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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Sirry Alang

The purpose of this paper is to identify symptoms that constitute a shared cultural model of depression among African Americans and to compare these accounts with criteria…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify symptoms that constitute a shared cultural model of depression among African Americans and to compare these accounts with criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD) in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-V).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in a disproportionately Black urban neighborhood in the USA and analyzed using cultural consensus analysis (CCA). In total, 34 African Americans participated in a free-listing exercise to elicit common indicators of depression in the same community. Another 40 key informants completed a survey to rate how common each indicator was in the same community. Factor analysis was performed, factor loadings were used to weight the responses of each informant in the survey and then aggregated to determine the most significant indicators or components of the shared model depression.

Findings

Indicators of depression included classic symptoms in the DSM-V such as sadness and lack of motivation. However, other indicators that are inconsistent with symptoms of MDD in the DSM-V such as paranoia and rage were common and constituted a shared model of depression in the sample.

Research limitations/implications

Some symptoms common among African Americans that are not in the DSM-V or on research instruments developed based on the DSM could be overlooked in epidemiological surveys and in clinical assessments of depression.

Practical implications

The provision of mental health care might benefit from a better understanding of how contextual factors shape expressions of distress among African Americans.

Originality/value

This study identify culturally salient symptoms of depression among African Americans independent of clinically defined criteria.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Jennifer S. Singh

Purpose – This chapter discusses the proposed changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), which eliminates Asperger's disorder (AD) and…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter discusses the proposed changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), which eliminates Asperger's disorder (AD) and replaces it as “autism spectrum disorder.” Implications of these changes on the identity of adults with AD and the influence of everyday life experiences will be addressed.

Methodology/approach – This research is based on 19 interviews with adults diagnosed or self-diagnosed with AD. Central themes surrounding issues of identity and everyday life experiences were determined using grounded theory approaches.

Findings – This study demonstrates how the diagnosis and self-diagnosis of AD is fused with individual identity. It also shows how Asperger identity is positively embraced. The proposed changes to eliminate AD in DSM-V threaten these assertions of Asperger identity, which could potentially enhance stigma experienced by people with AD. Regardless of its removal, Asperger identity must be considered within the broader context of people's everyday lives and how experiences in social interaction and communication can be strong agents of identity construction.

Social implications – The proposed changes to eliminate AD in DSM-V is a social issue that will impact individuals with Asperger's and their families, as well as health-care professionals, health insurers, researchers, state agencies, and educational providers.

Originality/value of paper – This chapter offers a unique insight into identity construction based on the diagnosis and self-diagnosis of AD.

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2008

Hugh Middleton

Consideration is given to the extent to which the DSM and ICD approach to psychiatric case definition and treatment supports clinical activity. Their validity as a way of…

Abstract

Consideration is given to the extent to which the DSM and ICD approach to psychiatric case definition and treatment supports clinical activity. Their validity as a way of defining ‘mental illness’ is found wanting and they do not, in themselves, usefully guide treatment. These conclusions are set in a critical realist approach to ‘mental illness’, which draws attention to the legitimacy of several differing perspectives, each reflecting their own sets of interests and allegiances. DSM‐V and ICD‐11 are due to be published in 2012 and 2014 respectively, and their architects are called upon to be clear about which of these constituencies they are representing.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Tolulope Adeniji and Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi

This study aims at translating and adapting a common and widely used proxy rated cognitive screening tool – Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at translating and adapting a common and widely used proxy rated cognitive screening tool – Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) into Hausa language and also to evaluate the instrument’s psychometric properties.

Design/methodology/approach

IQCODE was translated and adapted using a qualitative process involving experts and the adapted version was then evaluated against a gold standard (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder V criteria for neurocognitive disorders) with older adults subjects (N = 100), while its reliability (internal consistency) was also evaluated. Descriptive statistics of mean and frequencies, and inferential statistic of receiver operating curve analysis and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient were used for data analysis at an alpha level set at 0.05.

