Search results1 – 10 of over 2000
In the last decade, Argentina has experienced a considerable decline in informal employment and wage dispersion. This paper extends a search model with exogenous human…
In the last decade, Argentina has experienced a considerable decline in informal employment and wage dispersion. This paper extends a search model with exogenous human capital accumulation to include the informal sector. The model is parametrized to match Argentinian data between 1996 and 1998 – before the onset of the declining trend – and it is used to investigate the contribution of labor market measures to the falling informality, unemployment, and wage dispersion. The findings indicate that institutional factors did not contribute to the positive labor market trends observed; on the contrary, results show that higher severance pay and minimum wages increase informality and that the introduction of unemployment assistance contributed to the spread of informal contracts across the work force. Further, I find that compliance with minimum wage regulation strongly affects the final impact of these policies. While non perfect compliance might reduce unemployment, it reinforces the incentives of workers to move to the informal sector.
This paper reports the final results of a development project conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick films. Having shown…
This paper reports the final results of a development project conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick films. Having shown that improvements in copper thick film performance can be obtained under production conditions by the control and regulation of oxygen additions during the first stages of firing, the authors studied the effects on copper thick film systems of other gaseous oxidisers (CO2, N2O, H2O) injected into the nitrogen furnace atmosphere either throughout the entire furnace or into its burnout zone only. SEM examinations of the microstructures of copper films, correlated with properties such as adhesion, solderability and resistivity, allow ideal firing atmosphere conditions for copper thick film manufacturing to be determined: it is necessary to restrict atmosphere doping to the burnout zone; oxygen and water vapour are the most effective gaseous dopants. Some specific equipments have been developed for controlling the injection of these dopants into the furnace atmosphere.
This paper reports the results of development work conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick film systems through continuous…
This paper reports the results of development work conducted on nitrogen‐based atmospheres in order to improve the firing of copper thick film systems through continuous furnaces. The proposed solution is particularly suitable for industrial production conditions since it allows variations of the material quantity processed per unit time, resulting not only in an improvement in quality but also in productivity. Such improvements have been achieved by using a new gas distribution system which provides both zone control and regulation of oxygen additions in the nitrogen furnace atmosphere. An efficient set‐up of this system has become possible thanks to precise control of the oxygen profile in relation to the temperature cycle, taking into account various inks' characterisation, and owing to an extensive study of the effects of oxygen additions on copper thick film properties. The solution was tested in a muffle‐lined belt furnace with several commercial dielectric and copper inks, and for increasing oxygen additions into the furnace preheat zone. Different sample patterns were designed to test both monolayer and multilayer systems. The test programme includes measurements of resistivity, bondability, solderability, dielectric breakdown voltage and adhesion of copper films on alumina and on dielectric layers before and after ageing. Ink characterisation by thermogravimetry and by several gas analyses has confirmed that the organic vehicle removal mechanism under nitrogen atmospheres doped with oxygen is a burnout. Indeed, significant oxygen consumption occurs within the temperature range of the removal, as a function of the amount of ink processed. Oxygen additions in the furnace burnout zone greatly improve both the dielectric breakdown voltage and the adhesion of copper on alumina and on dielectric (especially after ageing), while sheet resistivity, wire bondability and soft solderability are not altered below a defined O2 level. It is therefore possible to determine an optimum oxygen addition range for which the thick films fired under such conditions will have the best characteristics. This optimum oxygen window is achieved thanks to a new regulation system which operates whenever variations occur in the quantity of paste processed.
This study aims to analyse the extent of online social responsibility (SR) information disclosure by Portuguese municipalities and to identify related determinant factors…
This study aims to analyse the extent of online social responsibility (SR) information disclosure by Portuguese municipalities and to identify related determinant factors, based on Institutional Theory and Legitimacy Theories.
A content analysis was performed on webpages from 60 sampled municipalities, and an information disclosure index was created.
Descriptive statistics obtained indicate the Total Disclosure Index (TDI) value was 0.46. The Economic Information sub-category exhibits the highest value (0.66), followed by the Social and Environmental Information categories (0.61 and 0.36, respectively).
The multivariate analysis results indicate that LA21 implementation the existence of tax burdens, the characterisation of a municipality as urban and environmental/SR certification application positively influence SR information disclosure. TDI is negatively affected by the existence of an inactive population (i.e. by the percentage of individuals ≤19 and ≥65 years of age).
City governments know well that culture is a powerful tool they can use to promote local development. Those governors also know that there are different ways to pursue…
City governments know well that culture is a powerful tool they can use to promote local development. Those governors also know that there are different ways to pursue that process. Two main strategies considered here are: instructional strategies, which promote cultural services among local inhabitants, and instrumental strategies to promote economic development creating big cultural spaces and large events. This chapter shows the impact of cultural strategies on the attraction of creative residents (creative class), as well as on income differences among Spanish municipalities.
