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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2021

Mudit Kumar Verma and Shyam Sundar Kushwaha

The study aims to determine the cybercrime awareness among secondary school students with reference to their gender and school management type.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to determine the cybercrime awareness among secondary school students with reference to their gender and school management type.

Design/methodology/approach

For the purpose, a sample of 100 students from secondary schools situated in Lucknow city, state of Uttar Pradesh, India was selected. To obtain initial data from the respondents and to determine the cybercrime awareness categories a five-point Likert type cybercrime awareness rating scale exclusively constructed to fulfil the purpose of this study was used to determine the cybercrime awareness in five categories viz; excellent, high, above average, average, below average and low cybercrime awareness. Further, “t” test was used to analyse the difference between the means of groups.

Findings

Results revealed that gender (male and female) and type of school management (government and self-finance) are not significant predictors of cybercrime awareness among secondary school students.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the government and self-finance English medium schools of Lucknow city, state of Uttar Pradesh, India.

Practical implications

Policymakers, various societies involved in investigating cyber behavior/child computer interaction/safer communities, etc. should consider that school management is not a predictor of cybercrime along with gender and can look for other possible visible and latent factors affecting cybercrime awareness among students while formulating a policy or designing a course/prevention program for secondary school students.

Social implications

School administration should consider the existing gender and school management roles of the present scenario to make effective policies for the students and providing them effective cybercrime prevention programs and activities. Also, parents can adequately understand the role of school management type and gender of their belongings to understand their cybercrime awareness and take necessary measures accordingly.

Originality/value

The paper is focused on the cybercrime awareness of secondary school students and how their gender and school management type affects their cybercrime awareness. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is first of its kind which investigates the role of school management in cybercrime awareness of the students. As the education sector is depending more and more on the cyber world, this paper is of the great significance for the safety of education sector, organizations and communities involved in making the policies and designing the curriculum to avoid students being a victim of cybercrime and to make education sector a safer community.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Shane Horgan, Ben Collier, Richard Jones and Lynsay Shepherd

The purpose of this study is to develop the theorisation of cybercrime in the context of the pandemic, and to sketch out a vision of how law enforcement might respond to a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop the theorisation of cybercrime in the context of the pandemic, and to sketch out a vision of how law enforcement might respond to a transformed landscape of online crime and offending.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper draws on empirical evidence from a range of sources (including official statistics) and the existing research literature, and revisits routine activities theory to illuminate the way that cybercrime patterns are being transformed by the pandemic.

Findings

The pandemic is reshaping the routine activities of societies en masse, leading to changes in the ecology of risk and opportunity for cybercrime. There is evidence of a large increase in the prevalence of cybercrime as a result, yet much of this has a paradoxically “local” character.

Practical implications

The authors identify specific practical implications for law enforcement, namely, that the role of local police in policing cybercrime should be re-envisioned, with a democratic, community-oriented approach at its heart.

Originality/value

The theoretical perspective outlined is a novel and critical development of a well-established framework, opening up new paths to the theorisation of cybercrime and cybercrime policing. The authors’ suggestions for practitioners have the potential for direct impact, both at the level of practice and in terms of broader imaginaries and organisation of police and policing.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Seung Yeop Paek, Mahesh K. Nalla and Julak Lee

This exploratory research examined law enforcement officers' attitudes toward the public-private partnerships (PPPs) in policing cyberspace. Particularly, by investigating…

Abstract

Purpose

This exploratory research examined law enforcement officers' attitudes toward the public-private partnerships (PPPs) in policing cyberspace. Particularly, by investigating the predictors of police officers' support for the PPPs, the authors aimed to offer practical implications for maintaining order and responding to illegal activities in the virtual environment.

Design/methodology/approach

A convenience sample of South Korean police officers was surveyed using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire.

Findings

The findings showed that officer perceptions of the seriousness and the frequency of property cybercrimes, computer proficiency and awareness of a lack of training were positively associated with the support for the PPPs. In addition, years of experience was negatively related to the support for the PPPs.

