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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Eddie W.L. Cheng, H. Li, D.P. Fang and F. Xie

This paper aims at presenting the analysis of the views of construction participants in China’s construction industry on three major site safety issues. First, data from…

Abstract

This paper aims at presenting the analysis of the views of construction participants in China’s construction industry on three major site safety issues. First, data from three distinctive roles (project managers, safety officers, and foremen) on site safety knowledge were analysed. Results indicate that they have low levels of safety knowledge. This is consistent with the existing literature, implying that safety training and education is a major issue around the world. In addition, the views of project managers and safety officers are further elicited on the second issue (that is, factors affecting site safety) and the third issue (that is, methods for improving project safety management). Results indicate that both parties have quite consistent views. The six most important factors are “lack of attention to safety protection by workers”, “lack of attention to safety management by main contractors/project managers”, “insufficient safety training”, “inadequate safety level”, “tiredness of workers”, and “poor quality of construction materials and equipments”. The five most promising methods are “increase in safety investment in terms of manpower, capital and finance”, “improvement in safety operations”, “no alcohol at work”, “increase in safety training and education for workers”, and “increase in safety inspection”. Discussions are given in this paper.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Mehdi Dehghan, Mostafa Abbaszadeh, Amirreza Khodadadian and Clemens Heitzinger

The current paper aims to develop a reduced order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the generalized Swift–Hohenberg equation with application in biological science…

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper aims to develop a reduced order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the generalized Swift–Hohenberg equation with application in biological science and mechanical engineering. The generalized Swift–Hohenberg equation is a fourth-order PDE; thus, this paper uses the local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) method for it.

Design/methodology/approach

At first, the spatial direction has been discretized by the LDG technique, as this process results in a nonlinear system of equations based on the time variable. Thus, to achieve more accurate outcomes, this paper uses an exponential time differencing scheme for solving the obtained system of ordinary differential equations. Finally, to decrease the used CPU time, this study combines the proper orthogonal decomposition approach with the LDG method and obtains a reduced order LDG method. The circular and rectangular computational domains have been selected to solve the generalized Swift–Hohenberg equation. Furthermore, the energy stability for the semi-discrete LDG scheme has been discussed.

Findings

The results show that the new numerical procedure has not only suitable and acceptable accuracy but also less computational cost compared to the local DG without the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) approach.

Originality/value

The local DG technique is an efficient numerical procedure for solving models in the fluid flow. The current paper combines the POD approach and the local LDG technique to solve the generalized Swift–Hohenberg equation with application in the fluid mechanics. In the new technique, the computational cost and the used CPU time of the local DG have been reduced.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Martin Evans, Peter Farrell, Emad Elbeltagi and Helen Dion

The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry encounter substantial risks and challenges in its evolution towards sustainable development. International…

Abstract

Purpose

The architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) industry encounter substantial risks and challenges in its evolution towards sustainable development. International businesses, multinational AEC organisations, technical professionals, project and portfolio management organisations face global connectivity challenges between business units, especially during the outbreak of novel coronavirus pandemic, to manage construction megaprojects (CMPs). That raises the need to manage global connectivity as a main strategic goal of global organisations. This paper aims to investigate barriers to integrating lean construction (LC) practices and integrated project delivery (IPD) on CMPs towards the global integrated delivery (GID) transformative initiatives and develop future of work (FOW) global initiatives in contemporary multinational AEC organisations.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage quantitative and qualitative research approach is adopted. The qualitative research methodology consists of a literature review to appraise barriers to integrating LeanIPD&GID on CMPs. Barriers are arranged into six-factor clusters (FCs), with a conceptualisation of LeanIPD&GID, GID strategy placements and FOW global initiatives with multiple validations. This analysis also involved semi-structured interviews and focus group techniques. Stage two consisted of an empirical questionnaire survey that shaped the foundation of analysis and findings of 230 respondents from 23 countries with extensive cosmopolitan experience in the construction of megaprojects. The survey examined a set of 28 barriers to integrating LeanIPD&GID on CMPs resulting from a detailed analysis of extant literature after validation. Descriptive and inferential statistical tests were exploited for data analysis, percentage scoring analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and eigenvalues were used to elaborate on clustered factors.

