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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2018

Kian-Yeik Koay and Patrick Chin-Hooi Soh

This paper aims to provide a brief review of cyberloafing in a holistic and comprehensive manner. Specifically, this paper discusses the nature of cyberloafing, factors…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide a brief review of cyberloafing in a holistic and comprehensive manner. Specifically, this paper discusses the nature of cyberloafing, factors that influence cyberloafing, positive and negative impacts of cyberloafing, and suggestions for prevention and control.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has four sections: what is cyberloafing, what motivates people to cyberloaf, negative and positive impacts of cyberloafing and suggestions for its prevention and control.

Findings

There are various reasons that motivate employees to cyberloaf, and cyberloafing has both positive and negative impacts. The decision to allow or disallow employees to cyberloaf at workplace very much depends on the company’s work culture and how top management thinks about cyberloafing. This paper provides several suggestions on how to control and prevent cyberloafing.

Originality/value

A holistic overview of cyberloafing is discussed in this paper.

Details

Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-0734

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Article
Publication date: 23 July 2021

Anushree Tandon, Puneet Kaur, Namita Ruparel, Jamid Ul Islam and Amandeep Dhir

Scholars are increasingly focusing on the adverse effects of digitization on human lives in personal and professional contexts. Cyberloafing is one such effect and…

Abstract

Purpose

Scholars are increasingly focusing on the adverse effects of digitization on human lives in personal and professional contexts. Cyberloafing is one such effect and digitization-related workplace behavior that has garnered attention in both academic and mainstream media. However, the existing literature is fragmented and needs to be consolidated to generate a comprehensive and contemporary overview of cyberloafing research and map its current intellectual boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to shed some light on systematic literature review (SLR) in cyberloafing and cyberslacking in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

A SLR is conducted to assimilate the existing research. A total of 87 studies selected through a robust protocol are analyzed through content analysis.

Findings

A total of four thematic research areas and inherent gaps are identified, including conceptualization, operationalization, antecedents and stakeholders and consequences. Results are used to assimilate thematic gaps and potential research questions (RQs) to be addressed by future scholars. To advance cyberloafing research, the authors propose a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework based on the SLR findings.

Originality/value

Our study's novelty rests in its state-of-the-art synthesis of cyberloafing research, which encompasses a broader scope than prior SLRs. Furthermore, developing a theoretically grounded comprehensive framework for advancing future research is a unique contribution of this study.

Details

Internet Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Arefeh Rahaei and Reza Salehzadeh

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational justice on cyberloafing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of psychological entitlement and perceived organizational justice on cyberloafing.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, a cross-sectional research design based on a questionnaire method was used to collect the required data from a sample of 226 employees working at selected universities in the city of Isfahan, Iran. To test the research hypotheses, structural equation modeling was used.

Findings

According to the findings, psychological entitlement could have a significant impact on perceived organizational justice and consequently perceived organizational justice could significantly influence cyberloafing. Moreover, psychological entitlement could significantly influence cyberloafing and finally, psychological entitlement could have a significant effect on cyberloafing through perceived organizational justice.

Originality/value

This research provides valuable insight for studying the relationship among psychological entitlement, perceived organizational justice and cyberloafing.

Details

Vilakshan - XIMB Journal of Management, vol. 17 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0973-1954

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2020

Pang Kiam Lim, Kian Yeik Koay and Wei Ying Chong

Cyberloafing (employees' non-work-related online activities at work) has become a common workplace problem for many organizations. Research investigating the underlying…

Abstract

Purpose

Cyberloafing (employees' non-work-related online activities at work) has become a common workplace problem for many organizations. Research investigating the underlying mechanisms and boundary conditions under which abusive supervision influences cyberloafing remains largely underdeveloped. Drawing from social exchange theory and conservation of resources theory, we developed a moderated-mediation model in which emotional exhaustion was theorized as a unique mechanism underlining why employees are more likely to engage in cyberloafing under the supervision of abusive leaders. In addition, we proposed that organizational commitment to be a relevant boundary condition to influence such a relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

We collected 255 data from employees working in public listed companies in Malaysia and used partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) to analyze the data.

Findings

The results showed that the influence of abusive supervision on cyberloafing through emotional exhaustion is only significant when organizational commitment is low.

