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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Siming Guo and Cynthia L. Istook

The purpose of this study was to explore participants’ fit perceptions of customized garments and investigate the factors that affected the customized fit.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore participants’ fit perceptions of customized garments and investigate the factors that affected the customized fit.

Design/methodology/approach

Because different patternmaking methods generate varied fit results, eight customized dresses were developed for four fit models aged 18–25 using two different made-to-measure (MTM) systems (Gerber AccuMark and Telestia Creator). The authors designed a questionnaire to assess the fit of the final garments on each of the four models. A total of 12 participants (four fit models and eight experts) attended a live evaluation meeting and completed the questionnaire. The quantitative and qualitative data of the participants’ fit perceptions were collected and analyzed.

Findings

The authors compared the fit outputs of the two MTM systems and determined the fit issues from the participants’ perceptions. The results showed that the participants evaluated the customized fit mainly according to the ease, seam placement and wrinkle occurrence. The majority of fit models and experts preferred Dress B created using Telestia Creator to Dress A developed using Gerber AccuMark. The participants’ fit perceptions also revealed that many factors, such as the MTM systems, participants’ fit preferences, models’ body characteristics, fabric and ease, impacted the fit results. In addition, the experts perceived more fit issues than the models.

Originality/value

The fit output comparison of the two MTM systems could be valuable for pattern makers to use the systems. The research results would also be useful for apparel companies to conduct a fit evaluation and improve their customization processes.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2001

Cynthia L. Istook and Su‐Jeong Hwang

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements…

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4011

Abstract

The ability to customise garments for fit is directly tied to the availability of a comprehensive, accurate set of measurements. To obtain accurate physical measurements, a basic knowledge and set of skills are required that are not often found in the average salesperson at a retail clothing outlet. The development of three‐dimensional body‐scanning technologies may have significant potential for use in the apparel industry, particularly for customisation or mass customisation strategies to be employed. The purpose of this study was to review all the 3D body scanning systems currently available and to determine the underlying principles that allow these systems to work. Specifications of each system were compared in order to provide some direction for further research into the integration of these systems with current apparel CAD pattern design or pattern generation technologies.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2007

Jeong Yim Lee, Cynthia L. Istook, Yun Ja Nam and Sun Mi Park

The purpose of this paper is to compare body shape between USA and Korean women. It aims to analyze the distribution and proportion of body shapes of two countries and…

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2877

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare body shape between USA and Korean women. It aims to analyze the distribution and proportion of body shapes of two countries and compare the differences of body shape according to age.

Design/methodology/approach

SizeUSA and SizeKorea measurement data were evaluated using the Female Figure Identification Technique for apparel system developed at North Carolina State University. Once the samples were defined by shape, comparisons were made of the distribution according to age and country through statistical analysis.

Findings

The paper finds that the largest shape category was the rectangle shape in both countries, but the distribution within each shape category for Korean women was different from that of USA women. More body shape categories were found in the USA women than in Korean women. In addition, most body shape categories had different body proportions when comparing the USA women and Korean women. The USA women had the higher measurements in the waist, high hip, and hips height and the larger measurements in the bust, waist, high hip, and hips circumference.

Research limitations/implications

Of the over 6,300 US female subjects in this study, only five failed to be identified by the seven shapes identified. These subjects had over 50.2 in. of hip circumference, over 10 in. larger hips than bust circumference, and over 15.5 in. larger hips than waist circumference. Further refinement of the mathematical definitions or a second group of criteria may be required for sorting the women that have no shape as defined by this study.

Originality/value

The opportunity to compare the body shapes between two very different countries, using national anthropometric survey data, is very rare, indeed. This comparison allows the opportunity to discover ways to improve the sizing systems of each country, as well as impact the development of international sizing standards that could have a significant impact on brands producing product for a variety of international consumers.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Lashawnda Mckinnon and Cynthia L. Istook

Describes research designed to examine the effects of subject positioning on the accuracy of body scan data. A body measurement system developed by the Textile Clothing…

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1454

Abstract

Describes research designed to examine the effects of subject positioning on the accuracy of body scan data. A body measurement system developed by the Textile Clothing Technology Corporation was used to acquire two scans from each of 72 subjects. The subjects were instructed to continue to breathe normally and stand with their feet shoulder‐width apart. The two scans were compared and statistical analysis was performed to determine the precision of the results and whether this lack of standardization affected the data. Physical measurements were also obtained from each subject and served as a basis for comparison to the scanned measurements. Since physical measurements are the current accepted “true value”, these measurements determined the level of accuracy of scanned data. Three separate scans of 72 different subjects were taken at various levels of breathing and at various foot positions to determine the effect of the variables. This study certainly indicates that respiration and foot placement has a significant effect on body scan data. It was established that the scan data rendered by the software does have precision, but lacks accuracy when compared against physical measurements. This may be owing to the inaccuracies of the physical measurement process or to differences in measurement location between the anthropometrist and the 3D measurement extraction software. Information detailing the level of accuracy and precision that can be obtained with scanning software and how respiration and subject positioning can affect the data are included.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Cynthia L. Istook

