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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2022

Eman Salim

The aim of the present paper to compare the cleaning treatments of paper samples exposed to artificial aging, toluene and isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present paper to compare the cleaning treatments of paper samples exposed to artificial aging, toluene and isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, paper samples were made from wood pulp. They had a deterioration phenomenon represented in the stains of the paraffin wax, so two types of cleaning were used: A traditional method using a toluene solution and another new method using isopropanol gel by a cotton swap in a circular movement until the completion of the cleaning process. Then, all paper samples were treated with toluene and isopropanol to handle the second artificial aging and detect how the samples were affected by artificial aging. For identifying the efficacy of these materials in removing paraffin wax stains, a range of examinations and analyses were used, such as universal serial bus, scanning electron microscope, infrared analysis (IR), pH analysis, color change analysis. Moreover, these results were compared with the standard sample’s results.

Findings

The results of examinations and analyses proved that the use of toluene affected the paper samples. Their effects were twice as weak, fragile and degraded paper fibers compared to isopropanol gel. Therefore, the isopropanol gel is preferred for paper cleaning to the toluene solution.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the efficiency of isopropyl alcohol gel in cleaning wax stains from historical paper supports.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 November 2011

Younghee Noh

This paper seeks to rediscover the most suitable efficiency evaluation variables (input and output variables) for digital libraries and to employ the data envelopment…

1255

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to rediscover the most suitable efficiency evaluation variables (input and output variables) for digital libraries and to employ the data envelopment analysis (DEA) model to measure the resource utilization efficiency of university libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to analyze and evaluate university library efficiency, the paper introduces the DEA‐CCR Model and the DEA‐BCC Model. Based on these research tools, the Technical Efficiency (CCR*BCC) was determined. First, a reference group was created with a 100 percent efficiency rate, then the factors contributing to inefficient DMUs were analyzed, and the difference in the efficiency rate compared according to the different governing bodies of the libraries. Finally, the difference of efficiency according to the introduction and rejection of electronic resources was analyzed. It was possible to measure the technical efficiency, pure‐technical efficiency, and scale efficiency.

Findings

The results showed that the efficiency of university libraries varied significantly according to whether or not electronic resources were included in the evaluation. In addition, the findings confirmed decision making units (DMUs) have a 100 percent efficiency rate and a low efficiency rate as well as proposed benchmarking DMUs for inefficient DMUs and a direction for future improvements.

Originality/value

The paper identifies that there was a significant difference in efficiency, according to the presence of electronic resources in university libraries.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 August 2008

346

Abstract

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Book part
Publication date: 6 August 2018

Eliav Danziger and Leif Danziger

This chapter analyzes the effects of introducing a graduated minimum wage in a model with optimal income taxation in which a government seeks to maximize social welfare…

Abstract

This chapter analyzes the effects of introducing a graduated minimum wage in a model with optimal income taxation in which a government seeks to maximize social welfare. It shows that the optimal graduated minimum wage increases social welfare by increasing the low-productivity workers’ consumption and bringing it closer to the first-best. The chapter also describes how the graduated minimum wage in a social welfare optimum depends on important economy characteristics such as the government’s revenue needs, the social welfare weight of low-productivity workers, and the numbers and productivities of the different types of workers.

Details

Transitions through the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-462-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Andrew E. Clark, Conchita D’Ambrosio and Simone Ghislandi

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from…

Abstract

We consider the link between poverty and subjective well-being, and focus in particular on the role of time. We use panel data on 49,000 individuals living in Germany from 1992 to 2012 to uncover three empirical relationships. First, life satisfaction falls with both the incidence and intensity of contemporaneous poverty. Second, poverty scars: those who have been poor in the past report lower life satisfaction today, even when out of poverty. Last, the order of poverty spells matters: for a given number of years in poverty, satisfaction is lower when the years are linked together. As such, poverty persistence reduces well-being. These effects differ by population subgroups.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 3 October 2022

Liying Xia, Jianbo Zhang and Xuelin Ma

With the rising of “religious fever” in China rural area, the authors inquire the reason why it happened. First, the authors explore the group characteristics which could…

Abstract

With the rising of “religious fever” in China rural area, the authors inquire the reason why it happened. First, the authors explore the group characteristics which could affect both happiness and the religion belief of Chinese rural elderly. The authors analyze the micro-data of “thousand village surveys” data of Shanghai University of Finance and Economics by using Order Logit and Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method. These results show that when the elderly people have the following features related to health such as: feeling psychological loneliness, not obtaining the good management of chronic disease in the village, and not being participated in new rural cooperative medical system are more likely to believe in religious in the rural areas. And the authors also find these Chinese rural elderlies who believe in religion are less happy than atheism elderly actually (by PSM). Believing in religion is not the solution and maybe the way these elderly resorts to when they encounter health problem.

