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The purpose of this study was to explore and identify factors affecting adoption and implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in large…
The purpose of this study was to explore and identify factors affecting adoption and implementation of information and communication technology (ICT) in large ICT‐experienced Australian construction organizations. During 2002 the researchers undertook an online survey, supplemented by a hardcopy collection option, to gather data from three major construction organizations with many years experience with implementing and adopting IT. The analysis concentrated on a common class of ICT adopted across the three organizations so that factor analysis could be validly undertaken. Results identified 11 factors that were found to influence ICT diffusion and adoption by the organizations that were grouped into management, individual, technology and workplace environment categories. These concurred with theory from the change management, innovation diffusion and organizational learning literature. Further, in‐depth qualitative analysis through case studies (beyond the scope of this paper) also helped to explain and make sense of the results. The results help to better explain human related factors in particular in terms of the broader and emerging literature of organizational learning and innovation adoption with a clear focus on how the people‐side of ICT diffusion and adoption is undertaken. This ICT diffusion and adoption study is undertaken at the firm‐level (micro analysis) as opposed to the industry level (macro analysis) and so provides insights into the interplay between diffusion and adoption concepts.
The purpose of this research is to explore and test conceptual issues of how communities of practice (CoPs) are a recognized means of transferring knowledge. Analysis of…
The purpose of this research is to explore and test conceptual issues of how communities of practice (CoPs) are a recognized means of transferring knowledge. Analysis of data, derived from reflection upon experience gained by close full‐time engagement on three complex, large‐scale engineering construction projects. Five emerging themes that help to explain how CoPs may be nurtured to increase the effectiveness of project management are revealed: creating a knowledge environment, discovering and recruiting potential members, information sharing, time for communicating, and motivation and rewards. The development of CoPs requires time and the creation of a knowledge environment. In the complex world of international construction, most projects are unique physical undertakings, have teams that have never worked together before, have a limited duration, with participants located in numerous countries. Thus, there is a natural tension between the need and the reality that requires strong cross‐cultural leadership, and special techniques, if CoPs are to be utilized. This paper practically illustrates, based on rigorous organizational literature theory largely missing from the engineering community, how CoPs can be actually nurtured and used. The metaphor used to illustrate this should resonate strongly with construction engineers and designers.
This study investigates the cost and time performance of highway projects from the viewpoint of the public owner. It differs from previous studies which focused on the…
This study investigates the cost and time performance of highway projects from the viewpoint of the public owner. It differs from previous studies which focused on the contractor’s perspective on project performance. A total of 13 success factors were identified from literature and the opinions of experienced engineers. Data was collected from 99 projects handled by the Department of Highways (DOH) in Thailand Discriminant analysis was used in this study to build the cost and time predictive models, which were generated from samples of cases, which had already been grouped and known as successful and unsuccessful projects. The models were then applied to new cases with measurements for the predictor variables, to predict that the projects were either successful or unsuccessful. The results show that success in cost performance depends on the management of construction resources, budget management, construction method, and communication. By contrast, schedule management and human resource management inhibit cost performance. Success in time performance depends on choice of construction method, management of construction resources, schedule management, supervision and control, and communication. Quality management, budget management, human resource management, owner involvement, and team relationships impede time performance
Construction time performance (CTP) factors recently identified in work commissioned by the Construction Industry Institute Australia (CIIA) indicate that project team…
Construction time performance (CTP) factors recently identified in work commissioned by the Construction Industry Institute Australia (CIIA) indicate that project team effectiveness significantly influences CTP. Project complexity also was found to significantly contribute to CTP. However, no residential projects were studied in that survey. This paper reports upon CTP research undertaken into Australian multi‐unit residential construction that fills this theory gap. Results indicate that the construction management (CM) team's effectiveness in managing theconstruction process has a major but not predominant role in influencing CTP. Team communication effectiveness and teamwork factors are also essential factors influencing CTP. Other factors found to affect CTP include: design team's management style; intra‐team working relationships; the degree of experience and expertise for the same type and size of project; procurement method; and the level of the CM team's current workload.
