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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2009

R.X. Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to study interactions between water‐based polymer isocyanate (WPI) adhesive and bamboo by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study interactions between water‐based polymer isocyanate (WPI) adhesive and bamboo by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

Design/methodology/approach

The method of adapting new reference substance replacing aluminium was used due to the special characteristic of WPI adhesive when studying reactions between WPI adhesive and bamboo.

Findings

The methods of changing reference substance could counteract effect of water in the sample on DSC measurement. The results of DSC analysis showed that hardener of WPI adhesive can react with water and also with ‐OH in bamboo and matrix of WPI adhesives. That is to say that a competition exists between urethane formation (covalent bonding of isocyanate with hydroxyl groups in bamboo and matrix in WPI adhesive) and urea formation (isocyanate consumption due to the reaction with water) during the operation of glued bamboo products.

Research limitations/implications

The method of changing reference substance can be used for other DSC samples in which water cannot be conveniently removed, but this method requires that weight of reference substance to be exactly the same as the sample used in DSC measurement. So accuracy of weighing was very important in this DSC measurement.

Practical implications

The method developed in this paper provides a simple and practical solution to studying interactions between WPI adhesive and bamboo by means of DSC.

Originality/value

Changing reference substance was brought forward as a new method of counteracting effect of water in the sample on DSC measurement. The understanding gained through this study could help improve bonding properties of glued bamboo products.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Prakash Agrawal, Rakesh Narain and Inayat Ullah

Digital supply chain (DSC) is an agile, customer-driven and productive way to develop different forms of returns for companies and to leverage efficient approaches with…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital supply chain (DSC) is an agile, customer-driven and productive way to develop different forms of returns for companies and to leverage efficient approaches with emerging techniques and data analytics. Though the advantages of digital supply chain management (DSCM) are many, its implementation is quite slow for several reasons. The purpose of this paper is to identify the major barriers which hinder the adoption of DSC and to analyse the interrelationship among them. The barriers of DSC are explored on the basis of existing literature and experts’ opinion.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the interpretive structural modelling (ISM) approach to develop a hierarchical structural model which shows the mutual dependence among the barriers of DSC. Cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification analysis was performed to represent these barriers graphically on the basis of their driving power and dependence.

Findings

The research demonstrates that the barriers “no sense of urgency”, “lack of industry specific guidelines”, “lack of digital skills and talent” and “high implementation and running cost” are the most significant barriers to digital transformation of supply chain. This paper also suggests some managerial implications to overcome the barriers which hinder the implementation of digital transformation of supply chain.

Practical implications

This paper assists managers and policymakers to understand the order in which these barriers must be tackled and adopts a roadmap for successful implementation of DSCM and reap its benefits.

Originality/value

This is one of the initial research studies which has analysed the barriers of DSC using ISM approach.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1986

In previous years, the annual report of the British Library Lending Division appeared in the July issue of Interlending and Document Supply. As this journal has moved away…

Abstract

In previous years, the annual report of the British Library Lending Division appeared in the July issue of Interlending and Document Supply. As this journal has moved away from being a house journal for the British Library Document Supply Centre (DSC) towards being a more general journal of interlending and document supply matters, it is no longer considered appropriate to include a full annual report on the activities of DSC in this issue. Instead, a special July issue of DSC's Newsletter will be devoted to the full annual report for 1985–86. This is available free on demand from the Centre. Because of the global role that DSC plays in interlending and document supply, it was still considered useful to include in this issue a report of DSC's activities in interlending and document supply. This report describes developments in these activities from April 1985 to March 1986.

Details

Interlending & Document Supply, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-1615

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2012

Horatiu Cirtita and Daniel A. Glaser‐Segura

Downstream supply chain (DSC) performance metrics provide a standard framework to assess internal performance. DSC performance metrics can also help balance performance…

Abstract

Purpose

Downstream supply chain (DSC) performance metrics provide a standard framework to assess internal performance. DSC performance metrics can also help balance performance tradeoffs among firms. The purpose of this paper is to develop a survey instrument to determine whether observed performance metrics correspond to the literature and to determine if performance metric systems are used to improve inter‐firm performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey instrument used in this study was based on SCOR performance attributes consisting of: delivery reliability, responsiveness, flexibility, costs, and asset management efficiency. The survey was completed by 73 members of the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) consisting of high‐level managers representing US companies.

Findings

One factor explained the underlying one‐dimensional structure of the surveyed Supply‐chain operations reference (SCOR) model as an internal metrics system but the authors did not find convincing support for the notion that external performance metrics are used to coordinate external, DSC inter‐firm activities.