Manufacturers have been struggling to meet the wants and needs of their customers without sacrificing the efficiencies and profits gained through mass production…

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1590

Abstract

Manufacturers have been struggling to meet the wants and needs of their customers without sacrificing the efficiencies and profits gained through mass production. Fortunately, developments in information technology have increased the probability of mass customization being adopted as an acceptable business paradigm. Almost every CAD system used in apparel patternmaking has some method that would enable mass customization through automatic alteration of patterns based on individual measurements. Although each has created an interface somewhat differently from all of the others, most have a number of preparatory activities in common that will allow “automatic” alterations to occur. This article outlines the activities involved in setting up CAD systems to automatically customize garments for fit.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

Karla P. Simmons and Cynthia L. Istook

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the…

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5913

Abstract

With the use of 3D body scanners, body measurement techniques can be non‐contact, instant, and accurate. However, how each scanner establishes landmarks and takes the measurements should be established so that standardization of the data capture can be realized. The purpose of this study was to compare body‐scanning measurement extraction methods and terminology with traditional anthropometric methods. A total of 21 measurements were chosen as being critical to the design of well‐fitting garments. Current body scanners were analyzed for availability of information, willingness of company cooperation, and relevance to applications in the apparel industry. On each of the 21 measurements, standard measurement procedure was identified for three different scanners: [TC]2, Cyberware, and SYMCAD. Of the 21 measures in the study, [TC]2 was the scanner that had the most measures identified for the study and also had the capability of producing many more with specific application for apparel.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Elizabeth Newcomb and Cynthia Istook

This study aims to investigate the apparel fit preferences of Mexican‐American women between the ages of 18 and 25 years old from the Southwestern USA. The study also…

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2063

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the apparel fit preferences of Mexican‐American women between the ages of 18 and 25 years old from the Southwestern USA. The study also seeks to analyze the effect of body shape perception, body mass index, and clothing size on apparel fit preferences.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected in an online survey using an original fit preference assessment scale. Sampling was restricted in terms of gender, age, subculture, and geography to control for the variability that exists in apparel preferences and the Hispanic market due to these factors. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to describe the sample's fit preferences for casual pants, tops, skirts, and dresses and to determine whether physical body characteristics impact these preferences.

Findings

Overall, young Mexican‐American women preferred semi‐fitted apparel across all garment categories studied. Physical body characteristics tended to impact on the sample's preferences for close and loose‐fitting garments, with respondents who had narrower waists and smaller body sizes more likely to prefer close‐fitting garments. Respondents who had less defined waists and larger body sizes were more likely to prefer loose‐fitting garments.

Originality/value

Many apparel firms wish to create targeted products for the Hispanic consumer, given the substantial growth in the size and purchasing power of this market. However, firms have frequently had to rely on cultural stereotypes due to a lack of information. The study documented in the paper developed an original fit preference scale to obtain important information that can be used to impact on apparel product development for this consumer.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2007

Doris H. Kincade, Cynthia Regan and Fay Y. Gibson

Firms in the apparel industry seek operational information on ways to implement mass customization. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential for…

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3997

Abstract

Purpose

Firms in the apparel industry seek operational information on ways to implement mass customization. The purpose of this research is to investigate the potential for concurrent engineering (CE) to realign the traditional, linear apparel product development process to a more concurrent and consumer‐focused process in order to facilitate the implementation of the new supply chain process (i.e. mass customization) with sensitivity to time‐to‐market demands.

Design/methodology/approach

The case study method was used with three non‐competing apparel firms. Survey instruments and focus group feedback were utilized, which allowed the researchers to collect in‐depth information about the apparel product development process, often considered proprietary in many industries.

Findings

Product development activities in the lengthy apparel product development process were realigned with many activities being ranked as early or middle activities. This realignment into a compressed and nearly simultaneous process supports activities that must be done early and often simultaneously rather than late to support a mass customization strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The case study approach and apparel‐oriented sample reduces generalizability of findings; however, realignment of activities and provided operational information encourage future research to document the findings for apparel and other industries.

Practical implications

Suggested movement of activities can be used as a guide for designers and manufacturers when trying to improve their product development process.

Originality/value

The paper provides needed detailed or operational information about implementation of mass customization in the apparel industry.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2014

Amal Fayoomy and Ahmad Tahan

It is common that the measurements of any human Figure are differing from the others with same size. Based on the parameters of flat curves and measurements of the flat…

Abstract

It is common that the measurements of any human Figure are differing from the others with same size. Based on the parameters of flat curves and measurements of the flat pattern, using the parabola curves as stating points between the armhole and the armscy geometrical approximation of the garment is achieved by reshaping the surfaces of the flat pattern. Bearing in mind that, in reality there is no such thing as standard or perfect figure, the formulas for constructing basic flat pattern has designed and developed for the standard figure. The research is trying mathematically to solve and overcome the problem of fitness and might put a step to solve this deficiency.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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