Findings

The research conceptualised LeanIPD&GID principles and proposed GID strategy placements for LeanIPD&GID transformative initiatives and FOW global initiatives. It concluded that the most significant barriers to integration of LeanIPD&GID on CMPs are “lack of mandatory building information modelling (BIM) and LC industry standards and regulations by governments”, “lack of involvement and support of governments”, “high costs of BIM software licenses”, “resistance of industry to change from traditional working practices” and “high initial investment in staff training costs of BIM”. PCA revealed the most significant FCs are “education and knowledge-related barriers”, “project objectives-related barriers” and “attitude-related barriers”. Awareness of BIM in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is higher than LC and LC awareness is higher than IPD knowledge. Whilst BIM adoption in the MENA region is higher than LC; the second is still taking its first steps, whilst IPD has little implementation. LeanBIM is slightly integrated, whilst LeanIPD integration is almost not present.

Originality/value

The research findings, conclusion and recommendation and proposed GID strategy placements for LeanIPD&GID transformative initiatives to integrating LeanIPD&GID on CMPs. This will allow project key stakeholders to place emphasis on tackling LeanIPD&GID barriers identified in this research and commence GID strategies. The study has provided effective practical strategies for enhancing the integration of LeanIPD&GID transformative initiatives on CMPs.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Hossein Karimi, Timothy R.B. Taylor, Paul M. Goodrum and Cidambi Srinivasan

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to quantify the impact of craft worker shortage on construction project safety performance.

Design/methodology/approach

A database of 50 North American construction projects completed between 2001 and 2014 was compiled by taking information from a research project survey and the Construction Industry Institute Benchmarking and Metrics Database. The t-test and Mann-Whitney test were used to determine whether there was a significant difference in construction project safety performance on projects with craft worker recruiting difficulty. Poisson regression analysis was then used to examine the relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and Occupational Safety and Health Administration Total Number of Recordable Incident Cases per 200,000 Actual Direct Work Hours (TRIR) on construction projects.

Findings

The result showed that the TRIR distribution of a group of projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty tended to be higher than the TRIR distribution of a group of projects with no craft worker recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.004). Moreover, the average TRIR of the projects that reported craft worker recruiting difficulty was more than two times the average TRIR of projects that experienced no craft recruiting difficulty (p-value = 0.035). Furthermore, the Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that there was a positive exponential relationship between craft worker recruiting difficulty and TRIR in construction projects (p-value = 0.004).

Research limitations/implications

The projects used to construct the database are heavily weighted towards industrial construction.

Practical implications

There have been significant long-term gains in construction safety within the USA. However, if recent craft shortages continue, the quantitative analyses presented herein indicate a strong possibility that more safety incidents will occur unless the shortages are reversed. Innovative construction means and methods should be developed and adopted to work in a safe manner with a less qualified workforce.

Originality/value

The Poisson regression model is the first model that quantifiably links project craft worker availability to construction project safety performance.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 16 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2019

Yujie Cai

This chapter presents a theoretical framework of the industrial relations (IR) system in China’s coal mining industry, combining the roles of management organizations…

Abstract

This chapter presents a theoretical framework of the industrial relations (IR) system in China’s coal mining industry, combining the roles of management organizations, workers, and trade unions, as well as government agencies. It is one of the first empirical attempts to investigate the relationship between human resource (HR) practices, labor relations, and occupational safety in China’s coal mining industry over the past 60 years, based on the secondary data on coal mining accidents and case studies of two state-owned coal mines in a northern city in Anhui Province, China. The fluctuating occupational safety has been affected by government regulations over different time spans, marked by key political agendas, and by coal mining firms taking concrete measures to respond to these regulations, while exhibiting differing safety performance in state-owned versus township-and-village-owned mines. The field studies compared a safety-oriented to a cost-control-oriented HR and labor relations system, and their influences on safety performance. Coal mining firms and practitioners are advised to shift the traditional personnel management paradigm to a modern HR management system. In addition, although workers are often blamed directly for accidents, it is suggested that workers’ participation and voice in various processes of decision-making and policy implementation, and trade unions’ active involvement in protecting workers from occupational hazards, be encouraged.