Research limitations/implications

A larger sample size would have allowed more insight into the inter‐relationships of the performance attribute variables. Moreover, the sampling plan limited generalization beyond US firms.

Practical implications

Firms used a standardized performance metric system and did not “pick” among metrics. In addition, firms used metrics independently of the decision to coordinate DSC activities. Perhaps they first learn to coordinate the internal performance and later extend to DSC members.

Originality/value

The paper describes one of the few empirical studies of the SCOR model in US industry.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Seyed Reza Aali, Mohammad Reza Besmi and Mohammad Hosein Kazemi

The purpose of this paper is to study variation regularization with a positive sequence extraction-normalized least mean square (VRP-NLMS) algorithm for frequency…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study variation regularization with a positive sequence extraction-normalized least mean square (VRP-NLMS) algorithm for frequency estimation in a three-phase electrical distribution system. A simulation test is provided to validate the performance and convergence rate of the proposed estimation algorithm.

Design/methodology/approach

Least mean square (LMS) algorithms for frequency estimation encounter problems when voltage contains unbalance, sags and harmonic distortion. The convergence rate of the LMS algorithm is sensitive to the adjustment of the step-size parameter used in the update equation. This paper proposes VRP-NLMS algorithm for frequency estimation in a power system. Regularization parameter is variable in the NLMS algorithm to adjust step-size parameter. Delayed signal cancellation (DSC) operator suppresses harmonics and negative sequence component of the voltage vector in a two-phase Î ± β plane. The DSC part is placed in front of the NLMS algorithm as a pre-filter and a positive sequence of the grid voltage is extracted.

Findings

By adapting of the step-size parameter, speed and accuracy of the LMS algorithm are improved. The DSC operator is augmented to the NLMS algorithm for more improvement of the performance of this adaptive filter. Simulation results validate that the proposed VRP-NLMS algorithm has a less misalignment of performance with more convergence rate.

Originality/value

This paper is a theoretical support to simulated system performance.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 38 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

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Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Katrin Wudy, Maximilian Drexler, Lydia Lanzl and Dietmar Drummer

The thermal history during laser exposure determines part properties in selective laser sintering (SLS). The purpose of this study is to introduce a new measurement…

Abstract

Purpose

The thermal history during laser exposure determines part properties in selective laser sintering (SLS). The purpose of this study is to introduce a new measurement technique based on a CO2 laser unit combined with a high-speed DCS. A first comparison of the thermal history during laser exposure measured with Laser-high-speed-(HS)-differential scanning calorimetry-(DSC) and in SLS process is shown.

Design/methodology/approach

This Laser-HS-DSC allows an imitation of the SLS-process in a very small scale, as the sample is directly heated by a CO2 laser. For this study, the laser power and the impact time is varied for determining temperature and achieved heating rates. Consequently, the temperature levels measured by the Laser-HS-DSC are compared with measurements in SLS-process.

Findings

The influence of laser power and impact time on resulting maximum temperatures und heating rates during laser exposure are investigated. With increasing laser power and impact time the maximum temperature rises up to approximately 450°C without material degradation. The heating rate increases up to an impact time of 3 ms and stays almost equal for higher durations.

Research limitations/implications

The Laser-HS-DSC experiments are based on few particles limiting a complete comparison with SLS process. In SLS, one volume element is exposed several times. In this study the PA12 material was exposed only once.

Originality/value

For the first time, laser sintering experiments can be transferred to a laboratory scale to analyze the influence of laser exposure on resulting temperature field during laser exposure without superimposing effects.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2009

Hadi Zarringhalam, Candice Majewski and Neil Hopkinson

Selective laser‐sintered (SLS) parts are known to include un‐melted regions, where insufficient energy has been input into the powder to fully melt all particles. Previous…

Abstract

Purpose

Selective laser‐sintered (SLS) parts are known to include un‐melted regions, where insufficient energy has been input into the powder to fully melt all particles. Previous research has shown the presence of two distinct peaks on a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and the purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that these peaks relate to the melted and un‐melted regions of the part.

Design/methodology/approach

SLS specimens were produced under different build parameters, in order to vary the amount of energy input, and DSC traces produced for each. DSC results were also compared with optical microscopy images to confirm the findings.

Findings

DSC analysis of SLS Nylon‐12 parts has shown the presence of two distinct melt peaks. It has been shown that these correspond to the melted and un‐melted regions of the part, and that the amount of energy input in the SLS process affects the degree of melting. It has also been identified, via correlation between DSC charts and optical microscopy images, that the un‐melted, or particle core, peak provides the most adequate indication of the proportion of melting. In order to avoid confusion with the commonly used term “degree of sintering”, which provides only a qualitative description, the new term “degree of particle melt (DPM)” has been defined in order to describe the quantitative variations in the completeness of sintering.

