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Abstract

Details

Community Management of Urban Open Spaces in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-639-7

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

Raphael N. Markellos, Terence Mills and Costas Siriopoulos

This paper employs three months of observations sampled at 60‐second intervals to analyzethe behavior of two basket indices from the emerging Athens Stock Exchange: the…

Abstract

This paper employs three months of observations sampled at 60‐second intervals to analyze the behavior of two basket indices from the emerging Athens Stock Exchange: the General Index of the Main (Listed) Securities Market and the Index of the Secondary (Unlisted) Securities Market. The empirical analysis employs robust regression using dummy variables to uncover a rich variety of time‐of‐day regularities in the first four moments of the distribution of returns, the tail behavior, and the dynamic and cross‐dynamic behavior of the two markets. Markets tend to behave differently during their opening and closing, while results are invariably sensitive to outliers. Overall, the results are comparable to those reported for developed equity markets. However, in contrast to other studies, we find no conclusive evidence of long‐memory in either the mean or variance process. ARMA models of seasonally differenced absolute returns were used as a simple but effective way of dealing with the strong regularity in volatility.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 29 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 January 2021

Kazi Md Tarique, Rafikul Islam and Mustafa Omar Mohammed

The purpose of this paper is to develop and subsequently validate a Maqasid al-Shari’ah-based performance evaluation model for Islamic banks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop and subsequently validate a Maqasid al-Shari’ah-based performance evaluation model for Islamic banks.

Design/methodology/approach

Initially, a comprehensive review of the existing and relevant literature is carried out and a prototype evaluation model has been developed. This has been augmented and refined through in-depth interviews of Shari’ah scholars and banking experts. Afterwards, the modified model has been validated by taking inputs from academics and Islamic banking practitioners through a focus group discussion.

Findings

The major outcome of the present work is a Maqasid al-Shari’ah-based performance evaluation model for Islamic banks. At the inception of the work, the Maqasid frameworks of Imam al-Ghazali and Abu Zahrah were combined. The combined model incorporates various dimensions, elements and the corresponding measures of three components, namely, justice, education and maslahah.

Research limitations/implications

Not being able to test the model statistically or empirically can be considered as a limitation.

Practical implications

The comprehensive theoretical framework of the developed model addresses all aspects of human well-being. Thus, if implemented the model will ensure welfare for all the stakeholders. It will also encourage the regulators to introduce new reporting standards which will be more reflective of Maqasid al-Shari’ah.

Social implications

Fulfilling Maqasid will create a positive brand image for Islamic banks, which will attract more customers both Muslims and non-Muslims. Thus, this will create a wider scope for earning more revenues.

Originality/value

There has been concern that Islamic banks are converging towards conventional banking systems and the same performance measure instrument is being used to evaluate the performance of both Islamic and conventional banks. The present work has developed a Maqasid al-Shari’ah-based performance evaluation model for Islamic banks.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2021

David Diaz, José L. Ruiz and Pablo Tapia

In an era of increasing financial vulnerability, people are not saving enough to either fund their future pension benefits or having precautionary savings. The authors…

Abstract

Purpose

In an era of increasing financial vulnerability, people are not saving enough to either fund their future pension benefits or having precautionary savings. The authors propose that pension knowledge makes people increase their probability of having voluntary pension and banking savings.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the social protection survey in Chile, a unique set of panel data for affiliates in 2006 and 2009. First, the authors use clustering algorithms to find naturally occurring groupings in the level of pension knowledge. Second, the authors run a probit regression model for explaining the probability of having a voluntary pension and banking savings, using as determinants the level of pension knowledge and several control variables that are usually explored in the literature.

Findings

The authors find two clusters of pension knowledge in the Chilean pension system. In addition, the authors find that there is a positive correlation between high pension knowledge and good financial decision-making, as these people have voluntary retirement and banking savings.

Practical implications

As people who spend time planning accumulate more wealth, it is important to develop public policies that promote the advantages to know better about the benefits of having voluntary savings for the long-term horizon. Conscientious people are also more likely to have voluntary savings.

Social implications

Policy programs to increase to be responsible can have positive effects on society's welfare.

Originality/value

Up to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that connects clustering algorithms and pension knowledge.

Propósito

En una era de creciente vulnerabilidad financiera, las personas no están ahorrando lo suficiente para financiar sus futuras pensiones ni para tener ahorros precautorios. Proponemos que el conocimiento de las pensiones hace que las personas aumenten su probabilidad de tener ahorros voluntarios para pensiones y bancarios.

Metodología

Usamos la Encuesta de Protección Social en Chile, una base única de datos de panel para afiliados en 2006 y 2009. En primer lugar, usamos algoritmos de clustering para encontrar agrupaciones naturales en cuanto a nivel de conocimiento sobre pensiones. En segundo lugar, usamos un modelo de regresión probit para explicar la probabilidad de tener ahorros voluntarios para pensión y bancarios, utilizando como determinantes el nivel de conocimiento sobre pensiones y variables de control.

Resultados

Encontramos dos grupos de conocimiento sobre pensiones en el sistema de pensiones chileno. Además, encontramos que existe una correlación positiva entre un alto conocimiento de las pensiones y tener ahorros voluntarios.

