The purpose of this paper is to explore a new possibility of providing high-temperature stable lead-free interconnections for low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC…
The purpose of this paper is to explore a new possibility of providing high-temperature stable lead-free interconnections for low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) hotplate. For gas-sensing application, a temperature range of 200°C-400°C is usually required by the sensing film to detect different gases which imply the requirement of thermally stable interconnects. To observe the effect of parameters influencing power of the device, electro-thermal simulation of LTCC hotplate is also presented. Simulated LTCC hotplate is fabricated using the LTCC technology.
The proposed task is to fabricate LTCC hotplate with interconnects through vertical access. Dedicated via-holes generated on the LTCC hotplate are used to provide the interconnections. These interconnections are based on adherence and bonding mechanism between LTCC and thick film. COMSOL software is used for finite element method (FEM) simulation of the LTCC hotplate structure.
Thermal reliability of these interconnections is tested by continuous operation of hotplate at 350°C for 175 h and cycling durability test performed at 500°C. Additionally, vibration test is also carried out for the hotplate with no damage observed in the interconnections. An optimized firing profile to reproduce these interconnections along with the experimental flowchart is presented.
Research activity includes design and fabrication of LTCC hotplate with metal to thick-film based interconnections through vertical access. Research work on interconnections based on adherence of LTCC and thick film is limited.
A new way of providing lead-free and reliable interconnections will be useful for gas sensor fabricated on LTCC substrate. The FEM results are useful for optimizing the design for developing low-power LTCC hotplate.
Adherence and bonding mechanism between LTCC and thick film can be used to provide interconnections for LTCC devices. Methodology for providing such interconnections is discussed.
In the continuing endeavour to work towards ever better management, experience plays a crucial role. We learn from success, but we can learn much more from failure. Further, it is far better and cheaper when we learn from other people′s failures rather than our own. This monograph assesses the requirements of project management in relation to industrial projects, illustrating the factors that can result in failure by means of a series of case studies of completed and abandoned projects worldwide that have failed in one way or another. The key roles played by project planning and project cost control in meeting and overcoming the practical problems in the management of industrial projects are examined in detail. In conclusion the lessons that can be learned are evaluated and presented, so that we may listen and learn – if only we will.
It has been said that the effective performance of the Project Manager (PM) is the single most critical factor affecting successful project outcomes. Little is known…
It has been said that the effective performance of the Project Manager (PM) is the single most critical factor affecting successful project outcomes. Little is known, however, of the nature and extent of the hindrances to PM effectiveness in the Construction Industry (CI). This paper reports on the results of a worldwide survey of PMs concerning these issues and shows that they have the potential to be more effective and more productive in their working. Associated with this is a need to be more aware of progress and developments in the CI generally, more aware of progress and developments in their own organization, more delegation of contract administration tasks and more general administrative support. Also highlighted is the lengthy working hours of PMs.
The time dimension of a country is a key determinant of the time horizon prevalent in the business sector. The long‐term horizons of Japan compared with the short‐term…
The time dimension of a country is a key determinant of the time horizon prevalent in the business sector. The long‐term horizons of Japan compared with the short‐term horizons of the United States are integral parts of their distinct business ideologies. There is a direct impact on their respective financial practices. A comparative analysis of the financial management ideologies, practices and techniques, within the framework of time horizon, offers an explanation of Japan's inordinate economic success in the global market.
The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the changing science and technology policy orientation during the 1990s for both China and India in the process of…
The purpose of this paper is to review and compare the changing science and technology policy orientation during the 1990s for both China and India in the process of globalization. In this concern, it seeks to understand the changed orientations of the scientists from the purely academic mode to academic‐entrepreneurial hybrid mode to build up strong national innovations systems in both the countries and present the detailed findings of a sample survey of bio‐scientists in China and India.
The paper makes an analytical review of changing science and technology policies in India and China in the global context by taking into consideration the government documents, reports and research papers, and presents the findings of the sample survey carried by the author, through interviews and questionnaire study of bio‐scientists in India and China.
The developments clearly indicate the changing structural and institutional context of scientific research in an entrepreneurial mode to build up strong national innovation systems (NIS) in both the countries. This is supported by the findings of the survey on the orientations of bio‐scientists in China and India with reference to the changed situation since 1990. It shows that majority of the scientists are of the opinion that equal importance should be given to exploration of knowledge as well as commercialization. In this new environment, scientist academician is slowly being metamorphosed into scientist entrepreneur but with a dual task to strengthen the NIS. The concept of scientist entrepreneur, in the present environment, is well placed in both the countries, although still under experimentation.
In the present context of globalization and growing international competition, the introduction of market cultures in the Chinese and the Indian economies is fast changing the orientation of the scientific communities in both the countries to perform the dual task of knowledge generation as well as commercialization in order to meet national socio‐economic objectives. This has not been studied before. The present paper tries to understand the ongoing metamorphosis of the academician to entrepreneur for long‐term sustainability of the NIS in India and China.
The concept of company culture is now playingan ever‐increasing role in the continuing endeavourto work towards ever better companymanagement, particularly in the…
The concept of company culture is now playing an ever‐increasing role in the continuing endeavour to work towards ever better company management, particularly in the industrial field. This monograph reviews the history and development of both national and company cultures, and then goes on to demonstrate the significance of a culture to proper company management. Well‐managed companies will have both a “quality culture” and a “safety culture” as well as a cultural history. However, it has to be recognised that the company culture is subject to change, and effecting this can be very difficult. Of the many national cultures, that of Japan is considered to be the most effective, as is demonstrated by the present dominance of Japan on the industrial scene. Many industrialised nations now seek to emulate the Japanese style of management, but it is not possible to copy or acquire Japan′s cultural heritage. The text is illustrated by a large number of practical examples from real life, illustrating the way in which the company culture works and can be used by management to improve company performance.
In the continuing endeavour to work towards ever better management, the engineering manager has a crucial role to play. The history of the engineer is reviewed and his/her possible present role in management is considered. Management objectives are outlined and defined and the specific role of the engineer emphasised. The best managers are leaders, in particular effective leaders of teams, and this is a management task well within the grasp of the engineer. The engineer′s specific training and initial experience give him/her special qualifications in this area. Indeed, there seems to be no reason why the engineer should not climb the management ladder right to the top, especially these days when technology is continually growing in importance. The demands made on the effective chief executive are outlined. It would seem that engineering management has come of age and that with the appropriate management training the engineer should be well capable of filling a senior management role.
We are negotiating all the time: with customers, suppliers, trade unions, our family ‐ indeed, all with whom we come into contact. In business, in particular, negotiation needs management. There are said to be eight stages in negotiation: prepare, argue, signal, propose, present the package, bargain, close and agree. At the proposal stage one must be clear about what one must achieve, what one intends to achieve, and what one would like to achieve. The approach to constructive and competitive negotiation, the role of consultation, how to cope with deadlock and conflict, cross‐cultural negotiation, and the art of compromise are reviewed. The development and use of teams in negotiation is also an important factor, needing careful assessment. Negotiation will nearly always involve conflict, but steps must be taken to ensure that the participants remain on friendly terms.
In the continuing endeavour to work towards ever better management, the project manager has a crucial role to play. This monograph assesses the requirements of project management in terms of training and experience, demonstrates what sort of person the project manager should be, and also the role that should be played by the project team. In order to illustrate the manner in which the essential qualities in both the project manager and his team are displayed in action a number of completed projects worldwide are reviewed. Both successful projects and disastrous projects are used to demonstrate the way in which the problems encountered in real life can be met and overcome. In conclusion both the prospects and the problems that the future may hold for the project manager are assessed.