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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1966

A.R. Colwell

DURING the past eighteen years, Elliott‐Automation Ltd. has developed and proved a concept of high‐reliability design in aviation control systems, which is now finding…

Abstract

DURING the past eighteen years, Elliott‐Automation Ltd. has developed and proved a concept of high‐reliability design in aviation control systems, which is now finding increasingly wide application outside the limits of its original conception.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 38 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Book part
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Uma A. Segal

Approximately 3.5% of the world’s population currently lives outside the borders of its birthplace, and the impetus for its emigration are myriad, but underlying all migration is…

Abstract

Approximately 3.5% of the world’s population currently lives outside the borders of its birthplace, and the impetus for its emigration are myriad, but underlying all migration is the anticipation of improved opportunities. Among the specific reasons that people migrate is the aim to escape conflict in the homeland; included in the range of experiences that immigrants may have in the host country is conflict. This chapter provides an overview of global migration with particular focus on (1) when its impetus is conflict in the homeland, and (2) migration-related conflict in the host country. It addresses both voluntary and forced migration and presents a model of the migration – conflict nexus and some thoughts, methods, and tools that can be utilised to mitigate difficulties in both nation of origin and of destination.

Details

New Frontiers in Conflict Management and Peace Economics: With a Focus on Human Security
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83982-426-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2018

Robert L. Dipboye

Abstract

Details

The Emerald Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-786-9

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

D.A. Elliott

In August 1987, the EPA held a conference in Washington DC with consultants and users from the electronics industry to determine the feasibility of practical cleaning alternatives…

Abstract

In August 1987, the EPA held a conference in Washington DC with consultants and users from the electronics industry to determine the feasibility of practical cleaning alternatives to reduce emissions of chlorofluorocarbon solvents which are considered to be a major contributor to the ozone problem in the stratosphere the world over. This paper presents a short resume of these goals and how they will affect cleaning in the electronics industry. Electronic design and packaging are the first steps in the soldering and cleaning processes. Selection of components compatible with alternative cleaning methods as well as process changes to permit low solids fluxes in some cases where cleaning can be eliminated will be discussed. ‘High containment’ in‐line solvent cleaning systems which reduce emissions are likely to become the new standard for the industry. Machines will become longer in order to include internal drying stages, instead of allowing a board with residual solvent trapped under components to evaporate after it leaves the machine prior to electronic test. Alternative solvents will become available. Designers of components and assemblies will respecify their designs to permit water cleaning, even for surface mount assemblies.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Christin L. Munsch and Elizabeth S. Zack

An accelerometer is a device that measures force due to gravity or a change in speed or direction of travel. This paper describes accelerometers and their application in other…

Abstract

Purpose

An accelerometer is a device that measures force due to gravity or a change in speed or direction of travel. This paper describes accelerometers and their application in other disciplines and, by way of an example, explores the utility of accelerometers for studying aggression. We end with a discussion of additional ways accelerometers might be used in group processes research.

Methodology

We first review the use of accelerometers in other disciplines. We then present the results of four studies that demonstrate the use of accelerometers to measure aggression. Study 1 establishes the measure’s concurrent validity. Study 2 concerns its stability and representative reliability. Study 3 seeks to establish the measure’s predictive validity by associating it with an existing measure. Study 4 demonstrates the ability of accelerometers to address a sociological research question.

Findings

In Studies 1 and 2, we find that accelerometers can be used to differentiate between distinct levels of aggression. In Study 3, we find that men’s average peak acceleration correlates with a previously validated measure of aggression. Study 4 uses accelerometers to reproduce a well-established finding in the aggression literature.

Practical Implications

We conclude that accelerometers are a flexible tool for group processes’ researchers and social scientists more broadly. Our findings should prove useful to social scientists interested in measuring aggression or in employing accelerometers in their work.

Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2015

Peter M. Rivera and Frank D. Fincham

Research on the intergenerational transmission of violence has been limited by reliance on variable-oriented methodology that does not capture heterogeneity that exists within…

Abstract

Purpose

Research on the intergenerational transmission of violence has been limited by reliance on variable-oriented methodology that does not capture heterogeneity that exists within experiences of violent interpersonal conduct. The current study therefore examines the utility of a person-oriented statistical method in understanding patterns of maltreatment and intimate partner violence.

Approach

Guided by person-oriented theory, the current study utilizes latent class analysis, a person-oriented method used with cross-sectional data, to examine the heterogeneity within this transmission process in a sample of emerging adults (N = 150). This study also examined whether the classes identified differed on reported emotional reactivity and childhood family environment.

Findings

Three classes emerged from the latent class analysis, labeled full transmission, psychological transmission, and no transmission. Those comprising the full transmission subgroup reported the lowest levels of childhood family cohesion, accord, and closeness. The full transmission subgroup also reported significantly more emotional reactivity than the psychological transmission and no transmission subgroups.