Research limitations/implications

Further work will correlate the DPM, as measured by the core peak height, with the mechanical properties of the parts produced.

Practical implications

Results have shown that it is possible to identify the level of melting in SLS parts via the use of a DSC chart. Owing to the small size of specimen required for DSC, and the relatively automated DSC procedure, this has the potential for use as quality control in SLS.

Originality/value

This is believed to be the first time that DSC has been used to indicate the DPM within SLS parts.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Bahadir Alyavuz

The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of discrete singular convolution (DSC) method to steady seepage flow while presenting one of the possible uses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of discrete singular convolution (DSC) method to steady seepage flow while presenting one of the possible uses of DSC method in geotechnical engineering. It also aims to present the implementation of DSC to the problems with mixed boundary conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Second order spatial derivatives of potential and stream functions in Laplace's equation are discretized using the DSC method in which the regularized Shannon's delta kernel is used as an approximation to delta distribution. After implementation of boundary conditions, the system of equations is solved for the unknown terms.

Findings

The results are compared with those obtained from the finite element method and the finite difference method.

Originality/value

The method is applied to the flow problem through porous medium for the first time.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Claudia Lizette Garay-Rondero, Jose Luis Martinez-Flores, Neale R. Smith, Santiago Omar Caballero Morales and Alejandra Aldrette-Malacara

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model that defines the essential components shaping the new Digital Supply Chains (DSCs) through the implementation…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual model that defines the essential components shaping the new Digital Supply Chains (DSCs) through the implementation and acceleration of Industry 4.0.

Design/methodology/approach

The scope of the present work exposes a conceptual approach and review of the key literature from 1989 to 2019, concerning the evolution and transformation of the actors and constructs in logistics and Supply Chain Management (SCM) by means of examining different conceptual models and a state-of-the-art review of Industry 4.0’s concepts and elements, with a focus on digitization in supply chain (SC) processes. A detailed study of the constructs and components of SCM, as defined by their authors, resulted in the development of a referential and systematic model that fuses the inherent concepts and roles of SCM, with the new technological trends directed toward digitization, automation, and the increasing use of information and communication technologies across logistics global value chains.

Findings

Having achieved an exploration of the different conceptual frameworks, there is no compelling evidence of the existence of a conceptual SCM that incorporates the basic theoretical constructs and the new roles and elements of Industry 4.0. Therefore, the main components of Industry 4.0 and their impact on DSC Management are described, driving the proposal for a new conceptual model which addresses and accelerates a vision of the future of the interconnectivity between different DSCs, grouped in clusters in order to add value, through new forms of cooperation and digital integration.

Originality/value

This research explores the gap in the current SCM models leading into Industry 4.0. The proposed model provides a novel and comprehensive overview of the new concepts and components driving the nascent and current DSCs. This conceptual framework will further aid researchers in the exploration of knowledge regarding the variables and components presented, as well as the verification of the newly revealed roles and constructs to understand the new forms of cooperation and implementation of Industry 4.0 in digitalized SCs.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 December 2019

Maciel M. Queiroz, Susana Carla Farias Pereira, Renato Telles and Marcio C. Machado

The Industry 4.0 phenomenon is bringing unprecedented disruptions for all traditional business models and hastening the need for a redesign and digitisation of activities…

Abstract

Purpose

The Industry 4.0 phenomenon is bringing unprecedented disruptions for all traditional business models and hastening the need for a redesign and digitisation of activities. In this context, the literature concerning the digital supply chain (DSC) and its capabilities are in the early stages. To bridge this gap, the purpose of this paper is to propose a framework for digital supply chain capabilities (DSCCs).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a narrative literature approach, based on the main Industry 4.0 elements, supply chain and the emerging literature concerning DSC disruptions, to build an integrative framework to shed light on DSCCs.

Findings

The study identifies seven basic capabilities that shape the DSCC framework and six main enabler technologies, derived from 13 propositions.

Research limitations/implications

The proposed framework can bring valuable insights for future research development, although it has not been tested yet.

Practical implications

Managers, practitioners and all involved in the digitalisation phenomenon can utilise the framework as a starting point for other business digitalisation projects.

Originality/value

This study contributes to advancing the DSC literature, providing a well-articulated discussion and a framework regarding the capabilities, as well as 13 propositions that can generate valuable insights for other studies.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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