Details

Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-192-6

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Jeffrey Boon Hui Yap, Karen Pei Han Lee and Chen Wang

High rate of accidents continue to plague the construction industry. The advancements in safety technologies can ameliorate construction health and safety (H&S). This…

Abstract

Purpose

High rate of accidents continue to plague the construction industry. The advancements in safety technologies can ameliorate construction health and safety (H&S). This paper aims to explore the use of emerging technologies as an effective solution for improving safety in construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a detailed literature review, a questionnaire survey was developed encompassing ten technologies for safety management and ten safety enablers using technologies in construction. A total of 133 responses were gathered from Malaysian construction practitioners. The collected quantitative data were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses to determine the meaningful relationships between the variables.

Findings

Findings revealed that the most effective emerging technologies for safety management are: building information modelling (BIM), wearable safety technologies and robotics and automation (R&A). The leading safety enablers are related to improve hazard identification, reinforce safety planning, enhance safety inspection, enhance safety monitoring and supervision and raise safety awareness.

Practical implications

Safety is immensely essential in transforming the construction industry into a robustly developed industry with high safety and quality standards. The adoption of safety technologies in construction projects can drive the industry towards the path of Construction 4.0.

Originality/value

The construction industry has historically been slow to adopt new technology. This study contributes to advancing the body of knowledge in the area of incorporating emerging technologies to further construction safety science and management in the context of the developing world. By taking cognisance of the pertinent emerging technologies for safety management and the safety enablers involved, construction safety can be enhanced using integrated technological solutions.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Hafiz Zahoor, Albert P.C. Chan, Ran Gao and Wahyudi P. Utama

The highest number of accidents in proportion to the employment rate is found in construction industry among all industries in Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The highest number of accidents in proportion to the employment rate is found in construction industry among all industries in Pakistan. The purpose of this paper is to identify and prioritize the contributory factors of accident causation that can significantly reduce the rate of accident in the construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 32 contributory factors of accident causation were identified through a triangulation strategy comprising eight face-to-face semi-structured interviews with the academic and industry experts coupled with a comprehensive literature review. Delphi survey was then conducted among the four respondent groups (clients, contractors, safety official and academia) to prioritize these factors. A consensus was achieved among the respondent groups after conducting two rounds of Delphi survey. Finally, the results were validated using the technique of inter-rater agreement (IRA) analysis.

Findings

All the shortlisted accident causation factors were graded as “important” to “extremely important”. Moreover, a “moderate” to “strong level” agreement was developed among the respondent groups. The three most significant factors were highlighted as “poor enforcement of safety rules and regulations by the Government agencies”, “insufficient allocation of safety budget and safety incentives by the client”, and “insufficient provision of safety training and resources by the contractor”.

Practical implications

The findings will help the key stakeholders to prioritize their energies towards achieving zero accident in the construction industry. Moreover, addition of academic experts as one of the respondent groups will enhance the linkages between the academia and the industry practitioners.

Originality/value

Besides highlighting the underlying causes of construction accidents in Pakistan, a detailed methodology is presented in this study for the analysis and validation of the Delphi survey data, which can be extrapolated in other regions and industries for elements prioritization. The findings of the study can also be generalized for other developing countries having similar work environment. The results validation through the use of IRA analysis is an addition to the field of construction safety research. The study also authenticates the applicability of IRA analysis to assess the agreement level among the respondents.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Shan Li and Florence Y.Y. Ling

An appropriate choice of strategies helps firms to survive and develop in a turbulent economic environment. The problem is that there are many strategies that can be…

