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This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder…
This paper gives a review of the finite element techniques (FE) applied in the area of material processing. The latest trends in metal forming, non‐metal forming, powder metallurgy and composite material processing are briefly discussed. The range of applications of finite elements on these subjects is extremely wide and cannot be presented in a single paper; therefore the aim of the paper is to give FE researchers/users only an encyclopaedic view of the different possibilities that exist today in the various fields mentioned above. An appendix included at the end of the paper presents a bibliography on finite element applications in material processing for 1994‐1996, where 1,370 references are listed. This bibliography is an updating of the paper written by Brannberg and Mackerle which has been published in Engineering Computations, Vol. 11 No. 5, 1994, pp. 413‐55.
Introduction Corrosion inhibitors are used during pickling, oil‐well acidification and in other process industries to control corrosion and hydrogen absorption by steels…
Introduction Corrosion inhibitors are used during pickling, oil‐well acidification and in other process industries to control corrosion and hydrogen absorption by steels. The suitability of an inhibitor is judged by measuring the corrosion rate and by the hydrogen absorbed by the material during the operation in the presence of inhibitors. It is generally believed that the efficacy of an inhibitor in controlling hydrogen absorption increases with its increase in corrosion mitigatory properties. This principle is true for the inhibitors which function by uniform film formation but fails in the case of poisons such as compounds of As, S, P and Sb, which strongly polarize the recombination step of the hydrogen evolution reaction on metal surfaces:
A historical analysis of Sikhism demonstrates that Sikh thinking on ethical management has long predated academic thinking and research pertaining to this subject. It also…
A historical analysis of Sikhism demonstrates that Sikh thinking on ethical management has long predated academic thinking and research pertaining to this subject. It also demonstrates the relationship between good management and peace. Sikhism with its relatively secular orientation promoted both profits by working and the peaceful society that was necessary to obtain these. Hence the concept of ‘Sikh Peace management’ became a reality. Its foundation is the idea that working and management for the common good acts as a spiritual experience and that it interacts with and reinforces a peaceful environment. Despite its similarities with Calvin’s work ethics Sikhism did not lead to religious warfare like in 16th and 17th century Europe. It did result however in ‘defensive’ characteristics, which, just like work, became part of a new spirituality.
Pyridine and some of its derivatives have been evaluated as inhibitors for the corrosion of API‐45 steel in NACE sour solution. Amongst the various methyl and halogen…
Pyridine and some of its derivatives have been evaluated as inhibitors for the corrosion of API‐45 steel in NACE sour solution. Amongst the various methyl and halogen substituted pyridine compounds, 2,4,6‐trimethyl pyridine is found to afford maximum protection followed by 2,6‐dimethyl pyridine, >2,4‐dimethyl pyridine, >3‐bromopyridine, >2‐methyl pyridine, 4‐methyl pyridine, 3,5‐dimethyl pyridine, >2 and 3‐chloropyridine>pyridine. These results have been discussed in the light of availability of the electron densities with the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The inhibitive periormance of all the inhibitors is found to deteriorate with increase in temperature from 30 to 60°C and with passage of time. The values of heat of absorption and free energy of absorption indicates that the inhibitors have a chemical type of absorption at the metal/electrolyte interface. Polarization diagrams and shift in open circuit potential in the presence of inhibitors indicate that these compounds retard the cathodic as well as anodic reaction process.
This paper aims to attempt to examine the effect of firm-customer exchange characteristics, frequency and specificity, on the likelihood of the firm to generate…
This paper aims to attempt to examine the effect of firm-customer exchange characteristics, frequency and specificity, on the likelihood of the firm to generate customer-driven innovation. The authors draw from social capital theory and argue that repetitive and customer-specific exchange improves the trusts between firm and customers, which in turn ease the flows of tacit knowledge from customers to the firm. From the perspective of customer knowledge management, the authors contribute by examining the mechanism by which a firm can acquire knowledge from and about customers. The authors further argue that a firm’s ability to absorb knowledge from customers and turn them into innovation also depends on its internal capability. A firm that consistently upgrades its capacity is more likely to generate customer-driven innovation than those that do not. Also, the authors argue that the joint effect of exchange characteristics and internal capability upgrading can further increase the likelihood of customer-driven innovation. Such a joint force implies the positive moderating effect of internal capability upgrading to the relationship between exchange characteristics and customer-driven innovation.
The authors test the hypotheses on 3,000 firms from six countries in Latin America. They take advantage of the 2017 World Bank Enterprises Survey. This most recent of the survey asks questions on various types of innovation and firm-customers exchange characteristics and other firm-level variables.