Details

Quantitative Analysis of Social and Financial Market Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-921-8

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Jürgen Faik and Uwe Fachinger

In the wake of the Stiglitz Commission, we assess German economic well-being by considering income, wealth and consumption. A decomposition approach is used to test for…

Abstract

In the wake of the Stiglitz Commission, we assess German economic well-being by considering income, wealth and consumption. A decomposition approach is used to test for corresponding inequality differences of these well-being dimensions. Total inequality is decomposed into within- and between-group inequality (via a normalised coefficient of variation). The decompositions are categorised into those that refer to socio-demographic characteristics (place of residence, age, household type) and those belonging to different well-being (sub-)categories (potential and net income, expenditure and wealth categories). The empirical analyses are performed for Germany using the 2008 German Sample Survey of Income and Expenditure. By decomposing German well-being inequality in great detail, we shed light on its dimensions. Our analyses illustrate that it is necessary to consider all well-being dimensions to make statements about the material well-being of private households or individuals.

Details

Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 November 2016

Oded Stark and Marcin Jakubek

Let there be two individuals: “rich,” and “poor.” Due to inefficiency of the income redistribution policy, if a social planner were to tax the rich in order to transfer to…

Abstract

Let there be two individuals: “rich,” and “poor.” Due to inefficiency of the income redistribution policy, if a social planner were to tax the rich in order to transfer to the poor, only a fraction of the taxed income would be given to the poor. Under such inefficiency and a standard utility specification, a Rawlsian social planner who seeks to maximize the utility of the worst-off individual will select a different allocation of incomes than a utilitarian social planner who seeks to maximize the sum of the individuals’ utilities. However, when individuals prefer not only to have more income but also not to have low status conceptualized as low relative income, and when this distaste is incorporated in the individuals’ utility functions with a weight that is greater than a specified critical level, then a utilitarian social planner will select the very same income distribution as a Rawlsian social planner.

Article
Publication date: 26 April 2022

Ascarya Ascarya, Jardine A. Husman and Hendri Tanjung

This study aims to determine the characteristics of waqf-based Islamic financial institution (IFI) and subsequently propose some waqf-based IFIs.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to determine the characteristics of waqf-based Islamic financial institution (IFI) and subsequently propose some waqf-based IFIs.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses the Delphi method, combined with the Likert scale, to determine and validate the agreed characteristics of waqf-based IFI models. Subsequently, based on the agreed characteristics, the authors propose waqf-based IFI models.

Findings

The results show that there are 28 important characteristics of waqf-based IFI, which respondents agree on 24 characteristics with significant Kendall’s concordance or rater agreement (W). The type of waqf-based IFI could be a bank, venture capital or cooperative; the business orientation should be a combination of commercial-social, and it could be implemented in the national, community or micro level. Based on the agreed characteristics, the authors propose several waqf-based IFI, including integrated commercial-social waqf-based bank, integrated commercial-social waqf-based venture capital and integrated commercial-social waqf-based cooperative.

Research limitations/implications

Respondents of this study comprise experts and practitioners who reside in Indonesia so that the results of proposed waqf-based IFIs are most suitable to be implemented in Indonesia.

Practical implications

The conceptual framework and method used in this study could be applied to determine the characteristics of waqf-based IFI and propose the most suitable waqf-based IFI models in other countries.

Originality/value

This study starts with determining the essential characteristics of waqf-based IFI, which then be used to propose waqf-based IFI models.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 June 2021

Mahmoud Shahin

Through portfolio diversification, the author identifies the risk sharing deposit contract in a three-period model that maximizes the ex ante expected utility of depositors.

Abstract

Purpose

Through portfolio diversification, the author identifies the risk sharing deposit contract in a three-period model that maximizes the ex ante expected utility of depositors.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the author extends the study by Allen and Gale (1998) by adding a long-term riskless investment opportunity to the original portfolio of a short-term liquid asset and a long-term risky illiquid asset.

Findings

Unlike Allen and Gale, there are no information-based bank runs in equilibrium. In addition, the model can improve consumers' welfare over the Allen and Gale model. The author also shows that the bank will choose to liquidate the cheaper investments, in terms of the gain-loss ratios for the two types of existing long-term assets, when there is liquidity shortage in some cases. Such a policy reduces the liquidation cost and enables the bank to meet the outstanding liability to depositors without large liquidation losses.

Originality/value

The author believe that the reader would be interested in this article because it is relevant to real world where depositors rush to withdraw their deposits from a bank if there is negative information about future prospect of the bank asset portfolio and bank investment. Economists and financial analysts need to determine the suitable mechanism to improve the stability of the bank and the depositor welfare.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 49 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

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