Originality/value

Law enforcement officers' perceptions toward public-private cooperation in combatting cybercrime have never been examined. This research fills the gap by exploring the predictors of officer support for cross-sectoral partnerships within the framework of nodal governance security in the cultural context of South Korea.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Naci Akdemir and Christopher James Lawless

The purpose of this study was to explore human factors as the possible facilitator of cyber-dependent (hacking and malware infection) and cyber-enabled (phishing) crimes…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to explore human factors as the possible facilitator of cyber-dependent (hacking and malware infection) and cyber-enabled (phishing) crimes victimisation and to test the applicability of lifestyle routine activities theory (LRAT) to cybercrime victimisation.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods research paradigm was applied to address the research questions and aims. The data set of Crime Survey of England and Wales (CSEW) 2014/2015 and 42 semi-structured interviews conducted with victims of cybercrime and non-victim control group participants were analysed via binary logistic regression and content analyses methods.

Findings

This research illustrated that Internet users facilitated their victimisation through their online activities. Additionally, using insecure Internet connections and public access computers emerged as risk factors for both cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crime victimisation. Voluntary and involuntary personal information disclosure through social networking sites and online advertisement websites increased the likelihood of being a target of phishing. Deviant online activities such as free streaming or peer-to-peer sharing emerged to increase the risk of cyber-dependent crime victimisation.

Research limitations/implications

The binary logistic regression analysis results suggested LRAT as a more suitable theoretical framework for cyber-dependent crime victimisation. Future research may test this result with models including more macro variables.

Practical implications

Policymakers may consider implementing regulations regarding limiting the type of information required to login to free Wi-Fi connections. Checking trust signs and green padlocks may be effective safeguarding measures to lessen the adverse impacts of impulsive buying.

Originality/value

This study empirically illustrated that, besides individual-level factors, macro-level factors such as electronic devices being utilised to access the Internet and data breaches of large companies also increased the likelihood of becoming the victim of cyber-enabled and cyber-dependent crime.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Oluwatoyin Esther Akinbowale, Heinz Eckart Klingelhöfer and Mulatu Fekadu Zerihun

The purpose of this paper is to review the effect of cybercrime in the banking sector.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review the effect of cybercrime in the banking sector.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a survey of literature and the balanced scorecard (BSC) to analyse the effect of cybercrime on the banking sector.

Findings

The literature reviewed confirms an increasing wave of cybercrime that has impacted negatively on the good will and economic growth of financial institutions, indirectly through loss of trust in the digital infrastructure or directly through fraud and extortion in both developing and developed countries.

Research limitations

This study is limited to the application of BSC to analyse the effect of cybercrime in the banking sector only.

Practical implications

To avert on going massive losses owing to cybercrime, the authors quest for development of an alert system that can create the awareness of both the banks and the customers by effectively implementing and integrating big data technology into their system to mitigate the negative impacts of cybercrime.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study lies in the fact that this study uses the BSC for the analysis of cybercrime in the banking sector, a problem that has not been sufficiently highlighted in the existing literature.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2019

Vanessa Ratten

Open innovation is important for technology firms as they can use freely available resources to source creative and innovative ideas. Despite the usefulness of open…

Abstract

Purpose

Open innovation is important for technology firms as they can use freely available resources to source creative and innovative ideas. Despite the usefulness of open innovation for technological advancements, few studies have focused on the role of cybercrime in affecting an organizations strategic direction. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of open innovation on cybercrime in technology firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted on technology firms to understand the role of open innovation in terms of technology scouting, horizontal collaboration and vertical collaboration on cybercrime activity.

Findings

The study found that there is a dilemma most technology firm’s face in having an open innovation strategy and how to manage cybercrime. This means that a coopetition strategy is utilized that helps to not only balance the need to have open innovation but also protect intellectual property.

Research limitations/implications

The study has implications for emerging technology innovations that not only need to have cyber security but also harness the use of Big Data.

Practical implications

Managers of technology firms need to encourage open innovation as a strategy but manage the cybercrime that comes from sharing too much information in an online context.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to link open innovation strategy to cybercrime activity in technology firms. Thus, it contributes to the literature on open innovation and cyber theft and security.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2020

James Popham, Mary McCluskey, Michael Ouellet and Owen Gallupe

Police-reported incidents of cybercrime appear to vary dramatically across Canadian municipal police services. This paper explores cybercrime reporting by police services…

Abstract

Purpose

Police-reported incidents of cybercrime appear to vary dramatically across Canadian municipal police services. This paper explores cybercrime reporting by police services in eight of Canada's largest municipalities, assessing (1) variation over time; (2) variation across jurisdictions; and (3) correlates of reporting volumes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from a combination of national Uniform Crime Report statistics and annual reports by police services. Two repeated one-way ANOVA tests and a Pearson's r correlation matrix were used to assess variation and correlation.

