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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Ola Al Sayed, Ashraf Samir and Heba Hesham Anwar

This paper aims to assess the fiscal sustainability in Egypt during the period 1990–2018 using deficit accounts (DA) approach. It also tries to investigate the possibility…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to assess the fiscal sustainability in Egypt during the period 1990–2018 using deficit accounts (DA) approach. It also tries to investigate the possibility of applying generational accounts (GA) in Egypt as a new approach to assess fiscal sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper tries to assess fiscal sustainability in Egypt during 1990–2018 using DA and GA approaches. DA approach includes primary deficit indicator, tax gap indicator, augmented Dickey-Fuller stationarity test for debt/GDP ratio and Johansen co-integration test between government revenues and expenditures. However, concerning the possibility of applying GA in Egypt, field study form was designed including specific questions to academic and executive economic experts to investigate if it is possible to apply GA in Egypt.

Findings

The empirical findings of the field study indicate that Egypt witnessed fiscal sustainability during the period 1990–2018 using DA. On the other hand, there are various obstacles, including administrative, technical, legal and political obstacles which hinder Egypt from applying GA to assess fiscal sustainability.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper assesses fiscal sustainability in Egypt using DA for a longer and updated time series within 1990–2018. In addition, it is the first paper to examine the possibility of assessing fiscal sustainability using GA approach in Egypt.

Details

Review of Economics and Political Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2356-9980

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2015

Catherine C. Eckel, Haley Harwell and José Gabriel Castillo G.

This paper replicates four highly cited, classic lab experimental studies in the provision of public goods. The studies consider the impact of marginal per capita return…

Abstract

This paper replicates four highly cited, classic lab experimental studies in the provision of public goods. The studies consider the impact of marginal per capita return and group size; framing (as donating to or taking from the public good); the role of confusion in the public goods game; and the effectiveness of peer punishment. Considerable attention has focused recently on the problem of publication bias, selective reporting, and the importance of research transparency in social sciences. Replication is at the core of any scientific process and replication studies offer an opportunity to reevaluate, confirm or falsify previous findings. This paper illustrates the value of replication in experimental economics. The experiments were conducted as class projects for a PhD course in experimental economics, and follow exact instructions from the original studies and current standard protocols for lab experiments in economics. Most results show the same pattern as the original studies, but in all cases with smaller treatment effects and lower statistical significance, sometimes falling below accepted levels of significance. In addition, we document a “Texas effect,” with subjects consistently exhibiting higher levels of contributions and lower free-riding than in the original studies. This research offers new evidence on the attenuation effect in replications, well documented in other disciplines and from which experimental economics is not immune. It also opens the discussion over the influence of unobserved heterogeneity in institutional environments and subject pools that can affect lab results.

Details

Replication in Experimental Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-350-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2015

René Bekkers

This paper replicates and refines the finding that subsidies for charitable contributions of a rebate type are less effective than matching subsidies. A survey based field…

Abstract

This paper replicates and refines the finding that subsidies for charitable contributions of a rebate type are less effective than matching subsidies. A survey based field experiment with health charities was conducted among a national sample representative of the Dutch population on key demographic characteristics. The greater effectiveness of matching subsidies found in laboratory experiments is replicated. Also some evidence is provided on why matches are more effective than rebates. Matches attract a larger pool of donors, in part because donors expect more people to make donations and “join in.” Matches also increase the amount contributed among the higher educated, higher income households and larger donors. Subsidies of either type do not decrease subsequent giving in a campaign for tsunami relief. The experiment could not test whether the greater effectiveness of a matching subsidy is due to a change in the donor’s attention to the benefits of a donation to the cause. This explanation should be tested in future research. The findings imply that a given budget available to subsidize charitable contributions can be used more effectively if the subsidy is framed in the form of a match than in the form of a rebate. Nonprofit organizations can use this insight in the design of fundraising campaigns. For governments the finding suggests that the effectiveness of current subsidies for charitable contributions can be enhanced by matching them rather than providing a deduction in the income tax, which works as a rebate.

Details

Replication in Experimental Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-350-1

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Book part
Publication date: 13 October 2015

James J. Murphy, Nomin Batmunkh, Benjamin Nilsson and Samantha Ray

Shang and Croson (2009) found that providing information about the donation decisions of others can have a positive impact on individual donations to public radio. In this…

Abstract

Shang and Croson (2009) found that providing information about the donation decisions of others can have a positive impact on individual donations to public radio. In this study, we attempted to replicate their results, but found no evidence that social information affected donation decisions. However, most of our donors were renewing members, a group which Shang and Croson also found was not influenced by social information.

Details

Replication in Experimental Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-350-1

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 9 July 2021

Hassan Azganin, Salina Kassim and Auwal Adam Sa'ad

Small farmers are considered one of the most affected communities worldwide due to poverty. Hence, this paper aims to study how the proposed waqf crowdfunding models are…

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Abstract

Purpose

Small farmers are considered one of the most affected communities worldwide due to poverty. Hence, this paper aims to study how the proposed waqf crowdfunding models are intended to provide alternative sources of funds for the waqf institutions and farmers.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study employed a qualitative method by analysing the relevant literature on crowdfunding, waqf cash, waqf and agriculture, together with the primary sources of the Ḥadīth.

