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Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Fatemeh Aamazadeh, Jaleh Barar, Yalda Rahbar Saadat and Alireza Ostadrahimi

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of sweet apricot kernel ethanolic extract (SAEE) on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of sweet apricot kernel ethanolic extract (SAEE) on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Design/methodology/approach

The extract was prepared by maceration, and its chemical composition was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The biological effects of SAEE on PANC-1 and 293/KDR cells were investigated using MTT (3–(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and AnnexinV/propidium iodide (PI) staining. The expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time q-PCR) analysis.

Findings

The SAEE showed the selective growth inhibitory activity against PANC-1 cells with an IC50 (the 50% inhibitory concentration) value of about 1 mg/mL at 72 h. Further investigations by DAPI staining and flow cytometry revealed nucleus fragmentation and elevation of apoptotic cells, respectively. Also, a significant decrease in B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)/Bcl-2-associated x protein (Bax) ratio (0.41, p = 0.001) and the up-regulation of caspase-3 expression (1.5 fold, p = 0.002) indicated the induction of apoptosis in PANC-1 cells but not in 293/KDR non-cancerous cells. These results suggest that SAEE could induce apoptosis in cancer cells via a mitochondrial dependent pathway. Furthermore, GC-MS analysis showed that the SAEE is rich in γ-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol. Overall, the findings suggest that because of the selective impacts of SAEE on PANC-1 cells, it can be considered as a supportive care in adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer. However, the potent anticancer effects of main components of SAEE and its clinical value as an antitumor drug should be further investigated.

Research limitations/implications

Considerable limitations of this study were that the related mechanisms of selective impacts of SAEE on cancerous and normal cells and potent cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of γ-sitosterol and γ-tocopherol as major components of SAEE were not investigated.

Originality/value

Recently, a growing interest has been dedicated to plant-based natural products. Sweet apricot kernel exerts a number of pharmacological activities; however, the anticancer effect, related mechanisms and its active compounds were rarely investigated. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic/apoptotic effects of SAEE on human cancerous PANC-1 and 293/KDR normal cells.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Chong Hueh Zan, Asmah Rahmat, Abdah, Akim, Norjahan Banu Mohd. Alitheen, Fauziah Othman and Gwendoline Ee Cheng Lian

The purpose of this paper is to screen cytotoxic activities of commonly used culinary plants in Malaysia, Pandanus amaryllifolius (daun pandan), Curcuma longa (turmeric…

830

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to screen cytotoxic activities of commonly used culinary plants in Malaysia, Pandanus amaryllifolius (daun pandan), Curcuma longa (turmeric leaves) and Etlingera elatior (kantan flower) against selected cancer cell lines.

Design/methodology/approach

Plant samples were extracted exhaustively with ethanol and concentrated under rotary evaporator. Cytotoxic evaluation was carried out with plant extracts (0‐100 μg/ml) using 72‐h MTT assay.

Findings

Exposure of plant extracts reduced cell viability of HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma), HT‐29 (colon carcinoma), MDA‐MB‐231 (non‐hormone‐dependent breast cancer), MCF‐7 (hormone‐dependent breast cancer) and HeLa (cervical cancer); 50 percent inhibitory values (IC50) were obtained for MDA‐MB‐231, HepG2, HT‐29. Extracts within the concentrations of 10‐100 μg/ml were found not to be effective against proliferation of MCF‐7 and HeLa.

Originality/value

The paper shows how culinary plants – daun pandan, turmeric leaves and kantan flower displayed selective cytotoxic effects towards liver, colon and breast cancer in vitro.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 March 2010

P.S. Maher, R.P. Keatch and K. Donnelly

The area of microfluidic systems has greatly enhanced the in vitro field of tissue engineering. Microfluidic systems such as microchannelled assays are now widely used for…

1005

Abstract

Purpose

The area of microfluidic systems has greatly enhanced the in vitro field of tissue engineering. Microfluidic systems such as microchannelled assays are now widely used for mimicking in vivo cell behaviour and studies into basic biological research. In certain cases engineered tissue cell design use 3D ordered geometrical configurations in vitro (such as microchannel assays) to reproduce native in vivo functions. The most common approach for manufacturing micro‐assays is now rapid prototyping (RP) technology. The choice of assay material is dependent on the proposed cell type and ultimately the tissue application. However, many RP technologies can be unsuitable for cell growth applications because of the construction methods and materials they employ. The purpose of this paper is to describe a comparison between two different RP 3D printing methods of fabrication and investigates the merits of each technology for direct cell culture applications using micro‐assays, while also examining the dispensing accuracy of both techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a Thermojet and Spectrum Z510 printer pre‐designed micro‐assays incorporating different size microchannels are dispensed. The base materials of both methods are examined for cytotoxic effects while in solution with primary tendon fibroblasts (PFB) cells. After obtaining favorable results from the toxicology experiments, PFB cells are seeded onto the thermojet structures with a view to investigate cell adherence, encapsulation and how the channel width influences cell alignment.

