212 Nigerian employees from 16 organizations across various sectors.

Findings

The results of hierarchical regression analysis of this study showed a positive relationship between AL behaviors and the outcome variables of OC and perceived leader effectiveness (LE) among Nigerian employees. The moderation result shows that the leader’s contingent reward behaviors reduce the effects of the internal moral perspective dimension of AL. As authentic leaders interact with followers and followers experience high levels of moral and ethical behaviors, contingent rewards become less important to followers.

Practical implications

Leadership effectiveness and OC are desirable organizational outcomes across cultures. From a practical standpoint, the results indicate several authentic dimensions are related to OC and leadership effectiveness among Nigerian employees. This extends the applicability of AL into the African countries. Particularly, it provides additional insight into a contemporary leadership model that can positively impact the leadership development in Nigeria. While the interactive effects of contingent reward were limited, they do suggest that some combinations of behaviors should be considered to effectively meet situational needs.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the relationship of the components that constitute AL with OC and perceived LE in the context of Nigeria, a major African nation.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2012

Dail Fields and Brady Boggs

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2010

W. Brady Boggs and Dail L. Fields

This study explores how dimensions of organizational culture are related to performance in a sample of Christian churches. Alternative models of the relationships of four…

Abstract

This study explores how dimensions of organizational culture are related to performance in a sample of Christian churches. Alternative models of the relationships of four dimensions of organizational culture with multiple measures of church performance were explored using data provided by staff and pastors describing 53 Christian churches. We identified a model that fit the data very well in which the relative strength of four organizational cultural dimensions are predictors of the levels of seven alternative measures of church performance covering membership growth, constituent satisfaction, staff and constituent learning and development, and internal business processes. Church leaders desiring to improve performance could consider focusing on strengthening the culture dimensions that may be related to each area of church operations.

Details

International Journal of Organization Theory & Behavior, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1093-4537

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

Volume 18 Number 2 of the Journal of Organizational Behavior includes an article by Dail L. Fields and Terry C. Blum entitled “Employee satisfaction in work groups with…

Abstract

Volume 18 Number 2 of the Journal of Organizational Behavior includes an article by Dail L. Fields and Terry C. Blum entitled “Employee satisfaction in work groups with different gender composition”. This study investigates the relationship between the gender composition of an employee's work group and the employee's job satisfaction, using a random sample over 1600 U.S. workers. After controlling possible confounding variables, the analysis shows that the level of an employee's job satisfaction is related to the gender composition of the employee's work group, and that the relationship of these variables does not differ between male and female employees. Both men and women working in gender‐balanced groups have higher levels of job satisfaction than those who work in homogeneous groups. Employees working in groups containing mostly men have the lowest levels of job satisfaction, with those working in groups containing mostly women falling in the middle. These results are consistent with predictions based on Blau's theory of social structure, that satisfaction would be highest for employees in more heterogeneous groups.

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2016

Tracy H Porter, Kelly Diane Riesenmy and Dail Fields

A key challenge for organizations is identification of candidates for development as organizational leaders. While selection criteria may vary, one important consideration…

11699

Abstract

Purpose

A key challenge for organizations is identification of candidates for development as organizational leaders. While selection criteria may vary, one important consideration is the extent to which an employee is motivated to lead. Previous studies have restricted investigation of the antecedents of these motivations to individual differences such as personality, self-efficacy, and previous leadership experiences, suggesting that leadership capacity may depend largely on employee selection. However, employee assessments of numerous aspects of the work environment may also have a substantial role in determining an employee’s motivation to lead (MTL), suggesting that an organization’s leadership capacity may depend on many other human resource practices. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors explored the role of employee assessments of work experiences as determinants of three types of MTL. This paper investigates the impact of a value-oriented organizational culture and the employee’s assessment of the work environment (pay satisfaction, promotion possibilities, recognition, job design, internal communication, and employee’s relationship with his/her current leader). Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

Based upon the results of 210 respondents the strength of relationship varies among the three alternative types of leadership motivation. The results suggest that besides individual differences, the perceived work environment may be a significant determinant of motivation to become an organizational leader. Employee assessments of pay, promotion opportunities, recognition, job design, quality of organizational communications, and workplace spirituality all play a role in determining employee MTL.

