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The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle…
The work of scholars who study police deviance has yet to result in the development of a substantive theory with which to frame their collective efforts. Recently, Tittle advanced a general theory of deviance that may help to fill this gap. The central premise of Tittle’s control balance theory is that the amount of control to which one is subject relative to the amount of control one can exercise (the control ratio) affects both the probability of deviance as well as the specific form of deviance. Examines the utility of control balance as a new theoretical orientation in police deviance research. Presents a framework for conceptualizing control balance within the special context of police deviance and, using data collected specifically for the purpose of operationalizing the control ratio, provides an empirical test. The data are drawn from a survey administered to 499 Philadelphia police officers. Scenario methodology was used to investigate the effects of officer control ratios on the probability of reporting a fellow officer who covers up an incident in which another officer was discovered driving while intoxicated (off duty), and second physically abuses a suspect in custody. Consistent with predictions derived from Tittle’s theory, results indicated that officers with control deficits are more likely to report fellow officers who engage in the behaviors portrayed in the scenarios. Future research directions are discussed.
A model for impact ionisation allowing for the spatial transient is described. Ionisation rates and phonon scattering rates are adjusted to fit experimental data. To reduce some of the uncertainty, the calculated ionisation rates due to Kane are used.
The purpose of this paper is to examine accounting students' experience of compulsory group work. The paper hypothesises that a student‐centered style of…
The purpose of this paper is to examine accounting students' experience of compulsory group work. The paper hypothesises that a student‐centered style of teaching‐involving activities, like case studies and group‐based learning encourages students to take a deeper approach to learning. The paper also sought students' suggestions to improve learning in a group environment and to identify areas for future research.
There is a paucity of research that examines the relationships between group work and the adoption of a deep learning approach. This research uses empirical data in the form of a questionnaire with open and closed response options. This paper uses a qualitative method, phenomenography, to analyse the responses of 362 students.
The findings reveal variations in conceptions of group work among students with evidence of both surface and deep approaches to learning.
The following limitations are recognised: the questionnaire may not have given students an opportunity to express their perceptions fully; the absence of demographic data did not permit consideration of cultural factors on the outcome and the analysis was able to focus only on perceptions of behaviour rather than actual behaviour. A major implication from the paper is the value of research into accounting education. The paper provides the opportunity to trial research, reflect upon and change curricula, delivery and assessment based on research findings.
Student experiences in group work in accounting, while not entirely new, is however, an area not widely reported on.
History-based trade books have an important and expanding role in various curricula. Contemporary education initiatives urge English and language arts educators to spend…
History-based trade books have an important and expanding role in various curricula. Contemporary education initiatives urge English and language arts educators to spend half their time on non-fiction and history and social studies teachers to include diverse sources starting in the early grades. Diverse professional organizations annually make financial commitments to promote new trade books. Research indicates misrepresentations abound in history-based trade books, yet few empirical studies have been completed. The purpose of this paper is to research examine the historical representation of Abraham Lincoln, arguably the most consequential nineteenth-century American.
Data samples included trade books intended for early grades and middle grades students. These grade ranges were selected because these students have the least prior knowledge and are perhaps most dependent on the text. Qualitative content analysis research methods were employed.
Misrepresentations emerged regarding Lincoln’s poverty, actions, motivations for actions, and implications of his actions as seemingly necessary historical content was minimized, vaguely included, or omitted. Findings are juxtaposed across and between selected grade ranges.
Discussion focused on the significance of findings for teachers and researchers. Teachers are guided to supplement trade books with primary sources to position students to distinguish historical misrepresentations.
This research builds on previous scholarship on Lincoln-based trade books by expanding grade range, data samples and research questions.
It is not news that education has pervasive influence in American society. Our operative skills for everyday life, our professional skills for working life, our personal skills for meaningful life: all of these are derived from educative contexts, in and out of schools. In the broadest frame, we are all teachers and learners, regardless of age or education. Every human is embedded in the complex sets of learning agencies, cultural transactions, and lifelong intergenerational exchanges Lawrence Cremin has called “configurations of education.” These are the permutative influences which mediate and transmit a culture through generations and institutions — work, school, family — and from which every person emerges, more or less intact, as the designer of one life.
Purpose – The purpose is to show that the influx of new seasonal and year-round residents to the small towns located in and around protected areas has numerous…
Purpose – The purpose is to show that the influx of new seasonal and year-round residents to the small towns located in and around protected areas has numerous implications for governance associated with land management and regional planning including reconciling the competing values of wilderness (amenity vs. livelihood, motorized vs. non-motorized recreation, active vs. passive land management).
Methodology/approach – We use case studies from the Adirondack Park in Northern New York State and the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem in the western United States to demonstrate the land management and governance challenges facing local communities in and around internationally renowned, protected areas.
Findings – We highlight how these transforming communities meet diverse needs and competing interests and how partnering with a non-governmental organization benefits local governance issues.
Originality/value of chapter – The paper presents research from the United States, which theoretically and empirically contributes to the scientific discourse on exurbanization, protected areas, and governance.
Very little is known about how weight gain during incarceration influences the health of people living in Canadian federal penitentiaries. To fill this knowledge gap, this…
Very little is known about how weight gain during incarceration influences the health of people living in Canadian federal penitentiaries. To fill this knowledge gap, this study aims to determine how the observed weight gain influenced the development of obesity-related chronic diseases during incarceration.
This retrospective cohort study examined the association between weight gain and obesity-related chronic diseases for 1,420 participants incarcerated in federal penitentiaries in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. To participate, individuals had to be incarcerated for at least six months at the time of the study (2016–2017). Current anthropometric data were measured or taken from medical records, then compared to anthropometric data at the beginning of incarceration (mean follow-up of 5.0 years) to determine weight change (kg) and body mass index change (kg/m2) during incarceration. Then, information about obesity-related chronic diseases was drawn from the participants’ medical records.
Chi-square and nonparametric median comparison tests were performed to detect statistically significant changes in anthropometric data, to determine if a relationship was present. This study observed a significant association between weight gain and disease development for many types of obesity-related chronic diseases (e.g. cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia and sleep apnea). This confirmed an association between weight gain and chronic disease development in the prison population.
Participants who gained a significant amount of weight, during incarceration, were also more frequently diagnosed with obesity-related chronic diseases. These findings suggest that weight gain may contribute to the deterioration of peoples’ health during incarceration.