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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2001

Helmut Mausser and Dan Rosen

Standard market risk optimization tools, based on assumptions of normality, are ineffective for evaluating credit risk. In this article, the authors develop three scenario…

Abstract

Standard market risk optimization tools, based on assumptions of normality, are ineffective for evaluating credit risk. In this article, the authors develop three scenario optimization models for portfolio credit risk. They first create the trading risk profile and find the best hedge position for a single asset or obligor. The second model adjusts all positions simultaneously to minimize the regret of the portfolio subject to general linear restrictions. Finally, a credit risk‐return efficient frontier is constructed using parametric programming. While scenario optimization of quantile‐based credit risk measures leads to problems that are not generally tractable, regret is a relevant and tractable measure that can be optimized using linear programming. The three models are applied to optimizing the risk‐return profile of a portfolio of emerging market bonds.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

HELMUT MAUSSER and DAN ROSEN

The risk/return trade‐off has been a central tenet of portfolio management since the seminal work of Markowitz [1952]. The basic premise, that higher (expected) returns…

Abstract

The risk/return trade‐off has been a central tenet of portfolio management since the seminal work of Markowitz [1952]. The basic premise, that higher (expected) returns can only be achieved at the expense of greater risk, leads naturally to the concept of an efficient frontier. The efficient frontier defines the maximum return that can be achieved for a given level of risk or, alternatively, the minimum risk that must be incurred to earn a given return. Traditionally, market risk has been measured by the variance (or standard deviation) of portfolio returns, and this measure is now widely used for credit risk management as well. For example, in the popular Credit‐Metrics methodology (J.P. Morgan [1997]), the standard deviation of credit losses is used to compute the marginal risk and risk contribution of an obligor. Kealhofer [1998] also uses standard deviation to measure the marginal risk and, further, discusses the application of mean‐variance optimization to compute efficient portfolios. While this is reasonable when the distribution of gains and losses is normal, variance is an inappropriate measure of risk for the highly skewed, fat‐tailed distributions characteristic of portfolios that incur credit risk. In this case, quantile‐based measures that focus on the tail of the loss distribution more accurately capture the risk of the portfolio. In this article, we construct credit risk efficient frontiers for a portfolio of bonds issued in emerging markets, using not only the variance but also quantile‐based risk measures such as expected shortfall, maximum (percentile) losses, and unexpected (percentile) losses.

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The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2001

NISSO BUCAY and DAN ROSEN

In recent years, several methodologies for measuring portfolio credit risk have been introduced that demonstrate the benefits of using internal models to measure credit…

Abstract

In recent years, several methodologies for measuring portfolio credit risk have been introduced that demonstrate the benefits of using internal models to measure credit risk in the loan book. These models measure economic credit capital and are specifically designed to capture portfolio effects and account for obligor default correlations. An example of an integrated market and credit risk model that overcomes this limitation is given in Iscoe et al. [1999], which is equally applicable to commercial and retail credit portfolios. However, the measurement of portfolio credit risk in retail loan portfolios has received much less attention than the commercial credit markets. This article proposes a methodology for measuring the credit risk of a retail portfolio, based on the general portfolio credit risk framework of Iscoe et al. The authors discuss the practical estimation and implementation of the model. They demonstrate its applicability with a case study based on the credit card portfolio of a North American financial institution. They also analyze the sensitivity of the results to various assumptions.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1953

M. ROBERT‐HENRI BAUTIER

Avant‐propos sous les auspices de l'Institut international de Coopération intellectuelle, paraissait en 1934 le t. I, consacré à l'Europe, du Guide international des

Abstract

Avant‐propos sous les auspices de l'Institut international de Coopération intellectuelle, paraissait en 1934 le t. I, consacré à l'Europe, du Guide international des Archives. Le questionnaire envoyé à tous les États européens comportait sous les points 4 et 6 les questions suivantes: ‘Existe‐t‐il un guide général pour les diverses catégories d'Archives ou des guides particuliers pour l'une ou l'autre d'entre elles?’ et ‘Existe‐t‐il des catalogues imprimés, des publications tant officielles que privées, susceptibles de constituer un instrument complet de référence pour tout ou partie importante des fonds d'archives?’ Les réponses des divers pays à ces questions, malgré leur caractère très inégal, ont fait du Guide international un bon instrument d'information générale sur les Archives. Malheureusement les circonstances ont empêché la publication du volume consacré aux États non européens, tandis que le temps qui s'écoulait tendait à rendre périmés les renseignements fournis sur les Archives européennes.