Originality/value

This paper offers a number of implications for human resource management practices, hiring, and leadership development.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2007

Michael Shane Wood and Dail Fields

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which working in a management team in which leadership functions are shared impacts the role clarity, job overload…

4619

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the extent to which working in a management team in which leadership functions are shared impacts the role clarity, job overload, stress and job satisfaction of team members. It also aims to explore the moderating influence of organizational encouragement for team work.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses data obtained from 200 top management team members working in Christian church organizations in the USA. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship of shared leadership with the role conflict, role ambiguity, job stress, and job satisfaction of the management team members. These relationships were also evaluated for team members in organizations with both higher and lower levels of encouragement for team work.

Findings

A model in which role conflict and ambiguity mediate the relationship between shared leadership and job stress and job satisfaction provides the best fit with the data. Shared leadership within a management team was negatively related to team member role overload, role conflict, role ambiguity and job stress. Shared team leadership was positively related to job satisfaction of team members. The relationship of shared leadership with team member job outcomes is stronger in organizations with lower levels of encouragement for teamwork.

Research limitations/implications

A practical implication of these results for leaders of management teams is that sharing some leadership roles and responsibilities within their teams with other members may have positive effects for the effectiveness of the team as well as the satisfaction of the team members. The generalizability of the results may be limited by the team size studied and the tendency of church pastors to be pre‐disposed to helping their management team members.

Originality/value

This is one of the few studies that have examined the effects of shared leadership within management teams on team members. Although shared leadership within teams may increase job demands on members and require team members to take on new roles, it seems to have positive effects on team member perceptions of their jobs. In addition, the extent to which an organization encourages teamwork makes a difference in the relationship of shared leadership with team member jobs.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2006

Dail Fields, Andrew Chan, Syed Akhtar and Terry C. Blum

To compare the tendency of US and Hong Kong Chinese companies to utilize three alternative human resource management (HRM) strategies to offset uncertainties in the supply…

4900

Abstract

Purpose

To compare the tendency of US and Hong Kong Chinese companies to utilize three alternative human resource management (HRM) strategies to offset uncertainties in the supply of labor.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 158 US and 66 Hong Kong Chinese companies concerning the extent to which these companies engaged in training and development, monitoring and assessment of employee performance, and staffing through an internal labor market. Data were also obtained concerning the uncertainty in the supply of qualified employees.

Findings

After controlling differences in industries and company size, the results show that, when faced with labor uncertainty, use of the three (HRM) strategies was increased by Hong Kong Chinese companies, but decreased by US companies.

Practical implications

This study provides new information about how cultural differences may play out in business organizations. The results may provide some insight into how competitors in a global marketplace may react to environmental uncertainties and greater resource dependence.

Originality/value

This study fills a need to understand how organizations operating different cultural contexts differ in their reactions to uncertainties in the business environment.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Bruce Winston and Dail Fields

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of how servant leadership is established and transmitted among members of an organization. The second goal was to…

9635

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to clarify the nature of how servant leadership is established and transmitted among members of an organization. The second goal was to identify and evaluate the unique actions by a leader essential to establishing servant leadership. The authors’ efforts resulted in identification and validation of ten leader behaviors that seem to be essential to servant leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ methodology consisted of two stages. In the first stage, The authors developed an item pool of 116 items drawn from previously developed operationalizations of servant leadership. The authors then engaged a panel of 23 researchers attending a conference focused exclusively on the study of servant leadership to evaluate the. Each participant was asked to independently rate each item using a four-point scale where 1=not useful in describing servant leaders and 4=contributes greatly to describing servant leaders. The authors retained only the most highly rated items. This resulted in retention of 22 leader behaviors for further analysis. In the second stage, the authors developed a questionnaire including these items as well as items measuring transformational leadership behaviors, transactional leader behaviors, servant leadership as measured by the instrument developed by Liden et al. (2008), and a measure of leadership effectiveness developed and used by Ehrhart and Klein (2001). The questionnaire was placed in internet-based survey software and the link provided to students and faculty at a private mid-Atlantic university and to university alumni and colleagues in a variety of organizations. Each respondent was asked to describe a leader he/she had worked for in the past five years and included specification of the job role for both the respondent and the leader.

