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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2018

Philip T. Roundy

Entrepreneurial ecosystems – the inter-related forces that promote and sustain regional entrepreneurship – are receiving intense academic, policymaker and practitioner…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial ecosystems – the inter-related forces that promote and sustain regional entrepreneurship – are receiving intense academic, policymaker and practitioner attention. Prior research primarily focuses on mature entrepreneurial ecosystems (EEs) in large, urban areas. Scholars are slow to examine the functioning of EEs in small towns, which face unique challenges in spurring entrepreneurial activity. Most notably, small town EEs are dependent on a key stakeholder group – local customers – which receives almost no attention in prior research on ecosystems. The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the role of customers in EEs.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper integrates work on the service-dominant logic and service ecosystems with entrepreneurship research to theorize about the influence of customers in small town EEs.

Findings

The proposed theory draws attention to the role of customers in evaluating the services provided by entrepreneurs and co-creating value in small town EEs. Theory is developed about the influence of three sets of customer characteristics on entrepreneurial activities: the local market potential (based on the number of local and transient customers), customers’ abilities to access the ecosystem (based on income levels) and customers’ preferences for services provided by the ecosystem’s entrepreneurs (based on preferences for innovativeness, local versus global brands and in- versus out-shopping).

Originality/value

Entrepreneurial ecosystems research has implicitly adopted a producer-dominant logic focusing on entrepreneurs and their ventures as the primary creators of value. The proposed theoretical framework applies the service-dominant logic to EEs and conceptualizes EEs as a unique type of service ecosystem. The theorizing generates implications for scholars and practitioners and suggests that more work is needed at the interface of entrepreneurship, marketing and regional economic development.

Details

Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-5201

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Claudio Baccarani and Fabio Cassia

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the resource integration processes that occur within service ecosystems affect both the well-being of the entire ecosystem

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to understand how the resource integration processes that occur within service ecosystems affect both the well-being of the entire ecosystem and the well-being of specific focal actors (i.e. customers) in the ecosystem. Specifically, this paper considered cases in which customers’ well-being results from simultaneous participation in a multiplicity of service ecosystems.

Design/methodology/approach

An illustrative example, taken from the tourism context, was used to develop a conceptual framework (of which customers were the focal actors) to evaluate service ecosystem outcomes.

Findings

The results showed that the well-being of focal actors (i.e. customers) should be evaluated by considering the outcomes that arise in the interlocking service ecosystems in which the customers simultaneously participate. Further, in relation to these interlocking service ecosystems, high levels of well-being within a single ecosystem did not necessarily cause focal actors to experience high levels of well-being.

Research limitations/implications

To ensure the creation of positive customer experiences, the co-creating actors (e.g. the service providers) must first identify each of the interlocking service ecosystems in which customers simultaneously participate and then establish interactions with other relevant actors.

Originality/value

By considering the complex relationships between the well-being of a service ecosystem as a whole and the well-being of specific focal actors (e.g. customers) in an ecosystem, this study advances knowledge about evaluations on the performance of service ecosystems.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of actor engagement (AE) on social media by proposing a holistic and integrative conceptual framework.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of actor engagement (AE) on social media by proposing a holistic and integrative conceptual framework.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a sample of 118 articles, the paper draws on the service-dominant logic (SDL)-based service ecosystem perspective combined with the tenets of relational dialectics as theoretical lenses to inform AE research in social media.

Findings

The paper proposes a framework of AE in social media called the TASC model, an acronym of Thesis-Antithesis-Synthesis-Conflict. TASC introduces the dialectical nature of AE and discusses the contexts and levels of AE in the social media ecosystem and their evolving processes.

Practical implications

Firms can apply the knowledge provided by TASC to gather marketing intelligence and develop marketing strategies to anticipate tensions, motivate the desired AE intensity and valence and reinforce value co-creation in the social media ecosystem.

Originality/value

TASC is a comprehensive framework that, for the first time, explains engagement at all levels of the social media ecosystem by combining the SDL-based service ecosystem view with the relational dialectics perspective.