Findings

This research concluded that the thermojet had a higher degree of accuracy when manufacturing structures that incorporate microchannels when compared with the Spectrum Z510. Both techniques show that the accuracy of the build decreases with reduction in channel width. The fact that the Spectrum Z510 structures have to be infiltrated with a hardening glue as a post‐processing technique (since the dispensed material is water‐based and hence soluble) causes a cytotoxic effect compared to the thermojet plastic which is not cytotoxic in solution with PFB cells. Seeding the PBF cells directly onto the thermoplastic structure caused problems due to the hydrophobic nature of the material and this necessitated the technique of soaking the structures in a collagen bath to penetrate the surface and reduce the interactions of hydrophobic species enhancing cell attachment and proliferation. Without this coating the thermojet structures induced strong hydrophobic interactions at the surfaces of the microchannels with the culture media resulting in non‐attachment and poor cell mortality.

Originality/value

This research paper describes a comparison between the base materials and methodology of two 3D printing techniques for applications in basic biological studies. This is achieved by analysing the dispensing accuracy of both technologies and the interaction between cells and surface at the interface.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 February 2022

Panata Iawsipo, Rotsukon Poonbud, Natcha Somtragool, Photsathorn Mutapat and Anan Meejom

The study aimed to disclose the anti-cancer activity of Pluchea indica tea leaves by evaluating the cytotoxicity on breast and cervical cancer cells, compared with…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to disclose the anti-cancer activity of Pluchea indica tea leaves by evaluating the cytotoxicity on breast and cervical cancer cells, compared with non-cancer cells.

Design/methodology/approach

Two P. indica extracts were prepared using two solvents, namely hot water (PA) and ethanol (PE). MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) and clonogenic assays were applied to determine cytotoxic effect of both extracts toward cancer cells from human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7) and cervix (SiHa, HeLa and C-33A) and also non-cancer Vero cells. Dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA)-staining assay was used to quantify the intracellular level of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Correlation between the quantity of compounds present and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was analyzed by Pearson's method and a possible class of bioactive compounds was proposed based on the highest correlation coefficient (r).

Findings

Significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation capability was observed in all cancer cells after treatment with either PA or PE extract albeit PE was more effective. Lower toxicity was detected in Vero cells, indicating the selectivity and safety of extracts. The intracellular ROS level was augmented in treated cancer cells which were inversely correlated to cell viability, suggesting the cancer toxicity was likely induced by intracellular oxidative stress. As flavonoids were found abundantly in the extracts and flavonoids' content was the most related to the activity (r = 0.815), it was hypothesized that the flavonoids might play crucial roles in cancer cytotoxicity.

Originality/value

P. indica tea-leaf extracts can be a good source of promising anti-cancer agents with reduced side effects for breast and cervical cancer treatment.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 124 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Akaninyene Ubong Ime, Elemi John Ani, Victor Udo Nna and Christiana Egong Obeten

A plethora of publications have reported several cytotoxic effects associated with chronic consumption of thermoxidized palm oil. This research aims to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

A plethora of publications have reported several cytotoxic effects associated with chronic consumption of thermoxidized palm oil. This research aims to investigate the effects of garlic and Aloe vera on liver function and hepatic cytoarchitecture in rats fed thermoxidized palm oil diet.

Design/methodology/approach

Thirty-five male albino Wistar rats weighing 150-180 g were used for this study. They were randomly assigned into five groups (n = 7): control, thermoxidized palm oil diet fed (TPO), TPO plus garlic juice (TPO + G), TPO plus Aloe gel (TPO + A) and TPO plus garlic/Aloe gel (TPO + G + A). The TPO diet was prepared by mixing 15 g of cooled thermoxidized palm oil with 85 g of rat feed. The juice and gel were orally administered at doses of 2.00 ml/kg and 19.12 ml/kg, respectively. After 3 months of feeding and administration, the animals were sacrificed using standard methods and blood collected via cardiac puncture for analysis.

Findings

Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase were significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the TPO group compared to the control. This increase was reduced (p < 0.001) in all the treated groups compared to TPO, with the greatest decrease (p < 0.001) seen in TPO + A. Total bilirubin was increased (p < 0.001) in the TPO group compared to the control, whereas there was a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in all the treated groups. Serum proteins and plasma fibrinogen were lowered (p < 0.001) in the TPO group compared to the control but increased progressively in all the treated groups. TPO induced prominent histopathological derangements of the liver tissues. However, there were marked improvements following treatment with garlic and Aloe vera.