Originality/value

This study constructed a moderated-mediation model by introducing the potential mediating effect of emotional exhaustion and the moderating effect of organizational commitment to reveal the mechanism through which abusive supervision related to cyberloafing.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2020

Ahmadreza Karimi Mazidi, Fariborz Rahimnia, Saeed Mortazavi and Mohammad Lagzian

This study aims to investigate the possible negativity of job embeddedness in developing countries. Operationally, the study aimed to configure the relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the possible negativity of job embeddedness in developing countries. Operationally, the study aimed to configure the relationship between job embeddedness and cyberloafing with respect to both contextual (job satisfaction) and individual (internet addiction) factors.

Design/methodology/approach

Incorporating the conservation of resources theory and reactance theory into the theory of job embeddedness, the present study adopted a resource-based approach to job embeddedness to examine its main and moderated effects on cyberloafing in a three-way interaction model. With the focus on public organizations, 500 administrative employees from an Iranian university were surveyed using self-reporting measures, and the collected data were analyzed using partial least squares–structural equation modeling and hierarchical moderated multiple regression.

Findings

As predicted, job embeddedness was positively associated with cyberloafing; however, in contrast with predictions, job satisfaction had no inverse impact on the job embeddedness–cyberloafing relationship, and its role was limited to neutralizing the increasing effect of internet addiction.

Practical implications

Consideration should be given to how job embeddedness interacts with contextual and individual moderators to affect cyberloafing. In particular, this study implicated some practical procedures to provide employees with on- and off-the-job resources and avoid fighting over the organization's resources. Additionally, this study provides insights into embeddedness-satisfaction interplay to provide employees with propitious work conditions in line with organizational productivity.

Originality/value

There is little research on the association between job embeddedness and counterproductive work behaviors, and the findings are inconsistent. A review of the literature revealed no study addressing cyberloafing implications of job embeddedness. This study expands the literature by theoretically and empirically correlating job embeddedness and cyberloafing in a non-western developing country. Accordingly, the significance of this study is its capability in mitigating cyberloafing behaviors by promoting the adverse job embeddedness.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2020

Jinnan Wu, Wenjuan Mei, Joseph Ugrin, Lin Liu and Fang Wang

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Chinese college students' social cyberloafing out of class has a curvilinear effect on academic performance and whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate whether Chinese college students' social cyberloafing out of class has a curvilinear effect on academic performance and whether students' levels of psychological detachment and relaxation mediate the effect.

Design/methodology/approach

A field survey was used to collect 502 self-reported responses from student Internet users at a large university located in central China.

Findings

The results show an inverted U-shaped relationship between social cyberloafing out of class and academic performance. Two types of effort recovery experience gained from social cyberloafing, psychological detachment and relaxation, mediate that effect. Students' social cyberloafing out of class is positively associated with psychological detachment and relaxation, which in turn, have opposite effects on academic performance.

Practical implications

This study offers novel insights into the effects of social cyberloafing on college students' academic achievement. The findings illustrate how social cyberloafing can serve as a recovery experience and improve academic performance, but it can hinder performance if the cyberloafing is excessive.

Originality/value

This study extends the cyberloafing literature by focusing on Chinese college students' cyberloafing out of class. The study finds that a moderate amount of social cyberloafing out of class can result in psychological detachment, relaxation and improved performance when returning to academic work. However, both too much or too little social cyberloafing can result in difficulty returning to academic work and reduced academic performance. The findings are novel to the cyberloafing literature.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2020

Amir Mohammad Fakoor Saghih and Saeid Nosrati

To perceive the reasons for misusing the internet at work, an activity known as cyberloafing, efforts were made to find a new approach to reduce this negative behavior…

Abstract

Purpose

To perceive the reasons for misusing the internet at work, an activity known as cyberloafing, efforts were made to find a new approach to reduce this negative behavior among employees. Thus, this study aims to identify the antecedents of job embeddedness (JE) and their effects on cyberloafing among the employees of public universities in eastern Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

To this end, the antecedents of JE were first extracted by reviewing the literature in this regard. In the next step, the opinions of the expert team were taken into account to select five variables. Subsequently, the conceptual model and hypotheses were presented and tested through structural equation modeling. A 57-item questionnaire was then distributed among the employees of eastern Iranian universities, who were selected through random stratified sampling. Finally, the data collected from of 510 questionnaires were analyzed.

Findings

According to the findings, it can be argued that JE with its five antecedents of family support, work support, job flexibility, work practices and task significance is able to significantly reduce cyberloafing. Moreover, the full mediating role of JE was confirmed.