Findings

The Hausa IQCODE has a sensitivity value of 73.3%, specificity value of 71.8% and optimal cut-off values of between 3.2 and 3.3. For his adapted instrument the area under the Curve (AUC) curve is 0.79 (95% CI: 0.663–0.919; std. err: 0.066; P = 0.000), and Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.819 was obtained indicating that the adapted instrument has good internal consistency.

Research limitations/implications

The adapted IQCODE is a valid and reliable proxy based cognitive screening tool for the older adult Hausa speakers in Maiduguri. However, clinician and researcher might want to consider different optimal cut-off points when using this tool to screen or to monitor cognitive changes among older adults.

Originality/value

This research paper translated and adapted Hausa IQCODE into Hausa language. And it gives information on the validity and reliability of the adapted tool alongside with new optimal cut-off for cognitive screening by proxy among older adult patients in Nigeria.

Details

The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-6228

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2014

Emily Boshkoff Johnson

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are…

Abstract

This chapter is a comprehensive discussion of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) across the globe (e.g., United States, China, Brazil, Japan and Turkey). Topics that are discussed include the following: diagnostic criteria and approaches; international perspectives of ASD; western and eastern assessment practices; cultural considerations of assessment of ASD; educational and medical interventions; behavioral and emotional interventions; complementary and alternative medical interventions; variations in educational services among countries; early intervention practices; adult services; national and international resources; and current needs and future directions.

Details

Special Education International Perspectives: Biopsychosocial, Cultural, and Disability Aspects
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-045-2

Article
Publication date: 7 June 2019

Paula Robinson, Emma Griffith and Chris Gillmore

Studies show that experiences of repeated or complex trauma are very common in patients with severe mental health problems. Unfortunately, many professionals do not…

Abstract

Purpose

Studies show that experiences of repeated or complex trauma are very common in patients with severe mental health problems. Unfortunately, many professionals do not routinely ask about abuse, due to concerns about how to ask and respond. There is also a need for frontline staff to be trained in trauma-informed care. The purpose of this paper is to identify the needs of inpatient staff and developed a tailor-made training package.

Design/methodology/approach

A training programme was developed from focus-group discussion and delivered to the team. Questionnaires were administered pre-, post-training and at three-month follow-up, to assess changes in knowledge, confidence and worries in the assessment and treatment of complex trauma.

Findings

There was an increase in self-reported staff confidence (p=0.001) and knowledge (p=0.028) about working with complex trauma and their worries decreased (p=0.026) between pre- and post-training.

Practical implications

In order to sustain the benefits of training for longer, recommendations were made to the service for on-going training, supervision and evaluation.

Originality/value

Given the recent interest in complex trauma within the literature (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders – Fifth Version (DSM-V); International Statistical Classification of Diseases – 11th Version (ICD-11)), the piloting and development of complex trauma training packages is timely. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first published account of complex trauma training for inpatient staff. This paper offers clinical and research implications to services who may want to develop as trauma-informed services within the NHS.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Renee R. Anspach

The chapters PJ McGann and David J. Hutson have assembled for this volume are not only timely, coinciding with the appearance of DSM-V, but mark a defining moment in which…

Abstract

The chapters PJ McGann and David J. Hutson have assembled for this volume are not only timely, coinciding with the appearance of DSM-V, but mark a defining moment in which a new subfield of medical sociology has emerged. Diagnosis, which refers both to diagnostic categories and the process of creating and applying them, is a central feature (Blaxter, 1978) – if not the central feature of medical work. Annemarie Jutel, who has done much to build the sociology of diagnosis, has described the wide array of “work” diagnosis performs in the medical world:Diagnosis is integral to medicine and the way it creates social order. It organizes illness: identifying treatment options, predicting outcomes, and providing an explanatory framework. Diagnosis also serves an administrative purpose as it enables access to services and status, from insurance reimbursement to restricted-access medication, sick leave and support group membership and so on… (Jutel, 2009, p. 278)

Details

Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 24 February 2015

Ramadan Halimi, Emond Dragoti, Hidajete Halimi, Nazife Sylejmani-Hulaj and Sevdie Jashari-Ramadani

