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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1992

Mini Hahn and Dae R. Chang

Considers the need for industrial producers (intermediaries) to beflexible and adapt their channel, e.g. commercial and consumption,strategies to the changing demands of…

Abstract

Considers the need for industrial producers (intermediaries) to be flexible and adapt their channel, e.g. commercial and consumption, strategies to the changing demands of producers and end users. Summarizes that the differing outputs demanded by the above – e.g. steady flow of consumption and stock inventory for the former, product variety and waiting time for the latter – should not conflict even though end users dictate the intermediaries priorities. Concludes that intermediaries should position themselves effectively between producers and end users and differentiate in order to retain their niche and avoid being taken over, the above being capable of performing many of their functions themselves.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Stephen B. Castleberry and Anna V.A. Resurreccion

Considers the extent of the marketers need to communicate qualityto the consumer and the best ways of doing so. Examines the results ofan experiment involving consumers…

Abstract

Considers the extent of the marketers need to communicate quality to the consumer and the best ways of doing so. Examines the results of an experiment involving consumers. Suggests that some communication of quality is generally better than no such communication, although whether specific or non‐specific quality appeals should be used depends on the relative price of the brand.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1998

Shahid N. Bhuian

A sample consisting of senior executives of 61 companiues in Saudi Arabia was obtained to examine the nature of their attitudes toward ISO 9000 quality standards. Results…

Abstract

A sample consisting of senior executives of 61 companiues in Saudi Arabia was obtained to examine the nature of their attitudes toward ISO 9000 quality standards. Results indicate that those companies that are highly and positively inclined toward ISO 9000 standards are mostly manufacturing firms with an ownership status of joint ventures or partnerships, have a large number of employees and market products in both domestic and foreign markets. The personnel of these companies have been persuaded and educated about ISO 9000 standards through direct contact and personal involvement. Most of these have traced overall quality improvement, an d improved flow of activities and coordination to the influence of ISO 9000 standards. Service and trading sectors and small companies in Saudi Arabia seem less concerned about ISO 9000 standards.

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International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

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Book part
Publication date: 28 August 2015

Jose Guerra Vio

This chapter focuses on South Korea’s newly found regional leadership, as the emergent middle power of East Asia, in order to advance regional integration and…

Abstract

This chapter focuses on South Korea’s newly found regional leadership, as the emergent middle power of East Asia, in order to advance regional integration and institution-building. Policy leadership is observed and analyzed from an international lens, linked to the literature of middle powers. The chapter first conceptualizes middle powers in connection with the issue of international leadership, since such states often play important roles in promoting cooperation. The chapter looks especially into South Korea’s foreign policy behavior toward East Asian regional processes and how it has manifested innovative and capable leadership. More specifically, the last three presidencies of Kim Dae-jung (1998–2002), Roh Moo-hyun (2003–2008), and Lee Myung-bak (2008–2013) are scrutinized in the hope of underscoring how their particular administrations, political leadership, and strategic approaches to foreign policy toward the region influenced South Korea’s regional leadership attempts and middle power status.

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Asian Leadership in Policy and Governance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-883-0

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2019

Tae Wan Kim

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine regional voting patterns in South Korea using the results from six presidential elections since the 1990s.

Design/methodology/approach

A χ2 test was used to determine the municipalities where a regional voting pattern emerged, and λ correlation coefficients were calculated to examine changes in the regional voting patterns.

Findings

The analyses lead to three key findings. First, voting patterns differ in Yeongnam and Honam: regional voting in Yeongnam is getting weaker, it remains strong in Honam. Second, the tendency to vote along regional lines decreased significantly in the election in which the Honam party fielded a candidate with a Yeongnam appeared identity. Third, regional voting patterns declined but then stabilized at a constant level, regardless of the candidates’ local identity, which was confirmed in “Bu-Ul-Gyeong.”

Originality/value

This paper can empirically verify the manifestation of regional voting pattern and confirm the trend. It is possible to derive a condition for suppressing the regional voting pattern.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Hosun Lee, Dae Ryun Chang and Sabine Einwiller

This study aims to examine how consumers use a moral reasoning process to defend preferred celebrity and celebrity brand images and specifically, the processes for…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine how consumers use a moral reasoning process to defend preferred celebrity and celebrity brand images and specifically, the processes for supporting the celebrity’s comeback after a transgression.

Design/methodology/approach

Study 1 measures consumers’ preference for celebrities and their support for them after a transgression and tests whether the celebrity’s image moderates consumers’ preference for celebrities and their support of them to come back. Study 2 examines the effect of the specific moral reasoning processes and tests whether it leads to different levels of support after a transgression, depending on the primed celebrity image.

Findings

Results show celebrity preference is positively related to consumer support of a celebrity’s return after a wrongdoing. This relationship is moderated by the celebrity’s image (Study 1). The authors find that a celebrity primed with a role model image receives more support for a comeback in the moral rationalization condition, whereas a celebrity primed with a bad boy image receives more support in the moral decoupling condition (Study 2).