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Soe-Tsyr Daphne Yuan, Szu-Yu Chou, Wei-Cheng Yang, Cheng-An Wu and Chih-Teng Huang

Customer engagement (customers’ behavioral manifestations going beyond customer-firm purchase transactions) has been regarded as strategic imperatives for generating…

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1526

Abstract

Purpose

Customer engagement (customers’ behavioral manifestations going beyond customer-firm purchase transactions) has been regarded as strategic imperatives for generating enhanced corporate performance. The plethora of new media has provided customers with different options to interact with firms and other customers. However, the primacy of value-laden interactive customer relationships and value co-creation raises challenges for firms and customers, especially in the context of broader business ecosystems such as brand partnership for extending value co-creation. This study aims to explore how customer engagement with well-designed choreograph of various new media’s channels can increase the value co-creation extent in the context of broader business ecosystems, resulting in higher levels service offerings, experiences and innovation.

Design/methodology/approach

This exploratory study presents a new framework of customer engagement that holistically integrates the elements of multiple new media and broader business ecosystem, stimulating a virtuous circle of realizing customer engagement toward superior results or innovations. The framework considers new media’s different information service and technologies (e.g. search engine, social recommender, social media) that can be properly choreographed to achieve a virtuous customer engagement circle.

Findings

This paper uses an exemplar framework's instantiation – an information technology enabled engagement platform (called iEngagement) – that can demonstrate how to empower the central companies together with their eco-stakeholders to holistically perform customer engagement utilizing new media toward fruitful customer engagement.

Originality/value

This exploratory study is among the first that addresses the theory and practice of customer engagement within multiple new media and broader business ecosystem. This paper presents a customer engagement framework and an exemplified engagement platform that holistically integrate the elements of multiple new media and broader business ecosystem, for stimulating a virtuous circle of realizing customer engagement toward superior results or innovations.

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Merlin Stone, Eleni Aravopoulou, Gherardo Gerardi, Emanuela Todeva, Luisa Weinzierl, Paul Laughlin and Ryan Stott

The purpose of this paper is to explain how ecosystems and platforms have evolved to manage customer information and to identify the management, research and teaching…

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2894

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain how ecosystems and platforms have evolved to manage customer information and to identify the management, research and teaching implications of this evolution.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on research and industrial experience of two of the co-authors in customer relationship management, further developed with other co-authors in the field of business models, the research and teaching experience of the university authors and cross-functional literature reviews in the areas of strategy, marketing, economics, organizational behaviour and information management.

Findings

This paper shows that digitalization, cloud computing and new information-based platforms are beginning to change how customer information is being managed, creating new opportunities for improving marketing, customer relationship management and business strategy.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of platforms on the management of customer information needs to be confirmed by primary empirical research.

Practical implications

This paper identifies the need for senior marketing management to examine closely how internal and external/public customer information platforms may enhance their capability for managing customers and setting new strategic directions.

Social implications

The emergence of giant multi-sided platforms has clear implications for data protection and privacy, which need to be explored more in research.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the move to customer information platforms and identifies how senior managers should consider them as an option for better customer information management and as a basis for new business strategies.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

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Article
Publication date: 17 October 2016

Michaela Lipkin

The purpose of this paper is to review customer experience formation (CXF) by first locating and analyzing how researchers approach CXF in the service literature and the…

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4985

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review customer experience formation (CXF) by first locating and analyzing how researchers approach CXF in the service literature and the theoretical underpinnings of these approaches, and then assessing which approaches are best suited for understanding, facilitating, and examining CXF in today’s service landscape.

Design/methodology/approach

This study systematically reviews 163 articles published between 1998 and 2015 in the service field.

Findings

This study illustrates how researchers approach CXF on the individual level by applying stimulus- interaction- or sense-making-based perspectives. These reflect researchers’ theoretical underpinnings for how individuals realize the customer experience within environmental, social, and temporal contexts through intermediation. Researchers further apply contextual lenses, including the dyadic and service- or customer-ecosystem lenses, which reflect their theoretical underpinnings for explaining how various actor constellations and contextual boundaries frame individual-level CXF. Finally, this study shows why the sense-making-based perspective, together with a service- or customer-ecosystem lens, is particularly suitable for approaching complex CXF in today’s service settings.

Research limitations/implications

To advance theory, researchers should choose the approaches resonant with their research problem and worldview but also consider that today’s complex service landscape favors holistic and systemic approaches over atomistic and dyadic ones.

Practical implications

This study provides managers with recommendations for understanding, facilitating, and evaluating contemporary CXF.