Findings

Findings suggest that police-reported cybercrime varies significantly across jurisdictions but not over time. Moreover, negative relationships were observed between police-reported cybercrime incidents per 100,000 residents and calls for service per 100,000, as well as number of sworn officers per 100,000.

Research limitations/implications

The study assessed a small sample of cities (= 8) providing 32 data points, which inhibited robust multivariate analyses. Data also strictly represents calls to police services, therefore excluding alternative resolutions such as public–private interventions.

Practical implications

Canadian provincial and federal governments should consider engaging in high-level talks to harmonize cybercrime reporting strategies within frontline policing. This will mitigate disparity and provide more accurate representations of cybercrime for future policy development. Additionally, services should revisit internal policies and procedures, as it appears that cybercrime is deprioritized in high call volume situations.

Originality/value

This paper introduces previously unreported data about police-reported cybercrime incidents in Canada. Furthermore, it adds quantitative evidence to support previous qualitative studies on police responses to cybercrime.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2019

George Burruss, Christian Jordan Howell, Adam Bossler and Thomas J. Holt

Cybercrime is the greatest threat facing law enforcement agencies in England and Wales. Although these crimes are transnational by nature, the burden of response has been…

Abstract

Purpose

Cybercrime is the greatest threat facing law enforcement agencies in England and Wales. Although these crimes are transnational by nature, the burden of response has been placed on line officers. Not all officers, however, believe they are capable of responding to calls involving cybercrime. The current study, using latent class analysis (LCA) on a large sample of English and Welsh officers, finds two types of officers: those prepared (39 percent) and those unprepared (61 percent). Using logistic regression to predict who falls into either classification, the authors find that training and age are the best predictors of latent membership. Implications for policy and future research are discussed. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the authors used LCA to determine the number and character of unobserved categories of officers in how they deal with cybercrime.

Findings

The LCA indicated there are two distinct categories of police in the English and Welsh constabulary: those prepared (39 percent) and those unprepared (61 percent). Training and age were the two key determinants of this classification.

Research limitations/implications

LCA is an exploratory analysis technique that requires additional validation to confirm the findings of any one study.

Practical implications

The salience of training in helping officers feel prepared to deal with cybercrime cases as well as victims was demonstrated. A full 60 percent of the officers in this study fell in the “unprepared” category, which continues to highlight the limitations of local police to handle cybercrime cases; nevertheless, almost 40 percent of officer could be considered ready when responding to cybercrimes.

Social implications

As the harm cybercrime brings to our financial and social well-being, law enforcement agencies will be required to improve their response capabilities. Most current cybercrime responses address technical issues related to online fraud and abuse, but officers often perceive the problem as outside their legal and geographic jurisdiction. Knowing how officers perceive cybercrime as well as their own capabilities will allow us to begin changing enforcement policies, training capacity and individual response efficacy.

Originality/value

This study involved a sample of English and Welsh constables and sergeants to classify their cybercrime readiness. The analysis and particular data are unique to the study of cybercrime.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Steve van de Weijer, Rutger Leukfeldt and Sophie Van der Zee

Cybercrime rates have increased rapidly during the last couple of decades, resulting in cybercrimes becoming common crimes. However, most victims do not report cybercrimes

Abstract

Purpose

Cybercrime rates have increased rapidly during the last couple of decades, resulting in cybercrimes becoming common crimes. However, most victims do not report cybercrimes to the police. Therefore, this study examines reporting cybercrime victimization and provides insights into the role of the police in this process.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 595 individuals was used. All respondents were shown three vignettes about hypothetical cybercrime victimization and were asked to imagine that this situation happened to them. Four crime and reporting characteristics were manipulated across vignettes. Respondents' intentions to report to the police and to other organizations were used as the dependent variables in regression analyses. Four random factors in the vignettes (i.e. type of crime, seriousness of crime, victim–perpetrator relationship, and reporting modality), as well as several characteristics of the respondents were included in the regression models as independent variables.

