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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Shane Horgan, Ben Collier, Richard Jones and Lynsay Shepherd

The purpose of this study is to develop the theorisation of cybercrime in the context of the pandemic, and to sketch out a vision of how law enforcement might respond to a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop the theorisation of cybercrime in the context of the pandemic, and to sketch out a vision of how law enforcement might respond to a transformed landscape of online crime and offending.

Design/methodology/approach

This conceptual paper draws on empirical evidence from a range of sources (including official statistics) and the existing research literature, and revisits routine activities theory to illuminate the way that cybercrime patterns are being transformed by the pandemic.

Findings

The pandemic is reshaping the routine activities of societies en masse, leading to changes in the ecology of risk and opportunity for cybercrime. There is evidence of a large increase in the prevalence of cybercrime as a result, yet much of this has a paradoxically “local” character.

Practical implications

The authors identify specific practical implications for law enforcement, namely, that the role of local police in policing cybercrime should be re-envisioned, with a democratic, community-oriented approach at its heart.

Originality/value

The theoretical perspective outlined is a novel and critical development of a well-established framework, opening up new paths to the theorisation of cybercrime and cybercrime policing. The authors’ suggestions for practitioners have the potential for direct impact, both at the level of practice and in terms of broader imaginaries and organisation of police and policing.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

J.W. Carter II

Abstract

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2018

Gerald J. Russelo, Stephen L. Cohen and Jose F. Sanchez

This paper aims to highlight certain comments made by US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) officials, which may provide insight into compliance and enforcement…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight certain comments made by US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) officials, which may provide insight into compliance and enforcement issues that may be important for market participants, including broker-dealers, investment advisors and reporting companies, in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explains comments made by SEC officials and highlights potential regulatory issues based on past experiences of attorneys within the firm, past comments made by the SEC and Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and past regulatory exam results.

Findings

This paper summarizes remarks from the recent SEC Speaks 2018 Conference conducted by SEC officials related to the Commission’s regulatory and enforcement priorities. Issuers, brokers, advisors and other financial organizations should familiarize themselves with the themes and guidance discussed at the Conference to prepare for regulatory compliance challenges in the upcoming year.

Originality/value

Practical guidance from experienced securities and financial services lawyers.

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Dale C. Spencer, Rosemary Ricciardelli, Dale Ballucci and Kevin Walby

Digital evidence is now infused in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault, which has refigured investigative tools, policing strategies and sources of cynicism…

Abstract

Purpose

Digital evidence is now infused in many (or arguably most) cases of sexual assault, which has refigured investigative tools, policing strategies and sources of cynicism for those working in sex crime units. Although cynicism, both its sources and affects, is widely studied among scholars of work and policing, little is known about how police working in sex crime units experience, mitigate and express cynicism. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in understanding and explore the role of cynicism amongst investigators working in sex crime units.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this research gap, the authors conducted 70 semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus groups with members of police services organizations across Canada working in sex crime units.

Findings

Examining sources of cynicism and emotional experiences, the authors reveal that officers in these units normalize and neutralize organizational and intra-organizational sources of cynicism, and cope with the potentially traumatizing and emotionally draining realities of undertaking this form of “dirty work.” The authors show that officer cynicism extends beyond offenders into organizational and operational aspects of their occupations and their lived experiences outside of work, which has implications for literature on police work, cynicism and digital policing.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to the literature on cyber policing by, first, examining sex crimes unit member’s sources of cynicism in relation to sex crimes and the digital world and, second, by exploring sources of cynicism in police organizations and other branches in the criminal justice system. The authors examine how such cynicism seeps into relationships outside of the occupation. The authors’ contribution is in showing that cynicism related to police dirty work is experienced in relation to “front” and “back” regions (Dick, 2005) but also in multiple organizational and social spheres. The authors contribute to the extant literature on dirty work insofar as it addresses the underexplored dirty work associated with policing cyber environments and the morally tainted elements of such policing tasks.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Intelligence and State Surveillance in Modern Societies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-171-1

Content available
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Cassandra Cross

Fraud is not a new offence. However, the recent evolution and proliferation of technologies (predominantly the internet) has seen offenders increasingly use virtual…

Abstract

Purpose

Fraud is not a new offence. However, the recent evolution and proliferation of technologies (predominantly the internet) has seen offenders increasingly use virtual environments to target and defraud victims worldwide. Several studies have examined the ways that fraud is perpetrated with a clear demarcation between terrestrial and cyber offences. However, with moves towards the notion of a “digital society” and recognition that technology is increasingly embedded across all aspects of our lives, it is important to consider if there is any advantage in categorising fraud against the type of environment it is perpetrated in. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines the perceived utility of differentiating online and offline fraud offences. It is based upon the insights of thirty-one professionals who work within the “fraud justice network” across London, UK and Toronto, Canada.

Findings

It highlights both the realities faced by professionals in seeking to ether maintain or collapse such a differentiation in their everyday jobs and the potential benefits and challenges that result.

Practical implications

Overall, the paper argues that the majority of professionals did not feel a distinction was necessary and instead felt that an arbitrary divide was instead a hindrance to their activities. However, while not useful on a practical front, there was perceived benefit regarding government, funding and the media. The implications of this moving forward are considered.