Findings

The ten-item scale accounts for 75 percent of the variance with a scale reliability α=0.96. Convergent validity was determined through comparison to Liden et al. (2008) measure of servant leadership. Discriminant validity was established through confirmatory analysis of leader effectiveness, transformational leadership’s four dimensions, a measure of transactional leadership, and an alternative multi-dimensional measure of servant leadership.

Originality/value

This paper clarifies and provides a measure of the essential behaviors of servant leaders. This provides a useful measurement tool for leadership development.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Roman Gaiduk, Julija Gaiduk and Dail Fields

The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of job‐ and organization‐related variables in explaining the attachment of Lithuanian employees to their current employer.

1663

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the roles of job‐ and organization‐related variables in explaining the attachment of Lithuanian employees to their current employer.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 190 employees of a plastic manufacturing company located in an urban area in Lithuania completed a questionnaire containing 84 items describing job and organizational attributes. These data were analyzed using multivariate regression.

Findings

In multivariate analysis, job‐ and organization‐related variables each explained approximately equal proportions of the variance in employee attachment. When all of the job and organization‐related variables were used simultaneously to predict employee organizational attachment, only intrinsic job characteristics, opportunities for promotion and training, and communication to/from employees made significant unique contributions to explanation of employee organizational attachment. The job and organizational variables together explained 56 percent of the variance in attachment. While the organization‐related variables did not make a larger contribution to explanation of the variance in organizational attachment than to job‐related variables, organization‐related variables seem to explain how job‐related variables influence attachment.

Practical implications

The paper provides practical insights to organizational managers in Lithuania about the relative importance of job‐ and organization‐related aspects of the work environment in predicting employee attachment to an organization. These insights may help reduce the current out‐migration trends of workers and help Lithuanian companies compete more effectively in the European Union (EU).

Originality/value

Only a few studies have examined the influence of different variables in determining the strength of employee‐employer relationships in transitioning countries of Eastern Europe such as Lithuania. The paper contributes value by empirically examining the applicability of prevailing models of the determinants of employee organizational attachment to the employment environment of Lithuania, a country transitioning from the Soviet era as a member of the EU.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2010

Joyce Elele and Dail Fields

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between participation in decision making (PDM) and the organizational commitment of Nigerian and American…

4709

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between participation in decision making (PDM) and the organizational commitment of Nigerian and American employees working in the public sector environment. A focal concern of this study is the extent to which cultural differences or similarities between Nigeria and the USA impact this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study first examined the measurement equivalence across both American and Nigerian sub‐samples for scales assessing levels of PDM and organizational commitment. While the item weights for measures of actual and desired PDM were invariant, the weights for items measuring organizational commitment differed between Nigerians and Americans. These weights were subsequently used to calculate affective, normative, and continuance commitment for the Nigerian and American sub‐samples and to test three hypotheses derived from the theoretical implications of cultural differences between Nigerians and Americans.

Findings

Taking into account measurement differences, both actual PDM and actual vs desired levels of PDM were related differently to the affective, normative, and continuance commitment of Nigerian employees compared to US employees. For Nigerian employees, both actual levels of participation and actual vs desired participation are related to affective and normative commitment. Neither measure of participation is related to continuance commitment. For Americans, only actual vs desired levels of participation were positively related with affective and normative organizational commitment. Actual levels of participation were negatively related to continuance commitment.

Research limitations/implications

Future work should expand the sampling to compare employees working in Nigerian owned and managed organizations with American employees of organizations in similar industries and of comparable size.

Practical implications

In addition to its theoretical value, this paper also has substantial practical value. Staff commitment is an organizational outcome variable critical to the success of international development agencies and implementing partners. For example, anti‐US sentiment has increased in the recent years up in the Islamic northern sections of Nigeria. Employee organizational commitment is critical in such challenging terrains, as employees who are more committed are more likely to help their organization weather such negative conditions.

Originality/value

There have been very few previous studies on how Western management practices such as employee participation play out within the African context and how cultural differences affect the relationships between management practices and employee outcomes in Nigeria. Findings in this study may provide public sector managers in these contexts with an understanding of the possible impact of organizational cultures which include PDM.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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