Findings

The type of cybercrime is the most important predictor for reporting behaviors. Other determinants are: more serious offenses were more often reported and offenses are less often reported in situations where the victim personally knows the perpetrator. Furthermore, there is large discrepancy between intended and actual cybercrime reporting. These findings provide valuable insights into the factors that influence reporting behavior in the real world. Only a fifth of respondents indicated that they would not report cybercrime victimization to the police. This implies that attempts at improving reporting rates should not solely be focused on improving people's attitudes, but also on removing obstacles to turn these attitudes into actions.

Originality/value

In the current study, the authors contribute to the existing literature by asking a large sample from the general population in the Netherlands about both their intended reporting behavior (i.e. a vignette study) and their actual reporting behavior (i.e. self-reports) of victimization of a wide variety of different types of cybercrime. Determinants of both reporting to the police as well as to other organizations are examined. Moreover, respondents are asked about motivations behind their decision to (not) report a cybercrime to the police. Last, people were asked about their past experiences with reporting cybercrime victimization to the police.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2020

Norman Mugarura and Emma Ssali

The purpose of this paper is to decipher the law relating to cybercrimes regulation and benchmarking best practices that could be adopted to address regulatory weaknesses…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to decipher the law relating to cybercrimes regulation and benchmarking best practices that could be adopted to address regulatory weaknesses in some countries. In many countries, cybercrimes regulation is undermined by a lack of robust regulatory regimes. The few regimes that are available are fragmented with no coherent global strategy to deal with these offences across countries and regions. There is a lot of scholarly literature to corroborate the fact that lack of requisite laws on cyber and financial crimes has rendered states lame ducks when faced with well-organized and resourced criminal organizations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper articulates intricacies of regulating money laundering and cybercrimes using data from selected African countries and beyond. Generic issues on financial crimes, cybercrimes, case law and policy documents drawn from different jurisdictions have been examined based on the objectives of the study. Cybercrime activities and anti-money laundering (AML) regulatory models have been evaluated drawing on experiences of selected countries in Africa and other countries. Questions whether suspicious activity reports are appropriate as a model to counter incidences of cybercrime activities or whether other options should be considered were also examined. Most notably, the risk-based assessment model such as profiling of high-risk clients rather than reporting every transaction will be compared and possibly suggested as a suitable alternative in financial crimes regulation. The authors have evaluated the data and AML regulatory approaches and other policy measures to curtail the foregoing threats. There is a possibility that AML tools used by financial institutions and banking activities could be used to prevent the growing threat of cybercrimes. The paper has also been enriched by case studies of tenuous legal systems and fragmentation of laws on cybercrimes and financial crimes and how these gaps have been exploited to fuel incidences of illicit criminal activities around the globe. The paper has also used empirical data including visits to banks and financial institutions on the nexus between the threat of cybercrimes and money laundering prevention. The authors have been selective, evaluating cases from 2000s to date. This timeline was particularly important because of the increased incidences of computers and money laundering threats globally. After analysing the data, the authors were able to delineate that there is a close connection between the foregoing two crimes, how they operate in practice, differences and similarities in the counter-measures used to mitigate their negative effect globally. Thus, in the authors’ contention, this is a novel study that is likely to spur farther research on law and policy against cyber and AML crimes not only in Uganda but also in other jurisdictions. At the same time, the findings of the study could complement, and perhaps also complete, the work of scholars who have written papers on cybercrimes to advocate for regulatory changes fight against these offences. The study will also complement the work of other researchers who have challenged the segregation of cybercrimes and financial crimes in local and international regulatory discourses. This research aims to make a significant contribution to the study of cybercrimes and how they are regulated in international law.

Findings

The findings of the paper have confirmed that the high incidences of money laundering and cybercrimes today are partly fuelled by inherent weaknesses in the global regulatory system and partly fuelled by weaknesses at an individual state level. Many countries have enacted a raft of anti-cyber and AML legislation but this notwithstanding, these laws have not been used to stem cross-border crimes globally. This is partly explained by the fact that many enforcement institutions lack the requisite capacity to institute measures through which to implement engendered laws and policies easily. The regulatory capacity of many countries has been eviscerated by deficiencies in infrastructure and systems.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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