Abstract

Purpose

An appropriate choice of strategies helps firms to survive and develop in a turbulent economic environment. The problem is that there are many strategies that can be adopted, but it is not clear which ones would boost profitability. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how architectural, engineering and construction (A/E/C) firms headquartered in mainland China (Chinese A/E/C firms) can achieve profitability in China; specifically, to uncover the critical strategies and practices adopted by Chinese A/E/C firms to achieve profitability using Porter's generic competitive strategies, Sun Tzu's Art of War, and the networking approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire. The data collection methods were mail survey and face‐to‐face interviews. The population comprised all A/E/C firms headquartered in China. Samples were randomly drawn from the China Construction Industry Association's database. Stratified sampling was adopted to select only firms that operated in Shanghai or Beijing.

Findings

The finding is that profitable Chinese A/E/C firms are more likely to adopt practices that differentiate them from competitors instead of pursuing a low‐cost strategy or focus strategy. In addition, they adopt practices that make them adaptable and flexible. Also, practices that involve collaboration, knowledge sharing, and obtaining resources from firms in the network are adopted by profitable firms.

Research limitations/implications

The data gathered might not be easily generalized to Chinese A/E/C firms operating in other parts of China because interviews were conducted with Chinese A/E/C firms operating in Beijing and Shanghai which are members of China's Construction Industry Association.

Practical implications

The paper is to inform practitioners of the practices and strategies that lead to profitability. Foreign firms that are planning to partner with Chinese A/E/C firms may also use the findings to assess whether their prospective Chinese partners are adopting some of these practices, so that they would be profitable and not face financial difficulties in the course of the partnership.

Originality/value

The paper shows that profitability could be achieved by certain critical practices, which are underpinned by Porter's generic competitive strategies, Sun Tzu's Art of War based on military tactics, and Granovetter's network approach based on social network theory.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2007

Patrick X.W. Zou, Dongping Fang, Shou Qing Wang and Martin Loosemore

This paper aims to provide useful information and suggestions for future improvement in relation to China's construction industry and market. With China's rapid economical…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide useful information and suggestions for future improvement in relation to China's construction industry and market. With China's rapid economical development and its entry to the World Trade Organization (WTO), much attention has been paid to the China construction business opportunities. However, not much information is available on the history, practices and business cultures of the Chinese construction industry.

Design/methodology/approach

Through literature review and interviews with industry professionals, this paper discusses the Chinese construction industry in terms of its market and management practice with a focus on tendering processes, contract management, project on‐site supervision and occupational health and safety (OHS) issues. It also discusses the challenges that face the Chinese construction industry.

Findings

China has gone over a long way in construction tendering, contract management and OHS. Its current practice is in the right direction. However, further development and improvements are necessary.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information to Chinese construction personnel for future improvement. This paper also provides useful information to overseas companies who are planning to enter China's construction market in the near future.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2017

Saharani bin Jaafar, Weng Wai Choong and Abdul Hakim bin Mohamed

The purpose of this paper is to identify the facilities maintenance employees’ priority on safety management practices and relationship to safety performance. The study…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the facilities maintenance employees’ priority on safety management practices and relationship to safety performance. The study aims to increase the safety performance among the facilities maintenance contractor by implementing safety management practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were collected by distributing questionnaire forms to the employees of selected facilities maintenance contractors representing general workers, technicians and executive- and the management-level employees. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson correlation and multiple regressions.

Findings

The descriptive results revealed that the employee priority on safety management practices is fairly “low”. The correlation and regression analyses tested and satisfied that management commitment, workers involvement in safety, safety training, safety communication and feedback, safety rules and procedures, and safety promotion policies significantly and strongly correlate with the degree and level of satisfaction to the safety performance.

Research limitations/implications

This research focuses only on facilities maintenance contractors working in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. It is possible that respondents from other areas or states may allow comparisons across different locations.

Practical implications

There are many factors affecting safety performance. By implementing safety management practices, high safety performance can be achieved in the facilities maintenance organisations in Malaysia.

Originality/value

This paper presents empirical findings on the relationship between employee priority on safety management practices elements and safety performance.

Details

Facilities, vol. 35 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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