Originality/value

The results obtained in this study have revealed that chronic consumption of thermoxidized palm oil is hazardous to health by inducing hepatotoxicity, as seen in increased ALT, AST and total and unconjugated bilirubin and decreased total protein. However, these debilitating effects were seen to be greatly ameliorated following garlic juice and Aloe vera gel administration. If these results are to be extrapolated to humans, then the chronic consumption of thermoxidized palm oil diet should be seriously discouraged.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 January 2007

Arthur Bens, Hermann Seitz, Günter Bermes, Moritz Emons, Andreas Pansky, Barbara Roitzheim, Edda Tobiasch and Carsten Tille

To describe the development of a novel polyether(meth)acrylate‐based resin material class for stereolithography with alterable material characteristics.

2616

Abstract

Purpose

To describe the development of a novel polyether(meth)acrylate‐based resin material class for stereolithography with alterable material characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

A complete overview of details to composition parameters, the optimization and bandwidth of mechanical and processing parameters is given. Initial biological characterization experiments and future application fields are depicted. Process parameters are studied in a commercial 3D systems Viper stereolithography system, and a new method to determine these parameters is described herein.

Findings

Initial biological characterizations show the non‐toxic behavior in a biological environment, caused mainly by the (meth)acrylate‐based core components. These photolithographic resins combine an adjustable low Young's modulus with the advantages of a non‐toxic (meth)acrylate‐based process material. In contrast to the mostly rigid process materials used today in the rapid prototyping industry, these polymeric formulations are able to fulfill the extended need for a soft engineering material. A short overview of sample applications is given.

Practical implications

These polymeric formulations are able to meet the growing demand for a resin class for rapid manufacturing that covers a bandwidth from softer to stiffer materials.

Originality/value

This paper gives an overview about the novel developed material class for stereolithography and should be therefore of high interest to people with interest in novel rapid manufacturing materials and technology.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Alya Hanisah Omar, Chin Siang Kue, Roza Dianita and Ke-Xin Yu

Traditional Malaysian vegetables, also known as ulam, are believed to have healing properties among the local community. Ulam is commonly reported to have high antioxidant…

Abstract

Purpose

Traditional Malaysian vegetables, also known as ulam, are believed to have healing properties among the local community. Ulam is commonly reported to have high antioxidant content which makes it a popular food. The purpose of this paper is to determine the teratogenic potential of eight ulam, using zebrafish model. The tested ulam were Cosmos caudatus, Gynura procumbens, Labisia pumila var. alata, Phaleria macrocarpa, Polygonum minus, Piper sarmentosum, Premna foetida and Sauropus androgynous.

Design/methodology/approach

Methanol extract of ulam was prepared using the maceration method. Various concentrations of extracts were tested against fish embryo short-term toxicity test. The lethal concentration (LC50) and teratogenic effect of the ulam were determined.

Findings

Among all tested species, L. pumila, P. foetida and S. androgynous showed 100% lethal effect towards zebrafish embryos at concentrations of 10 µg/mL, 1,000 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL, respectively. The three ulam have exhibited teratogenic effect on zebrafish embryos after 72 h post-fertilization. L. pumila had induced yolk sac edema at 1.0 µg/mL for normalized measurement of 108.3 ± 2.0% (which is higher than negative control, p < 0.05, median = 110.7%), while P. foetida had induced pericardial edema at 100 µg/mL for normalized measurement of 124.0 ± 4.6% (which is higher than negative control, p < 0.05, median = 124.3%). On the other hand, S. androgynus induced curve trunk at 30 µg/mL for the presence of 70.9 ± 4.2%.

Originality/value

The teratogenic effect of L. pumila, P. foetida and S. androgynous suggests the possible disruption in the embryogenesis in zebrafish, namely Notch, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and retinoic acid pathways. The results of ulam gave possible implications and insights on the cancer pathways involved, which could be a useful target for cancer research. This is the first report on teratogenicity evaluation of Malaysian ulam showing relationship to cancer pathways by using zebrafish embryo model.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 122 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

R. L. Bhardwaj and Urvashi Nandal

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the scientific information of various qualities of bael fruit juice used in traditional system of medicine for variety of…

542

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarize the scientific information of various qualities of bael fruit juice used in traditional system of medicine for variety of purposes. Utilization of bael fruit juice in day-to-day life has great nutritional, therapeutic, and commercial importance. Bael fruit contains nutrients like vitamins (riboflavin), minerals, trace elements, energy and phytochemicals, including flavonoids, polyphenols and antioxidants, that have been shown to have varied health benefits. In past few decades, bael has been extensively studied for its medicinal properties by advanced scientific techniques, and a variety of bioactive compounds like marmelosin, tannins, alkaloids, coumarins, steroids, rutacine, y-sitosterol, psoralin, xanthotoxin, scopolotein, aegelemine, aegeline, marmeline, fragrine, dictamine, cinnamide and different derivatives of cinnamide have been isolated from its fruit juice.