Findings

This paper provides the conceptual framework of two waqf crowdfunding model (WCM) and the required parameters for their application. It is found that crowdfunding can bring immense benefits to the agriculture sector and farmers if it is integrated with waqf. This system will enable underprivileged farmers to meet their necessities and participate in their country's economic development.

Research limitations/implications

Future research may consider a waqf crowdfunding integrated model targeting other businesses.

Originality/value

This study provides the required parameters for the application of the proposed models. Four areas were analysed and discussed: the regulatory compliance parameters, the shariah compliance parameters, the risk management parameters and, finally, waqf governance parameters. To the best of the author's knowledge, this is the first proposed waqf and crowdfunding integrated model for agricultural financing.

Details

Islamic Economic Studies, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1319-1616

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Guido Heineck

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between religious involvement and attitudinal (importance of helping others and of being socially active) and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between religious involvement and attitudinal (importance of helping others and of being socially active) and behavioral components of prosociality (volunteering, charitable giving, and blood donations) in Germany.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analyses are based on representative, longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which allows avoiding issues of reverse causality.

Findings

The results suggest for a moderate, positive link between individuals’ religious involvement as measured by church affiliation and church attendance and the prosociality aspects addressed. Despite the historic divide in religion, the results in West and East Germany do not differ substantially in terms of the underlying mechanisms.

Originality/value

The paper complements the growing literature from experimental economics on the relationship between individuals’ religiosity and their prosociality. Based on representative longitudinal data, it contributes by providing evidence for Germany for which there is barely any insight yet and by addressing a wider range of attitudinal and (self-reported) behavioral components of prosociality.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Yan Li

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether people who engage in religious activities are more generous in terms of both religious and secular giving.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether people who engage in religious activities are more generous in terms of both religious and secular giving.

Design/methodology/approach

Bivariate probit (BVP) and bivariate tobit (BVT) analyses show that religious people have a greater propensity to give and higher levels of giving to both religious and secular charitable organizations. The bivariate systems permit a test of the correlation across the different giving decisions, and the correlation between religious and secular giving is found to be highly significant.

Findings

Religiosity positively influences both religious and secular donations. After controlling for this correlation, the impacts of religiosity on religious and secular giving are more efficient estimates but smaller than expected.

Originality/value

As a result of these methodological shortcomings, the causal relationship between religiosity and charitable giving is far from clear. To overcome those problems, this study uses BVP and BVT models to control for the potential correlation between religious giving and secular giving by the same individual and then draws appropriate interpretations. This study adds a firmer theoretical foundation to the existing literature.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2016

Enrico Colombatto and Valerio Tavormina

The purpose of this paper is to discuss whether altruism justifies ad hoc legislation with reference to three different contexts. One is defined by the libertarian notion…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss whether altruism justifies ad hoc legislation with reference to three different contexts. One is defined by the libertarian notion of liberty; a second framework corresponds to the egalitarian vision; and a third one originates from social-contract theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors review two stylized visions of liberty, and consider to what extent the current legal systems comply with one of these visions. Moreover, the authors analyse the implications of the contractarian approach.

Findings

It is shown that current legislation is rather ambiguous and sometimes even contradictory. By and large, the common-law view tends to favour the libertarian approach, while the civil-law visions are closer to what one might expect from social-contract theory. In these cases, however, it seems that the letter of the law is often questioned by the academic community as well as by the judiciary, and decisions eventually follow the judges’ discretionary power.

Originality/value

This analysis of altruism combines the economic and legal perspectives. Although altruism is always considered an important part of social capital and worthy of privileged treatment, it is shown that policymaking is frequently inconsistent and sometimes contradictory.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Pedro Rey-Biel, Roman Sheremeta and Neslihan Uler

We study how giving depends on income and luck, and how culture and information about the determinants of others’ income affect this relationship. Our data come from an…

Abstract

We study how giving depends on income and luck, and how culture and information about the determinants of others’ income affect this relationship. Our data come from an experiment conducted in two countries, the USA and Spain – each of which have different beliefs about how income inequality arises. We find that when individuals are informed about the determinants of income, there are no cross-cultural differences in giving. When uninformed, however, Americans give less than the Spanish. This difference persists even after controlling for beliefs, personal characteristics, and values.

Details

Experimental Economics and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-819-4

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Book part
Publication date: 20 November 2018

Dorian Jullien

This chapter conducts a systematic comparison of behavioral economics’s challenges to the standard accounts of economic behaviors within three dimensions: under risk, over…

Abstract

This chapter conducts a systematic comparison of behavioral economics’s challenges to the standard accounts of economic behaviors within three dimensions: under risk, over time, and regarding other people. A new perspective on two underlying methodological issues, i.e., inter-disciplinarity and the positive/normative distinction, is proposed by following the entanglement thesis of Hilary Putnam, Vivian Walsh, and Amartya Sen. This thesis holds that facts, values, and conventions have inter-dependent meanings in science which can be understood by scrutinizing formal and ordinary language uses. The goal is to provide a broad and self-contained picture of how behavioral economics is changing the mainstream of economics.

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