Implications

To understand fully the etiology of intimate partner violence for maltreated offspring, a multidimensional view of violence is needed. The current study represents a step in this direction by demonstrating the utility of a person-oriented approach in understanding the IGT of violence.

Details

Violence and Crime in the Family: Patterns, Causes, and Consequences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-262-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Monjur Mourshed and Mohammed A. Quddus

Renewable energy (RE) is an important component to the complex portfolio of technologies that have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and to enhance the security of energy…

1628

Abstract

Purpose

Renewable energy (RE) is an important component to the complex portfolio of technologies that have the potential to reduce CO2 emissions and to enhance the security of energy supplies. Despite RE's potential to reduce CO2 emissions, the expenditure on renewable energy research, development, and demonstration (RERD&D) as a percentage of total government energy research, development, and demonstration (ERD&D) investment remains low in developed countries. The declining ERD&D expenditure prompted this research to explore the relationship between CO2 emissions per capita and RERD&D as opposed to ERD&D.

Design/methodology/approach

An econometric analysis of annual CO2 emissions per capita during the period 1990‐2004 for the 15 pre‐2004 European Union (EU15) countries was carried out. It was hypothesized that the impact of RERD&D expenditure on the reduction of CO2 emissions would be higher than that of ERD&D expenditure, primarily due to several RE technologies being close to carbon neutral. Country‐level gross domestic product per capita and an index of the ratio between industry consumption and industrial production were introduced in the analysis as proxies to control for activities that generate CO2 emissions. A number of panel data econometric models that are able to take into account both country‐ and time‐specific unobserved effects were explored.

Findings

It was found that random effect models were more appropriate to examine the study hypothesis. The results suggest that expenditure on RERD&D is statistically significant and negatively associated with CO2 emissions per capita in all models, whereas expenditure on ERD&D is statistically insignificant (ceteris paribus).

Originality/value

The findings of this paper provide useful insight into the effectiveness of RERD&D investment in reducing CO2 emissions and are of value in the development of policies for targeted research, development, and demonstration investment to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 5 November 2021

Sarai Pouso and Erik Gómez-Baggethun

While concentration of population in urban areas continues, limited contact with ecological dynamics undermines awareness on human dependence on ecosystems. However, demands on…

Abstract

While concentration of population in urban areas continues, limited contact with ecological dynamics undermines awareness on human dependence on ecosystems. However, demands on ecosystems have never been higher than in today's urbanized planet, and cities make major contributions to global environmental problems. Enhancing green and blue infrastructure (GBI) in cities can reduce the ecological footprints of cities, while enhancing urban resilience and quality of life for their inhabitants. Urban GBIs provide multiple benefits to people in the form of ecosystem services (ES) and hold potential for providing nature-based solutions (NBS) to address urban challenges.

To adequately evaluate the ES provided by GBI, researchers have recently advocated integrated valuations. Integrated valuations aim at overcoming the limitations of the traditional single discipline and narrow approaches, by considering the multiple ways in which humans benefit from nature across the economic social and cultural domains.

In this chapter, we present examples of integrated valuations of ES in two Spanish cities, Barcelona and Bilbao. Both examples combine different valuation techniques and metrics, both monetary and nonmonetary, to account for the ES provided by urban GBIs and to assess their potential as NBS.

Our case examples show that urban GBIs provide many valuable benefits to urban dwellers. One of the clearest outcomes from these infrastructures is cultural ES, especially the multiple recreation and leisure opportunities they provide, which in turn has a remarkable positive effect on human health and well-being.

Details

Nature-Based Solutions for More Sustainable Cities – A Framework Approach for Planning and Evaluation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-637-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 April 2008

Brian Bumbarger and Daniel Perkins

Demonstrating the efficacy and effectiveness of prevention programmes in rigorous randomised trials is only the beginning of a process that may lead to better public health…

Abstract

Demonstrating the efficacy and effectiveness of prevention programmes in rigorous randomised trials is only the beginning of a process that may lead to better public health outcomes. Although a growing number of programmes have been shown to be effective at reducing drug use and delinquency among young people under carefully controlled conditions, we are now faced with a new set of obstacles. First, these evidence‐based programmes are still under‐utilised compared to prevention strategies with no empirical support. Second, when effective programmes are used the evidence suggests they are not being implemented with quality and fidelity. Third, effective programmes are often initiated with short‐term grant funding, creating a challenge for sustainability beyond seed funding. We discuss each of these challenges, and present lessons learned from a large‐scale dissemination effort involving over 140 evidence‐based programme replications in one state in the US.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 August 2021

Anna Schliehe

Abstract

Details

Young Women's Carceral Geographies: Abandonment, Trouble and Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-050-9

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