Our main hypothesis is: in comparison with instructional strategies, instrumental strategies have a positive impact on local creativity and economic development. Using secondary data from the Spanish census, cultural strategies in a local area are analyzed, and are included in multiple regression models to test this idea.
These analyses show that, first, instrumental strategies have a positive impact on creative class localization; second, these strategies have a positive impact on local income regardless of the presence of a creative class, and moreover, the impact of a creative class on local income depends on the orientation of cultural strategies. This implies that the impact of creativity on local development is contextual according to the nature of local cultural strategies.
Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different…
Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different uses/activities and subsequently influence visitor experiences are under-researched. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that provides a bridge between on-site management, visitor attraction development and visitor experience by introducing a novel concept: “usability of visitor attractions.” This new concept captures how managers can develop uses for visitors to experience the attraction. Thus, this study explores this concept and serves as the foundation for further research on this topic.
The systematization of the state of the art is based on an exhaustive desk research review of both academic and grey literature to endorse the “usability of visitor attractions” concept.
The literature review reveals that visitor attraction management affects visitor experience. To succeed, managers should consider the ease of use and the design of activities. Therefore, an innovative conceptual model is built to explore how on-site management techniques based on this new concept impact on visitor’s experience.
Research on visitor experience in attractions has neglected the impact of on-site management tools hitherto. Therefore, the originality of the study lies on providing a robust framework that enlightens how visitor attraction management affects visitor experience by developing the usability. The study proposes a novel concept and an original model that will be of a critical interest to tourism academia and will serve as practical guidance for attraction managers.
旅游景点构成了旅游现象的本质。然而, 专门为其开发不同用途/活动并随后影响游客体验的管理技术仍处于起步阶段。因此, 本文的目的是通过引入一个新的概念：旅游景点的可用性来建立一个概念框架, 搭建现场管理、旅游景点开发和游客体验之间的关系桥梁。这一新概念描述了管理者如何开发游客体验景点的可用性。因此, 本文探讨了这一概念并以为未来旅游学术界对本主题感兴趣的相关研究奠定基础。
研究前沿的分类是基于详尽学朮和灰色文献的书面材料审查来背书 “旅游景点的可用性” 这一概念。
文献综述表明, 旅游景点管理影响游客体验。为达成这一目的, 管理者应该考虑景点使用的便利性和活动的设计。因此, 我们建立了一个创新的概念模型来探讨基于这一新概念的现场管理技术对游客体验的影响。
Los atractivos turísticos constituyen la esencia del fenómeno turístico. No obstante, las técnicas de gestión y planificación diseñadas expresamente para desarrollar diferentes usos/actividades en los atractivos, que posteriormente influyen en la experiencia de los visitantes, han sido escasamente investigadas. Por ello, el propósito de esta investigación radica en elaborar un marco conceptual que integre la gestión del atractivo, el progreso del mismo y la experiencia del visitante mediante la introducción de un concepto novedoso: “la usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”. Este nuevo concepto enfatiza la manera en que los gestores pueden implementar diferentes usos en los atractivos, proporcionando a los visitantes diversas experiencias. Por tanto, esta investigación explora el concepto y sirve como fundamento para futuras investigaciones.
La metodología se basa en una exhaustiva revisión de la producción científica y de informes de organismos públicos para respaldar el concepto de “usabilidad de los atractivos turísticos”.
La literatura examinada revela que la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia de los visitantes. Así pues, los gestores deben considerar en concreto la facilidad de uso y el diseño de actividades. De este modo, un modelo conceptual innovador ha sido construido para explorar cómo las técnicas de gestión basadas en este nuevo concepto tienen un impacto en la experiencia del visitante.
La investigación sobre la experiencia del visitante en los atractivos ha descuidado el impacto de las herramientas de gestión y planificación hasta ahora. Consecuentemente, la originalidad de esta investigación radica en proporcionar un marco robusto que señala cómo la gestión de los atractivos afecta en la experiencia del visitante mediante el desarrollo de la usabilidad. El estudio propone un concepto novedoso y un modelo original que se considera de gran interés para el ámbito científico, y al mismo tiempo, puede servir de guía práctica para los gestores de los atractivos turísticos.