Implicancias prácticas

A medida que las personas dedican tiempo a planificar acumulan más riqueza, por lo que es importante desarrollar políticas públicas que promuevan las ventajas para conocer mejor los beneficios de contar con ahorros voluntarios para un horizonte de largo plazo.

Implicancias sociales

Los programas de políticas para aumentar la responsabilidad pueden tener efectos positivos en el bienestar de la sociedad.

Originalidad

Este es el primer estudio que conecta algoritmos de agrupación en clústeres para el conocimiento de las pensiones y sus implicaciones en la toma de decisiones financieras.

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2020

Jubalt Alvarez Salazar

The purpose of this paper is to use a combination of resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory to explore the phenomenon of startup survival in an emerging…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to use a combination of resource-based theory and dynamic capabilities theory to explore the phenomenon of startup survival in an emerging entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Design/methodology/approach

The study has a phenomenological research design, with an exploratory scope and qualitative approach. It uses in-depth interviews to identify the perceptions of ecosystem agents about the phenomenon of survival.

Findings

This paper argues that startup survival should be studied as a construct that is reflected by four conditions: break-even point, accelerated growth, cash stock and continuous operation. Furthermore, it is formed by the interaction of five mainly interacting resources: human capital, social capital, entrepreneurial capital, organizational capital and the incubation process.

Originality/value

The study offers a holistic model of survival that could be applicable to incipient entrepreneurial ecosystems such as the Peruvian one. This model presents survival as a reflexive-formative construct and not as a dichotomic variable (enterprise operating/enterprise closed) as has been commonly considered in the literature.

Propósito

En este documento se utiliza una combinación de la teoría basada en los recursos y la teoría de las capacidades dinámicas para explorar el fenómeno de la sobrevivencia de startups en un ecosistema emprendedor incipiente.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El estudio tiene un diseño de investigación fenomenológica, con un alcance exploratorio y un enfoque cualitativo. Utiliza entrevistas en profundidad para identificar las percepciones de los agentes del ecosistema sobre el fenómeno de la sobrevivencia.

Hallazgos

En este documento se argumenta que la sobrevivencia de los startups debe estudiarse como un constructo que se refleja en cuatro condiciones: el punto de equilibrio, el crecimiento acelerado, el stock de efectivo y la operación continua. Además, se forma por la interacción de cinco categorías de recursos organizacionales: el capital humano, el capital social, el capital emprendedor, el capital organizacional y el proceso de incubación.

Originalidad/valor

El documento ofrece un modelo holístico de sobrevivencia que podría ser aplicable en ecosistemas emprendedores incipientes como el peruano. Este modelo presenta a la sobrevivencia como un constructo reflexivo-formativo y no como una variable dicotómica (empresa en actividad / empresa cerrada) como se ha considerado comúnmente en la literatura.

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1985

A.H. Ingram and P.J. Sloane

It is often the case that policy makers are slow to adopt the results of economic analysis in their policy formulation. Shiftworking is one of those rare cases where…

Abstract

It is often the case that policy makers are slow to adopt the results of economic analysis in their policy formulation. Shiftworking is one of those rare cases where policymakers have seized upon something as having particular significance which economists have on the whole neglected. Robin Marris published a seminal work, The Economics of Capital Utilisation, in 1964, but it was not until the later 1970s that further substantial work was undertaken by economists and shiftworking appears to be regarded as hardly worth a mention in the standard labour economics texts. This relative neglect by economists is surprising given the significance and growth of shiftworking in a number of countries. Where data are available it is estimated for instance that, as a rough approximation, the number of workers engaged on shiftwork doubled between 1950 and the mid‐1970s. For the UK one estimate is that between 1954 and 1964 the proportion of manual employees working shifts in manufacturing industry increased from 12 to 20 per cent, and that by 1978 the figure was 34 per cent (that is approximately 1.5 out of 4.27 million employees). Shiftworking has in fact reflected a conflict of goals for the policymakers. On the one hand in both the International Labour Organisation (ILO) and the European Commission (EC) concern has been expressed at the possible harmful effects on workers of particular shiftworking patterns and proposals have been made to limit its incidence and control its form (this being particularly the case with nightwork and with the hours of women and young persons). On the other hand, concern with the growing problem of unemployment has led policymakers in other sections of these same bodies to propose an extension of shiftworking, as one particular form of work‐sharing, in order to generate jobs. The purpose of this paper is to examine the development of shiftworking for male manual workers in British manufacturing industry in order to cast some light on these issues. In particular supply equations are estimated in order to understand what factors lead workers to select this particular form of work and demand equations to determine the nature of the employer's demand for labour. These structural equations form the basis of a simultaneous system in which plant size (measured in terms of employment) is estimated as a function of shiftworking and a vector of other explanatory variables in order to determine whether in fact it is reasonable to conclude that an extension of shiftworking will generate additional jobs in Britain. Before presenting the regression results it is however necessary to examine in more detail these socio‐economic policy aspects of shiftwork, to clarify the theoretical framework and to discuss some of the problems of estimation which stem largely from data deficiencies, but also involve problems of simultaneity notably in the relationships between shiftworking, capital intensity and plant size.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 6 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