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Journal of Documentation, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 1997

James R. Barth, Daniel E. Nolle and Tara N. Rice

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the structure, regulation, and performance of banks in the EU and G‐10 countries. This enables one to identify any…

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast the structure, regulation, and performance of banks in the EU and G‐10 countries. This enables one to identify any significant differences in the structure of banking in the nineteen separate countries comprising these two groups. The regulatory, supervisory, and deposit‐insurance environment in which banks operate in each of these countries is also compared and contrasted. This enables one to identify any significant differences in the regulatory environment that may help explain the structure of banking in the various countries. Beyond this, the effect of the overall structural and regulatory environment on individual bank performance is investigated in order to evaluate the appropriateness of existing regulations in individual countries and any proposals for reforming them. Hence, an exploratory empirical analysis based upon a sample of banks in the different countries is conducted to assess the effect of the different “regulatory regimes” on the performance of individual banks, controlling for various bank‐specific and country‐specific factors that may also affect bank performance. In this way, the paper attempts to contribute to an assessment of the appropriate balance between market and regulatory discipline to ensure that banks have sufficient opportunities to compete prudently and profitability in a competitive and global financial marketplace. In the process of conducting such an assessment, the paper necessarily provides information as to whether the U.S. is “out‐of‐step” with banking developments in other industrial countries.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 23 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 6/7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2015

Jeff E. Biddle

The modern concept of labor hoarding emerged in early 1960s, and soon became a standard part of mainstream economists’ explanation of the working of labor markets. The…

Abstract

The modern concept of labor hoarding emerged in early 1960s, and soon became a standard part of mainstream economists’ explanation of the working of labor markets. The concept represents the convergence of three important elements: an empirical finding that labor productivity was procyclical; a framing of this finding as a “puzzle” or anomaly for the basic neoclassical theory of the firm, and a proposed resolution of the puzzle based on optimizing behavior of the firm in the presence of costs of hiring, firing, and training workers. This paper recounts the history of each of these elements, and how they were woven together into the labor hoarding concept. Each history involves people associated with various research traditions and motivated by an array of questions, many of which were unrelated to the questions that the modern labor hoarding concept was ultimately created to address.

Details

A Research Annual
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-857-1

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Nan Hua, Wei Wei, Agnes L. DeFranco and Dan Wang

This study aims to use a sample of 2,120 individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013 to evaluate the impact of loyalty programs on hotel operational and financial…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use a sample of 2,120 individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013 to evaluate the impact of loyalty programs on hotel operational and financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

This study provides empirical support for the impact of loyalty program based on both cross-sectional and panel data analyses and uses the instrumental variable technique to avoid potential heteroscedasticity, autocorrelation and simultaneity issues.

Findings

Findings of this study show that loyalty program expenses have a significant and positive impact on all three operational performance indicators of RevPAR, ADR and Occupancy and the financial performance indicator of gross operating profit.

Research limitations/implications

This study suggests that the benefits of loyalty programs should be understood against the backdrop of a reasonable set of controlled variables such as e-commerce, franchise, advertising, other marketing expenses, hotel size and hotel chain scales.

Originality/value

Given the conflicting viewpoints about the positive and negative impacts of loyalty programs, and that the literature is scant on empirical validation of the impact of loyalty programs on the overall operational and financial performance of hotel properties, this study is an early attempt to empirically test the impact of loyalty programs on a number of hotel operational and financial performance indicators by using an extensive list of individual hotel properties between 2011 and 2013.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Li‐teh Sun

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the…

Abstract

Man has been seeking an ideal existence for a very long time. In this existence, justice, love, and peace are no longer words, but actual experiences. How ever, with the American preemptive invasion and occupation of Afghanistan and Iraq and the subsequent prisoner abuse, such an existence seems to be farther and farther away from reality. The purpose of this work is to stop this dangerous trend by promoting justice, love, and peace through a change of the paradigm that is inconsistent with justice, love, and peace. The strong paradigm that created the strong nation like the U.S. and the strong man like George W. Bush have been the culprit, rather than the contributor, of the above three universal ideals. Thus, rather than justice, love, and peace, the strong paradigm resulted in in justice, hatred, and violence. In order to remove these three and related evils, what the world needs in the beginning of the third millenium is the weak paradigm. Through the acceptance of the latter paradigm, the golden mean or middle paradigm can be formulated, which is a synergy of the weak and the strong paradigm. In order to understand properly the meaning of these paradigms, however, some digression appears necessary.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 25 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 August 2011

Abstract

Details

The Role of Individual Differences in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-711-7

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