We aimed to assess, in socio-cultural context, the level of hatred and revenge in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sampling frame consisted of…

Abstract

We aimed to assess, in socio-cultural context, the level of hatred and revenge in war veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The sampling frame consisted of 215 Kosova War veterans, randomly selected. The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess the prevalence of PTSD and Manchester Short Assessment of Life was used to assess social satisfactions. The participants were asked to declare the strength of feelings of hatred and revenge in the four preceding weeks by using four items scale: not at all, a little bit/sometimes, a lot and extremely. Willingness for action of veterans was assessed using three item scale: yes, no or maybe. A probability level of 0.05 was adopted to be considered as statistically significant for differences among groups. DSM-IV-TR criteria for PTSD (very similar to DSM-V) were met by 52.6% of veterans; the data have confirmed existence of thoughts and fantasies of revenge against opposing forces by 42.8% veterans; at the same level 42.8% manifested feelings of hatred. Fantasies of taking revenge a lot was recorded by 19.5% and extremely by 1.4% of veterans, while hateful thoughts at level a lot were likely expressed by 22.3% and extreme by 2.8% of veterans. It is important to note that 84.7% were confident to act based on their beliefs. Social-economic and cultural factors have played major role in the understanding of psychological problems of traumatized individuals with a direct impact on their ability to function socially. This study has confirmed the urgent need for the establishment of psychological rehabilitation programs as well as programs for the social and economic rehabilitation of War Veterans.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Gonzalo Lorenzo, Alba Gilabert Cerdá, Alejandro Lorenzo-Lledó and Asunción Lledó

More and more diversity is present in our classrooms. As teachers, we must be able to respond to the different levels of learning presented by our students. Therefore, it…

Abstract

Purpose

More and more diversity is present in our classrooms. As teachers, we must be able to respond to the different levels of learning presented by our students. Therefore, it is necessary to use the new emerging technologies as elements of response. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic and thematic review of the application of augmented reality (AR) in the learning of autistic students in the educational setting during the period 1996–2020 using the Web of Science and Scopus databases.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, one of the bibliometric techniques called systematic and thematic review has been used. This technique is supported by the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews methodology, and it uses a quantitative and qualitative approach. The thematic analysis will be carried out on 28 documents based on a series of indicators, including sample size, hardware devices, way of storing the information and findings obtained in the research.

Findings

The results of the work indicate that the average size of the sample is three participants, and that the most worked area has been social skills using tablets. In addition, bookmarks are often used as an element of information storage in AR.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this work focuses on the establishment of a series of thematic variables that will serve for the later development of an action protocol for the creation of AR activities for autistic students.

Details

Journal of Enabling Technologies, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-6263

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 9 October 2012

Mark Elam

Purpose – With reference to the long-term struggle to confirm cigarette smoking as a manifestation of nicotine addiction, this chapter explores the extent to which new…

Abstract

Purpose – With reference to the long-term struggle to confirm cigarette smoking as a manifestation of nicotine addiction, this chapter explores the extent to which new understandings of addictions as ‘appetitive disorders’ rather than ‘dependence disorders’ derive from treatment technology development as well as advances in basic scientific research.

Approach – Through historical analysis it is discussed how cigarette smoking only became widely accepted as a real drug problem in the 1980s after it had been shown to be amenable to treatment as such through the use of novel nicotine replacement therapies.

Findings – These replacement therapies succeeded in showing that the same drug that drew users into addiction could be redeployed to help draw up them out of it. Nicorette® could serve as at least the partial antidote to nico-wrong (cigarettes). However, as relapse to smoking has remained the most likely outcome of any smoking cessation attempt, so medicinal nicotine has also served to demonstrate that nicotine addiction is ultimately a problem of an uncontrollable appetite for cigarettes in excess of drug dependence.

Implications – Pharmaceutical incursion on cigarette smoking commencing in the late 1970s pointed to the need for a new mental disease model of drug-related problems while also providing valuable new tools and insights for ensuing brain research.

Details

Critical Perspectives on Addiction
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-930-1

Keywords

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