Originality/value

This paper provides new insights into how fraud justice network professionals understand the distinction between fraud offences perpetrated across both online and offline environments.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

Roderic Broadhurst

Addresses the rapid expansion of computer connectivity and the opportunities provided for criminals to exploit security vulnerabilities in the online environment.

Abstract

Purpose

Addresses the rapid expansion of computer connectivity and the opportunities provided for criminals to exploit security vulnerabilities in the online environment.

Design/methodology/approach

International efforts to combat cyber‐crime are reviewed by evaluating the forms of mutual legal assistance (MLA) now in place.

Findings

Cyber‐crime is often traditional crime (e.g. fraud, identify theft, child pornography) albeit executed swiftly and to vast numbers of potential victims, as well as unauthorised access, damage and interference to computer systems. Most detrimental are malicious and exploit codes that interrupt computer operations on a global scale and along with other cyber‐crimes threaten e‐commerce. The cross‐national nature of most computer‐related crimes have rendered many time‐honoured methods of policing both domestically and in cross‐border situations ineffective even in advanced nations, while the “digital divide” provides “safe havens” for cyber‐criminals. In response to the threat of cyber‐crime there is an urgent need to reform methods of MLA and to develop trans‐national policing capability.

Practical implications

The international response is briefly outlined in the context of the United Nations (UN) Transnational Organised Crime Convention (in force from September 2003) and the Council of Europe's innovative Cyber‐crime Convention (in force from July 2004). In addition, the role of the UN, Interpol, other institutions and bi‐lateral, regional and other efforts aimed a creating a seamless web of enforcement against cyber‐criminals are described.

Originality/value

The potential for potent global enforcement mechanisms are discussed.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2020

Aldo M. Leiva and Michel E. Clark

To examine the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on regulated entities within the context of cybersecurity, US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) compliance, and parallel…

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the COVID-19 pandemic’s effects on regulated entities within the context of cybersecurity, US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) compliance, and parallel proceedings.

Design/methodology/approach

Describes the SEC’s ability to conduct its operations within the telework environment, its commitment and ability to monitor the securities market, its enhanced monitoring of the adverse effects of SEC-regulated companies from COVID-19, its guidance to public companies of disclosure obligations related to cybersecurity risks and incidents, the SEC Office of Compliance and Examinations’s (OCIE’s) focus on broker-dealers’ and investment advisories’ cybersecurity preparedness, the role and activities of the SEC Division of Enforcement’s Cyber Unit, and parallel proceedings on cyberbreaches and incidents by different agencies, branches of government or private litigants.

Findings

SEC-regulated entities face many challenges in trying to maintain their ongoing business operations and infrastructure due to severe financial pressures, the threat of infection to employees and customers, and cybersecurity risks posed by remote operations from hackers and fraudsters. The SEC has reemphasized that its long-standing focus on cybersecurity and resiliency within the securities industry will continue, including ongoing vigilance over companies’ efforts to identify, assess, and address the inherent, heightened cybersecurity risks of teleworking and the resource reallocation that business need to sustain their operations until a safe and effective vaccine is developed for COVID-19.

Originality/value

Expert analysis and guidance from experienced lawyers with expertise in securities, litigation, government enforcement, information technology, data protection, privacy and cybersecurity.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 21 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

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Expert briefing
Publication date: 6 July 2016

China's cyber capabilities.

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB212204

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Content available
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2020

Fatima M. Isiaka, Salihu Abdullahi Audu and Mustafa Ahmed Umar

The dependence on the use of information systems for nearly every activity and functions in the internet is increasingly high. This form of interconnectedness has…

Abstract

Purpose

The dependence on the use of information systems for nearly every activity and functions in the internet is increasingly high. This form of interconnectedness has bolstered national economies, enhanced how governments interact with their citizens and how ordinary people connect with friends and family. However, this dependence has equally resulted to a high rise in vulnerability, threat and risk associated with more use of information and communication technology. Cyber-attacks that have the potential to disrupt or damage information system infrastructure are getting more complex with some level of sophistication. Traditional protection of information system infrastructure is no longer sufficient; systems have proven to be immune to failure or incidents. This paper aims to ensure that there is a continuous availability of services through a fail-safe proof.

Design/methodology/approach

MYSQL replication technique was used to develop a model based on three-tier layers using the principle of network interdependency and the replication techniques. Tier 1 depicts a Telecom organization serving as service provider that provides internet service to Tier 2 organization – a Bank; Tier 3 is the financial App that can be used by bank staff and customers. The fail-safe mode integrated mechanism enables Tier 3 to continue to render its services in the event of an attack on Tier 1 such as DDoS without disruption.

Findings

This technique succeeded in mitigating the loss of data if cyber incident occurred or reception of uninterrupted services is countered, which give rise to future master-to-master architecture.

Research limitations/implications

The study conducted is limited to the design and development of a fail-safe system for interdependent networks or systems using MYSQL replication technique.

Originality/value

In an interdependent environment such as the cyberspace, the sectors are interdependent for optimal results. The originality of the work ensures that there is availability of services which is sustained and that data integrity is assured using the fail-safe technique based on MySQL replication method.

Details

International Journal of Crowd Science, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-7294

Keywords

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