Research limitations/implications

First, in the empirical studies, using a pre-test, the authors chose transgressions that were unrelated to the celebrities’ profession and that had an intermediate level of severity. Moreover, these transgressions were manipulated using information about fictitious celebrities to control for pre-existing respondents’ differences on information or biases about them and confounding characteristics between identified celebrities. Despite the control benefits, the disadvantage of this approach could be that respondents’ involvement with the celebrities may be generally lower as compared to studies that use known celebrities (Fong and Wyer, 2012). The involvement or attachment with known celebrities by respondents may be a factor that determines the power of a specific human brand. By using fictitious celebrities, the effects related to human brands may have been bounded or based more on celebrity archetypes. Another limitation is that both Studies 1 and 2 collected data using an online panel. To make the results more generalizable, the authors can contemplate on-site experimental designs or a qualitative approach in future research. The latter may also facilitate the use of known human brands to understand how they interact with other mediating factors without having to worry about control of confounds between respondents. Finally, there is a potential inflation of moral sensitivity stemming from measuring moral reasoning in Study 1 after informing participants about a celebrity transgression. While the authors followed other studies in this procedure, for the effects related to measuring across different image groups this would be less critical, as all participants would be affected in a similar way. However, there remains the possibility that the inflation bias could be higher for one celebrity type and could be a limitation or even a topic considered for future research that delves into specific relationships between celebrity image type and morality judgment bias.

Practical implications

The results of this study have managerial implications for the various stakeholders involved. First, for celebrities, especially role models, living up to expectations congruent to the performances and brand images that they have developed is important. This will necessitate them to manage their consumers’ expectations, and perhaps, suggest that they do not create unrealistically high ones. Although consumer expectations have not often taken center stage as a theoretical issue in recent consumer research, they may still be important for consumers’ evaluations and choices (Howard and Sheth, 1969). In addition, this study offers implications for public relations agencies or management companies that promote and manage celebrities. Although consumers in many countries have a higher preference for celebrities with a role model image, the authors see that being such a human brand can be potentially counterproductive amid scandals. If the level of supporters’ commitment for a celebrity is high and the attachment relationship is strong, then constructing a diverse and flexible image spectrum may be more advantageous in the long term than adhering to just the role model image. In the event that a misbehavior has occurred, celebrities, to the extent that they can identify their brand image, need to assess more precisely the type of moral judgment and support they are likely or unlikely to receive after the transgressions. Based on that analysis, the misbehaving celebrities may have to adjust the rehabilitation period or act of redemption. Finally, the conventional wisdom used by advertising agencies or corporations that the bad boy image of celebrities is more vulnerable to a negative event, needs to be reconsidered (Aaker et al., 2004). This rethinking is aligned with other past research that have also argued that transgressions do not necessarily have an adverse impact on associated brands (Lee and Kwak, 2016). Thus, when advertising agencies use celebrities, they must consider the congruence between the human brand image and the company and review the source and depth of the reasons why supporters like celebrities using a broader perspective.

Social implications

Although consumers in many countries have a higher preference for celebrities with a role model image, the authors see that being such a human brand can be potentially counterproductive amid scandals. For them constructing a diverse and flexible image spectrum may be more advantageous in the long term than adhering to just the unrealistic role model image. Celebrities need to assess more precisely the type of moral judgment and support they are likely or unlikely to receive after the transgressions. Based on that analysis, the misbehaving celebrities may have to adjust the rehabilitation period or act of societal redemption.

Originality/value

The study makes three key contributions by combining celebrity image and moral psychology to assess how consumers pass moral judgment on celebrities who transgress according to different image types, examining the mediation effect of moral reasoning in the relationship between consumer preferences for a celebrity and their support for them after transgressions and looking at consumer support for a comeback of the transgressing celebrity as the dependent variable and not just the effects of the immediate fallout. The value of this study, therefore, lies in understanding the specific dynamics between consumer preference, celebrity image, moral reasoning processes and consumer support to accept a celebrity’s return after a transgression.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 15 April 2020

Xiaoliang Qian, Jing Li, Jianwei Zhang, Wenhao Zhang, Weichao Yue, Qing-E Wu, Huanlong Zhang, Yuanyuan Wu and Wei Wang

An effective machine vision-based method for micro-crack detection of solar cell can economically improve the qualified rate of solar cells. However, how to extract…

Abstract

Purpose

An effective machine vision-based method for micro-crack detection of solar cell can economically improve the qualified rate of solar cells. However, how to extract features which have strong generalization and data representation ability at the same time is still an open problem for machine vision-based methods.