The authors find support for our hypotheses that repeated exchange and exchanges tailored to specific customers have a positive effect on customer-driven innovation. Also, they find the support that internal capability upgrading, in the form of investment in product design, marketing and organizational development has a positive effect on customer-driven innovation. The authors also find that investment in product design positively moderates the impact of exchange characteristics on the likelihood of customer-driven innovation.
While past studies focus on strategies to acquire and manage customers’ knowledge, little has been said about how exchange attributes can encourage or discourage innovation? This question is important because various theoretical perspectives may have a different prediction on the effect of firm-customer relationship and innovation. This study attempts to bridge such theoretical tension.
Workplace voice is well-established and encompasses behaviors such as prosocial voice, informal complaints, grievance filing, and whistleblowing, and it focuses on…
Workplace voice is well-established and encompasses behaviors such as prosocial voice, informal complaints, grievance filing, and whistleblowing, and it focuses on interactions between the employee and supervisor or the employee and the organizational collective. In contrast, our chapter focuses on employee prosocial advocacy voice (PAV), which the authors define as prosocial voice behaviors aimed at preventing harm or promoting constructive changes by advocating on behalf of others. In the context of a healthcare organization, low quality and unsafe patient care are salient and objectionable states in which voice can motivate actions on behalf of the patient to improve information exchanges, governance, and outreach activities for safer outcomes. The authors draw from the theory and research on responsibility to intersect with theories on information processing, accountability, and stakeholders that operate through voice between the employee-patient, employee-coworker, and employee-profession, respectively, to propose a model of PAV in patient-centered healthcare. The authors complete the model by suggesting intervening influences and barriers to PAV that may affect patient-centered outcomes.
Pro-poor innovations are innovations targeted at economically poor consumers. These innovations have the potential to improve consumer wellbeing. However, while take up of…
Pro-poor innovations are innovations targeted at economically poor consumers. These innovations have the potential to improve consumer wellbeing. However, while take up of some such innovations has been rapid (e.g., mobile phones) take up of others has been slower (e.g., fuel efficient stoves). What explains why some pro-poor innovations fail and some succeed? While the literature on consumer innovation adoption in economically wealthy countries is vast, there is very little literature in the context of the “bottom-of-the-pyramid” (BoP) and subsistence marketplaces. This chapter aims to begin answering this question through a review of the extant literature in the area of consumer innovation adoption, which is integrated with literature in the area of consumption within subsistence marketplaces and the BoP. A conceptual model is proposed which outlines key parameters for marketers and managers. The chapter closes by outlining implications and a future research agenda.
Like aqueous corrosion of metals, atmospheric corrosion of metallic articles has also been a matter of great anxiety due to the individual and joint action of oxygen, humidity and various types of pollution gases and ions in the atmospheres. As there is no limit of oxygen availability in the open atmosphere, this type of corrosion of metals is mainly controlled by humidity. In industrial mines and marine environments, however, metal attack is controlled by aggressive gases, ions and chloride ions respectively.
The purpose of this paper is to report on a study conducted for the purpose of learning more about the mindfulness experiences of college students and their teachers. To…
The purpose of this paper is to report on a study conducted for the purpose of learning more about the mindfulness experiences of college students and their teachers. To assist in developing a more inclusive approach to the teaching of mindfulness tailored to the individual needs of more vulnerable students and to inform teacher training and curriculum development.
This three-phase phenomenological study involved face-to-face and online contact with community college students and teachers involved in courses that incorporated mindfulness meditation. The findings from interviews with students in phase 1 were shared with teachers in phase 2 along with suggestions for safeguarding in phase 3 but initial results are promising as a number of safeguards have already been put into place.
This study found that mindfulness meditation is not necessarily a positive experience for vulnerable college students and their teachers and that there was a need for more teacher training, knowledge and ongoing support about the effects of some mindfulness meditations on some vulnerable students and how to adjust their intensity.
While this is a small qualitative study, the majority of students interviewed reported unusual experiences. This this is not well known in the literature on mindfulness in higher education, and a search of the clinical literature supports the findings that significant safeguards and adjustments are needed for mindfulness meditation for vulnerable students in educational, non-clinical settings. Further research is needed.
An implication of this study is that mindfulness meditation in its current form is likely to be unsuitable for vulnerable students. Practical recommendations for safeguarding mindfulness in higher education are already being trialed, as mentioned in this paper and will be the subject of more extensive exploration in another paper.
There are significant implications in these findings that the potential harmful effects of mindfulness may be overlooked and may be more commonly experienced than is currently realized especially for individuals with a history of trauma, with addictions, mental health difficulties or self-harm.
An innovation in this study is its methodology which drew out students’ and teachers’ own experience of mindfulness meditation in their own words when most mindfulness studies are quantitative and tend to focus on outcomes before understanding. In addition, the findings were presented directly to teachers making it possible to see how little they knew about their students’ experiences. This created an opening and a willingness to adopt safeguarding recommendations.