Originality/value

Cyberloafing is a term describing the actions of employees who use their internet access at work for personal purposes pretending to do legitimate work. It has been turned into a serious challenge in developing countries such as Iran. It is, therefore vital to identify its factors and antecedents to diminish the counterproductive behavior in the workplace.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2020

Sauvik Kumar Batabyal and Kanika Tandon Bhal

Possession and usage of data-enabled smartphones have added further complexity to the issue of cyberloafing behavior and it certainly evokes newer ethical concerns. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Possession and usage of data-enabled smartphones have added further complexity to the issue of cyberloafing behavior and it certainly evokes newer ethical concerns. This study aims to explore how working individuals perceive the ethicality of their cyberloafing behaviors at the workplace and the cognitive logics they apply to justify their cyberloafing behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

Incorporating constructivist grounded theory methodology, 19 working managers from various organizations were interviewed face-to-face and responses were audio-recorded with prior consent. The recordings were transcribed verbatim, simultaneously analyzed and coded to let the themes emerge out of the data.

Findings

The research showed that working managers use varied combinations of office computers, personal laptops, smartphones, wireless internet provided at the office and personal mobile-internet to loaf around at workplaces. Moreover, it unearthed that employees use nine different neutralization techniques and six different ethical logics (with normative undertones) in a network fashion while considering the ethicality of cyberloafing behavior.

Practical implications

Recognizing the complexities is imperative to moderate any deviant behavior in an organization. The layers of ethicality and neutralization tactics will equip the working managers and companies to place the required internet and smartphone usage policies in the future.

Originality/value

This research has taken into account all forms of cyberloafing behaviors. The perceived ethicality of cyberloafing behavior at the workplace was not fully explored in a holistic manner before, specifically in the Indian context.

Details

Journal of Information, Communication and Ethics in Society, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-996X

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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

Upasnaa A. Agarwal and James B. Avey

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of abusive supervision on cyberloafing behavior, to test the mediating role of PsyCap in this relationship and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of abusive supervision on cyberloafing behavior, to test the mediating role of PsyCap in this relationship and the extent to which these relationships are moderated by psychological contract breach.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 394 full-time managers across different Indian organizations served as the sample for this study.

Findings

The results revealed that the abusive supervision and PsyCap are significantly correlated with cyberloafing, the relationship between abusive supervision and cyberloafing is partially mediated by PsyCap and the impact of abusive supervision and PsyCap on cyberloafing is moderated by psychological contract breach such that the effects of abusive supervision and PsyCap on cyberloafing are stronger when employees perceive high psychological contract breach.

Research limitations/implications

A cross-sectional design and use of self-reported questionnaires are a few limitations of this study.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies examining cyberloafing in response to abusive supervision and one of the few attempts to examine the effects of abusive supervision on individual resources (PsyCap) in response to workplace mistreatment. This study is also the first to examine these phenomena in the Indian context.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 24 August 2010

Pablo Zoghbi‐Manrique‐de‐Lara and Arístides Olivares‐Mesa

Despite the use in companies of policy and control mechanisms to tackle cyberloafing, these practices are still popular among employees. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the use in companies of policy and control mechanisms to tackle cyberloafing, these practices are still popular among employees. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that control systems alone are unable to deter cyberloafing because they are eventually perceived as a sort of “ineffectual dog that may bark a lot, but ultimately does not bite.” Instead, control systems are only expected to deter cyberloafing if employees view them as leading to punitive consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

First, given the easy visibility of cyberloafing activities, the paper proposes a design for control systems that not only includes perceptions of organizational control (monitoring), but also perceptions of the supervisor's physical proximity (proximity). Data are collected from university administration and services personnel, whose main working tool is the computer. They all have internet access and individual e‐mail, a stable physical location at work, and a supervisor. Multiple hierarchical regressions are used to test whether in reality proximity and monitoring are unable to decrease cyberloafing unless they interact together with employees' fear of formal punishment (punishment).

Findings

Only by interacting together and with punishment are proximity and monitoring able to deter cyber loafers from engaging in cyberloafing.

Research limitations/implications

The study could suffer from mono‐method/source bias, and the university that supplied the sample has certain job conditions similar to those of the public sector, thus raising concerns about the generalizability of the results.

Practical implications

The results suggest that organizational managers should not only ensure that control systems are able to discover incidents and identify the perpetrators, but they should also follow them up with punitive consequences. Only if control systems are implemented together with punishment are they effective in eliciting perceived certainty among cyber loafers of being caught and sanctioned, and hence in “bringing them back on the right track.”

Originality/value

Despite the extensive use of control systems to deter cyberloafing, there are no previous empirical studies that have examined and supported the negative interacting effects of proximity, monitoring, and punishment on cyberloafing.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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