Stephen Munday and David W. Young

The attitudes of doctors towards Computer‐Based Information Systems(CBIS) are crucial to the successful implementation of medical audit,resource management and clinical…

Abstract

The attitudes of doctors towards Computer‐Based Information Systems (CBIS) are crucial to the successful implementation of medical audit, resource management and clinical protocols. We present the results of a postal questionnaire survey of 846 consultants (471 replies) on their attitudes towards computers. The survey revealed doctors′ requirements (demands) of CBISs and also their concerns (expectations) about the likely impact of these systems. Clear differences are found between the concerns of doctors who are computer users and those who are not. The latter displaying more negative attitudes. It is assumed that if the attitudes of the non‐users become like those of the user′s implementation of CBISs will be more successful. Requirements for CBISs were very similar between the two groups, suggesting that changes in attitudes are not required, but that systems should display the features listed in the demand section of the questionnaire. A strategy for the implementation of CBISs should have two strands. It should meet the demands and reduce the concerns of non‐users over computer systems. The findings of this survey present for the first time an empirical basis for the development of such a strategy.

Details

Journal of Management in Medicine, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-9235

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 November 2021

Flore Deboscker, Mathieu Nacher, Antoine Adenis, Florence Huber, Aude Lucarelli, Laura Asensio, Marie Daniel, Vanessa Schiemsky and Timothee Bonifay

Incarcerated women are a vulnerable population in terms of sexual and reproductive health. In French Guiana, most incarcerated women come from unsafe environments and are…

Abstract

Purpose

Incarcerated women are a vulnerable population in terms of sexual and reproductive health. In French Guiana, most incarcerated women come from unsafe environments and are incarcerated because of drug trafficking. Medical follow-up processes used in prison (medical assessment on arrival, and then two half-days per week upon request but without an obstetrician-gynecologist) does not allow for a thorough assessment of the impact of incarceration on women prisoners’ health to take place. In the absence of data, the purpose of this study was to describe incarcerated women’s experiences in relation to sexual and reproductive health.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted among French-speaking adult women who had been incarcerated for at least four months in a French Guianan prison. Menstruation, contraception, pregnancy, abortion, sexually transmitted infections and sexuality were described by means of interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Findings

A total of 14 women were interviewed. They suffered from menstrual cycle disorders, poor hygiene and menstrual insecurity. They appeared to have emotionally disinvested sexuality. However, intra-prison sexual activity existed for some (masturbation, conjugal prison visits, homosexual intercourse between fellow prisoners). Homosexual relations were a source of discrimination. Being pregnant while incarcerated was viewed negatively. A lack of knowledge about sexual and reproductive health and high-risk behaviors such as piercing and tattooing practices were widespread.

Originality/value

Incarceration is a vulnerable time for women’s sexual and reproductive health. Sexual activity exposes women to risks and discrimination that should be taken into account in a multidisciplinary approach adapted to the prison environment.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Anke Stallwitz

According to conventional research and political conceptions, illicit drug scenes are often characterised by cultures of crime, violence and deceit and customarily met by…

Abstract

Purpose

According to conventional research and political conceptions, illicit drug scenes are often characterised by cultures of crime, violence and deceit and customarily met by repressive law enforcement. However, a growing body of research demonstrates the very diverse nature of drug subcultures. This paper aims to explore this diversity and thereby investigates the psychosocial and socio-spatial features people selling and/or using drugs in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver (DTES) attribute to the local drug scene.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 23 persons with drug selling and/or using experiences in the DTES. Interviews were analysed and interpreted according to grounded theory.

Findings

Participants represent the social fabric of the DTES drug scene as comprising complexly interwoven facets and structures including frequent, brutal violence on the one hand and sincere, heart-rending compassion, care and even love on the other.

Originality/value

Police and social and health services can cooperate constructively with the overriding aim of individual and social harm reduction. Thereby, the existing social network and prosocial orientations of a drug scene can be used in effective approaches such as participatory policy strategies and peer-driven interventions.

Details

Drugs and Alcohol Today, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1745-9265

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

Jasim Abdulla

The literature dealing with the firm's financing decisions in developing capital markets is limited. This paper aims to contribute to the published research by documenting…

Abstract

The literature dealing with the firm's financing decisions in developing capital markets is limited. This paper aims to contribute to the published research by documenting the perceptions of managers of Omani firms listed on the Muscat Securities Market with regards to the capital structure of their firms. Survey responses show that financial decision‐making behavior of Omani firms can be explained by the “pecking order” view of capital structure. The effect of tax and bankruptcy on capital structure is not clear. Firms' relationships with banks and government shareholdings minimize the effect of financial distress. Further, managers tend not to release information to the suppliers of funds even though this might reduce the cost of funds required. Most firms seem to maintain spare borrowing policy. The conclusion is that executives of Omani firms are not less sophisticated than their American, Australian, British, Korean, Hong Kong, or Singapore counterparts in terms of their decision‐making process related to financial leverage.

Details

Asian Review of Accounting, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1321-7348

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