Team leaders require enthusiasm and commitment from their team members to enable them to be agile, adaptable and responsive. This paper uses results from a longitudinal…
Team leaders require enthusiasm and commitment from their team members to enable them to be agile, adaptable and responsive. This paper uses results from a longitudinal study of a successful building construction project delivered using a project alliancing approach. Results presented use a model pioneered by the US academic Peter Senge. This helps explain the system dynamics that generated the necessary enthusiasm and commitment to support collaboration and co‐operation within and between project teams. It became clear that enthusiasm and commitment can be achieved on construction projects provided that a collaborative and co‐operative workplace environment is carefully nurtured and crafted, which not only supports drivers for enthusiasm and commitment, but also addresses barriers that inhibit those values. Experience gained from studying the exemplar project illustrated in this paper provides the basis for a model of how to create and maintain the necessary workplace environment.
This paper outlines how the project agreement operating on the Australian National Museum project in Canberra, Australia facilitated a responsible and responsive workplace…
This paper outlines how the project agreement operating on the Australian National Museum project in Canberra, Australia facilitated a responsible and responsive workplace environment for construction workers. A project alliancing approach was adopted and designed to encourage industrial relations innovation in the workplace. The trigger for this approach was the perceived success of the alliancing working arrangements between key project delivery teams and a desire to extend this arrangement to subcontractors, suppliers and the workforce. Changes in the Australian workplace relations environment and introduction of a national code of practice for the Australian construction industry provided impetus for reaching a new type of workplace agreement. The workplace culture and characteristics of relationships formed between workers and management on that site shaped the agreed terms and conditions of work. It also spurred the pursuit of innovative approaches to project delivery from a technology, management and workplace culture perspective.
Conclusions flowing from an investigation of the literature together with the results of two recent research studies suggest that the relationship quality between the…
Conclusions flowing from an investigation of the literature together with the results of two recent research studies suggest that the relationship quality between the client representative (CR), the design team and the team undertaking construction management activities is a major factor governing construction time performance (CTP). While the managerial performance of the manager of the construction team was found to be a pivotal factor, the interaction between the CR and the construction management team was found to be crucial in facilitating good CTP, i.e. achieving a fast build rate. One interesting and valuable insight gained from the research studies reviewed in the present paper suggests that selection of a CR should be based on the capacity of the CR to gain the confidence of the project team. The CR characteristics which are significantly associated with good CTP are also discussed. It is proposed that these provide useful selection guidelines for appointing the appropriate person or team to represent the client's interests within the project coalition.
Price reliability for complex and highly complicated infrastructure projects is problematic. Traditional project delivery approaches generally fail in achieving targeted…
Price reliability for complex and highly complicated infrastructure projects is problematic. Traditional project delivery approaches generally fail in achieving targeted end cost reliability. However, integrated project delivery (and particularly Alliancing), develop a far more reliable and robust project delivery plan and outturn time-cost targets. This paper aims to explore why this may be the case.
This case study investigated the project design, planning, cost/time estimation approach and how risk/uncertainty was dealt with. Five senior project delivery experts from an organisation that delivers multi-billion-dollar infrastructure projects in Australia were interviewed. These five experts collectively had 100+ cross-disciplinary experience years delivering complex infrastructure projects.
Alliancing adopts a radically different approach to project design, time/cost planning and risk assessment and management to traditional project delivery approaches. Key findings explain how the project alliance agreement designs-in processes that maximises team integration and collaboration. Analysis concludes that design thinking is used to craft and shape collaborative behaviours and project governance. Additionally, including project owner and facilities operator representatives in the project team adds valuable insights, expertise and knowledge contributing to planning reliability.
This study is exploratory and focussed on complex infrastructure projects so findings cannot be generalised.
We unpack Alliancing processes that develop the target outturn cost plan, comprising a holistic and realistic plan to design a project to meet expected project outcomes. This case study may serve as an exemplar for complex project delivery.
This paper illustrates how Alliancing more effectively delivers best value than traditional procurement approaches through its TOC-TAE processes.
The paper contributes to the scant existing academic literature analysing these processes. Its novel contribution is explaining how Alliancing treats unexpected events that in traditional delivery forms trigger expensive and time-energy-wasting disputation. This case study may serve as an exemplar for complex project delivery.