Design/methodology/approach

The medicinal value of bael fruit is very high when the harvests just begin to ripen. As a result, it has a high demand as alternative medicine for curing the diseases like diabetes, high cholesterol, peptic ulcer, inflammation, diarrhea and dysentery, constipation, respiratory infection. Furthermore, the bael fruit juice has anticancer, cardio protective, antibacterial, antifungal, radio protective, antipyretic, analgesic, antioxidant, antiviral, anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, wound healing properties. The ripe fruit juice is aromatic, has cooling and laxative effects, and arrests secretion or bleeding.

Findings

The unripe or half-ripe fruit juice is good for digestion, useful in preventing or curing scurvy, and it strengthens the stomach action. It helps in the healing of ulcerated intestinal surfaces and has appreciable activity against intestinal pathogenic organisms. The present review summarizes the scientific information of various qualities of bael fruit juice used in traditional system of medicine for a variety of purposes.

Originality/value

It is quite evident from this review that bael is an important medicinal herb and extensively used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other medicinal systems. Bael fruit juice is an excellent source of water and natural sugar and is important principally for containing vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals, antioxidants, pigments, energy, organic acids, dietary fiber and other food components, which are the key factors in the medicinal value of this plant. Moreover, mechanisms of action of a few bioactive compounds have been identified so far.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Neha Mulchandani and Vishaka Karnad

The durability of antimicrobial agents and its effectiveness is the most important factor for consumer usage. One important class of antimicrobial agents are inorganic…

66

Abstract

Purpose

The durability of antimicrobial agents and its effectiveness is the most important factor for consumer usage. One important class of antimicrobial agents are inorganic metals and their metal oxides which can be prepared into nanoparticles and can be imparted to enhance the antimicrobial properties. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of three different polymeric binders during the application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on the antimicrobial and performance properties of the finished fabric.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by a wet chemical method. The nano-particles size distributions was determined using Nanoplus Dynamic Light Scattering particle size distribution analyzer and concentration of nano ZnO 0.1% (w/v) was applied with 2% (w/v) polymeric binders, namely, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), polyurethane (PU) and butyl acrylic (BA) on cotton fabric by pad dry cure method. The treated samples were tested for physical properties such as tearing strength, tensile strength, crease recovery and air permeability and antimicrobial properties using test method American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) 100. Further, the content of zinc in the treated samples was determined by the atomic absorption method. The treated fabric was analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopic and also tested for cytotoxicity as per International Organization for Standardization 10993.

Findings

The results indicated that the type of polymeric binders did not show any influence on the uptake of the zinc content. All treated samples showed positive results >99% with regard to antibacterial property. However, the polymeric treated samples showed a difference in physical properties. The ZnO nano-finish reduced the tensile strength and tearing strength of the fabrics. The difference in crease recovery for samples ZnO/PVA and ZnO/PU was not much except for ZnO/BA where it increased by 38%. The air permeability decreased after application for all treated samples, the lowest among treated samples was in ZnO/PU fabric. Further, ZnO/PVA finished fabric was found to retain antibacterial property up to 50 washes and was effective against MS2 Bacteriophage as a surrogate virus when analyzed as per AATCC 100–2012 test method, and therefore can be potentially used as health-care apparel such as doctors coat and scrub suits.

Originality/value

The outcome of this research is in its contribution to the field of reusable textiles. It highlights the use of nanotechnology to design and develop cotton fabrics for antimicrobial properties which has the potential of preventing the growth of harmful bacteria. The study brings forth the use of ZnO nanoparticles mixed with PVA binder on 100% cotton fabrics which exhibits antibacterial and antiviral properties with adequate wash durability. Currently, there is a high demand of effective durable textiles with barrier properties and the present study provides a promising solution to provide reusable textiles with a greater level of protection.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 October 2018

Naymul Karim and Jitbanjong Tangpong

For the prevention and cure of disease, patient use various types of chemical and drug agents. Along with their curative effect, almost all drugs have some destructive…

2094

Abstract

Purpose

For the prevention and cure of disease, patient use various types of chemical and drug agents. Along with their curative effect, almost all drugs have some destructive effects and side-effects. Due to the minimal and/or none of unwanted side-effect, recently, the use of herbal remedy as the drug of choice becomes the preference choice. The mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana, contains various types of polyphenols. It has been used as a traditional medicine from the ancient times till present days. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the biological properties of mangosteen in relation to health promotion effects.

Design/methodology/approach

Several research papers from well-known database (such as PubMed, Google scholar, Scopus and Sciencedirect) were reviewed without considering publication-times to understand the biological properties of mangosteen.

Findings

Mangosteen and its xanthone exerted diverse biological activities such as anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, anti-bacteria, anti-fungal, anti-malaria, anticancer and anti-diabetes.

Originality/value

Based on these studies, mangosteen is beneficial dietary supplement of overall human health.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

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