Design/methodology/approach

A micro-crack detection method based on adaptive deep features and visual saliency is proposed in this paper. The proposed method can adaptively extract deep features from the input image without any supervised training. Furthermore, considering the fact that micro-cracks can obviously attract visual attention when people look at the solar cell’s surface, the visual saliency is also introduced for the micro-crack detection.

Findings

Comprehensive evaluations are implemented on two existing data sets, where subjective experimental results show that most of the micro-cracks can be detected, and the objective experimental results show that the method proposed in this study has better performance in detecting precision.

Originality/value

First, an adaptive deep features extraction scheme without any supervised training is proposed for micro-crack detection. Second, the visual saliency is introduced for micro-crack detection.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 40 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Book part
Publication date: 16 December 2009

Il Joon Chung

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is…

Abstract

After the Korean War, South Korean politics was dominated by national security concerns. Reversing Carl von Clausewitz's well-known dictum, in South Korea, “politics is the continuation of war by other means.” Until the late 1980s, politics in South Korea was far from democratic. South Korea had five direct presidential elections (1987, 1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) and six national assembly elections (1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008) after the democratic transition of 1987. In 1992, a civilian candidate, Young Sam Kim, was elected president. Young Sam Kim (1993–1998) prosecuted and punished former generals turned presidents Doo Hwan Chun (1980–1988) and Tae Woo Roh (1988–1993) for corruption, mutiny and treason in 1995. Dae Jung Kim (1998–2003) was elected president in 1997. For the first time in South Korean political history, regime change occurred between a ruling party and an opposition party.

In this chapter, the change and continuity of civil–military relations through the fluctuating dynamics of the democratic transition and consolidation in South Korea is examined. A positive consolidation of democratic reform is one that, while securing indisputable civilian supremacy, grants the military enough institutional autonomy for the efficient pursuit of its mission. Civilian supremacy should be institutionalized not only by preventing military intervention in civilian politics but also by ensuring civilian control over the formation and implementation of national defense policy.

In sum, despite three terms of civilian presidency, civilian supremacy has not yet fully institutionalized. Although significant changes in civil-military relations did occur after the democratic transition, they were not initiated by elected leaders with the intention of establishing a firm institutional footing for civilian supremacy. South Korea's political leaders have not crafted durable regulations and institutions that will sustain civilian control over the military.

More than six decades, Korea is still divided. The most highly militarized zone in the world lies along the demilitarized zone. How to draw the line prudently between seeking national security and promoting democracy shall be the most delicate task facing all the civilian regimes to come in South Korea. That mission will remain challenging not only for civilian politicians but also for military leaders.

Details

Advances in Military Sociology: Essays in Honor of Charles C. Moskos
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-893-9

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2014

Shahadat Khan and Shams Rahman

Using a sample of executing agency executives, donor agency executives and supplying organisation executives, this study aims to identify the critical criteria for the…

Abstract

Purpose

Using a sample of executing agency executives, donor agency executives and supplying organisation executives, this study aims to identify the critical criteria for the assessment of suppliers in foreign-aid funded procurement in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

An instrument with 32-seven-point (1 – rarely, 7 – mostly) Likert-scaled items was employed to gather data on the level of importance assigned by both buyers and suppliers on each supplier assessment criterion. The importance-performance matrix analysis was conducted to assess the gap in expectations between buyers and suppliers and to organise the assessment criteria into four categories such as “low priority”, “possible killer”, “concentrate here”, and “keep up the good work”.

Findings

The results indicate that, to provide better service, suppliers must assign tasks to the knowledgeable sales personnel, provide better warranties with well-known branded products, and ensure a reliable level of quality. The supplier organisations should implement a high calibre management system that allows prompt responses to enquiries and the provision of services without buyers having to follow up.

Practical implications

With careful considerations, the methodology and results of the study could be adapted to design supplier assessment procedure in other developing countries.

Originality/value

This research employs a simple and practical method which purchasing executives will find easy to apply and interpret the findings.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Georgios I. Zekos

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State…

Abstract

Globalisation is generally defined as the “denationalisation of clusters of political, economic, and social activities” that destabilize the ability of the sovereign State to control activities on its territory, due to the rising need to find solutions for universal problems, like the pollution of the environment, on an international level. Globalisation is a complex, forceful legal and social process that take place within an integrated whole with out regard to geographical boundaries. Globalisation thus differs from international activities, which arise between and among States, and it differs from multinational activities that occur in more than one nation‐State. This does not mean that countries are not involved in the sociolegal dynamics that those transboundary process trigger. In a sense, the movements triggered by global processes promote greater economic interdependence among countries. Globalisation can be traced back to the depression preceding World War II and globalisation at that time included spreading of the capitalist economic system as a means of getting access to extended markets. The first step was to create sufficient export surplus to maintain full employment in the capitalist world and secondly establishing a globalized economy where the planet would be united in peace and wealth. The idea of interdependence among quite separate and distinct countries is a very important part of talks on globalisation and a significant side of today’s global political economy.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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1 – 10 of 73