- Visitor experience
- On-site management
- Usability of visitor attractions
- Visitor attraction management
- Visitor engagement
- Gestión de los atractivos turísticos
- Usabilidad de los atractivos
- Gestión turística
- Experiencia del visitante
- Interacción del visitante
The importance of nutraceuticals and functional foods has been a topic of interest in nutrition research for many years. This review aims to summarize the findings on the…
The importance of nutraceuticals and functional foods has been a topic of interest in nutrition research for many years. This review aims to summarize the findings on the nutritive value and health benefits of chia, as well as its use as a food fortificant.
Published literature on the nutritive value and therapeutic properties of chia has been reviewed.
Chia, an ancient grain, belongs to the mint family (Lamiaceae) and was cultivated in Mexico and Guatemala by the Mayas and Aztecs of a pre-Columbian era. In addition to being gluten-free, chia seeds are concentrated source of omega-3 fatty acids (mainly α-linolenic acid), fiber (insoluble) and polyphenolic compounds (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, chlorogenic and caffeic acids), which were found to be comparatively higher than many other grains, cereals and oily seeds. Chia supplementation has potential to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease, obesity, hypertension, cancer, diabetes, pruritus and celiac disease. Because of its nutraceutical and physiochemical properties, chia has been widely used as a whole seed, flour, seed mucilage, gel and oil for developing various enriched food products, such as bread, pasta, cakes, cookies, chips, cheese, yoghurt, meat, fish and poultry.
With advancement in nutrition research, chia would have a great future perspective as feed, food and medicine. However, further research is needed to validate the potential therapeutic effect of chia supplementation on human health.
This study analyzes the role of information disclosure in influencing credit card repayments by focusing on three intervention methods for improving repayment decisions…
This study analyzes the role of information disclosure in influencing credit card repayments by focusing on three intervention methods for improving repayment decisions among credit cardholders.
This study uses the survey method to collect data. Four questionnaires are designed to identify which types of disclosure elicit better repayment decisions among credit cardholders. The participants were approached using the mall intercept method, and a total of 1,775 responses were obtained.
Estimations using means comparison tests show that not providing minimum payment information improves repayments. The expected benefits are not delivered by the provision of higher minimum payment information or additional information that highlights the negative effects of making the minimum repayment only. Further analysis using logit estimation reconfirms the benefit of not providing minimum payment information. However, when such information is given, low minimum payment information elicits better repayment decisions than high minimum payment information or additional information. Repayment worsens under the additional information condition compared to the high minimum payment condition.
The findings of this study have a bearing on the decisions of policy makers, credit card issuers and consumers.
This paper clarifies the role of information in improving debt repayment decisions.
The analysis of cultural consumption centers on the influence of individual characteristics (mainly social class). However, this chapter proposes that this relationship is…
The analysis of cultural consumption centers on the influence of individual characteristics (mainly social class). However, this chapter proposes that this relationship is contextual. More specifically, this relationship varies according to the nature of local cultural scenes where people live. In order to show the contextual impact of cultural scenes, we analyze a representative survey among a Spanish population. Three main conclusions are drawn. First, two main dimensions explain the patterns of cultural consumption by the Spanish population: the classical distinction between popular and high culture, and the distinction between conventional and unconventional cultural practices. Second, other characteristics, beside social class, are important to explain the implication of population in different patterns of cultural consumption, for instance, age; young people are oriented toward more unconventional practices regardless of their social class. Third, local cultural scenes matter: the difference between cultural practices of different groups (for instance, young and old people) is reduced in municipalities oriented toward unconventionality, showing an “assimilation contextual effect.” This contextual effect also has some impact upon local cultural policies that we mention briefly.
The analysis of lifestyles and cultural consumption has focused mainly on determining the impact of individual attributes on the types of practices developed by individuals. However, the effect of the access or exposure to certain opportunities of cultural consumption is less frequently analyzed, or even whether this exposure has different effects according to different social groups. The analysis of this issue is one of the objectives of the “Cultural Scene” research program, which is being developed under the project “Cultural Dynamics of Cities.” In this chapter, we try to determine whether existing cultural scenes in different municipalities influence how Spanish residents develop their cultural practices, with data from a nationally representative survey.
This paper aims to investigate the relationship between relational capital produced by universities and knowledge structures, which include both the capacities and…
This paper aims to investigate the relationship between relational capital produced by universities and knowledge structures, which include both the capacities and competencies that students have learned and the capabilities they have put into practice.
To analyse research data and test the proposed model, partial least squares structural equation modelling (SmartPLS 3.2.9) is used on a sample of 125 students of a Spanish university.
The results of the study demonstrate that the creation of relational capital by universities will depend largely on how students’ capacity is supplemented and merged with students’ competency to develop synergies that increase the students’ capability to give an additional value to the community members.
This study allows an in-depth analysis of the cause and effect link between the knowledge structures and support the members of higher educational institutions to understand how to achieve relational capital in universities.