Originality/value

This study advances the understanding of CXF by systematically reviewing its multiple layers, approaches, and dimensions and the opportunities and challenges of each approach.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2018

Oana Maria Pop, Sara Leroi-Werelds, Nadine Roijakkers and Tor W. Andreassen

The purpose of this paper is to propose a typology of institutions enabling or constraining customer centricity and value co-creation in service ecosystems; illustrate the…

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1205

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a typology of institutions enabling or constraining customer centricity and value co-creation in service ecosystems; illustrate the various types of institutions with examples from healthcare; and provide case study evidence on how pharmaceutical companies react to and induce institutional change.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a typology of institutions enabling or constraining customer centricity and value co-creation is proposed and illustrated with examples from healthcare. Next, to clarify how companies deal with these institutions by reacting to or inducing institutional change, two case companies from the pharmaceutical industry are described.

Findings

The research identifies and illustrates nine types of institutions (culture, structure, processes, metrics, language, practices, IP, legislation and general beliefs) grouped by three levels of analysis (micro, meso and macro). Furthermore, the findings of the two case studies indicate that companies react to, but also proactively induce, institutional change.

Research limitations/implications

The investigation is limited to two case studies.

Practical implications

Organizations need to understand the micro-, meso- and macro-level institutions of their service ecosystem; react to institutional changes imposed by other actors; and proactively change institutions by breaking, making or maintaining them.

Social implications

Pharmaceutical companies can improve patient well-being by inducing institutional change.

Originality/value

This research develops a mid-range theory of service ecosystem institutions by developing a typology. This typology is empirically examined in a healthcare context.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2021

Stephen Denning

The author discusses the challenges of implementing a digital ecosystem, a way of transcending the boundaries of a firm to include additional producers to provide more…

Abstract

Purpose

The author discusses the challenges of implementing a digital ecosystem, a way of transcending the boundaries of a firm to include additional producers to provide more value to customers and also by making customers active partners.

Design/methodology/approach

An ecosystem is intentionally organized to generate, facilitate and benefit from interactions rather than transactions.

Findings

The author explains how firms can make the customers active participants in creating and evolving the network by embracing the dynamic concept of an ecosystem.

Practical/implications

The ecosystem becomes more valuable to users as more users join.

Originality/value

Essential reading for executives experimenting with corporate digital platforms.

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2020

Anthony Marshall, Anthony Lipp, Kazuaki Ikeda and Raj Rohit Singh

Ecosystem partnerships are driving a dramatic change in the nature of business as industries as diverse as banking, automotive and retail are converging in unprecedented…

Abstract

Purpose

Ecosystem partnerships are driving a dramatic change in the nature of business as industries as diverse as banking, automotive and retail are converging in unprecedented ways–and at an unprecedented rate. To learn how leading companies are embracing innovation in ecosystems to drive both value creation and competitiveness, the IBM Institute for Business Value in collaboration with Oxford Economics surveyed 1000 top executives in 19 industries and 29 countries between August and January 2019.

Design/methodology/approach

The survey cohort included 250 Chief Executive Officers, 150 Chief Financial Officers, 150 Chief Innovation Officers, 150 Chief Marketing Officers, 150 Chief Operations Officer and 150 Chief Alliance/Partnership Officers.

Findings

Analysis revealed that organizations with high engagement in ecosystems generate greater revenues from innovation initiatives. Specifically, revenues tied to innovation were more than 14 percent higher for ecosystem-engaged businesses than their less ecosystem-oriented peers.

Practical implications

The analysis showed that organizations differentiated on four innovation-enabling dimensions are more successful than others in ecosystem innovation. Their winning practices: 10;•9;They lead with platforms for innovating in ecosystems. 10;•9;They create the structures that enable the transformation of ideas into desired customer experiences in ecosystems 10;•9;They establish effective, meaningful measurements for successful innovation in ecosystems. 10;•9;They approach innovation with a collaborative mindset and create an environment of openness that shapes innovative behavior. 10;

Originality/value

The study identified the best practices of the most successful companies, ecosystem innovators. They excel across four innovation dimensions. They build platforms and employ ecosystems to better orchestrate customer experiences. They establish processes to effectively measure innovation within ecosystems in which they operate. They form organizational structures that institutionalize innovation. And they create and promote environments of openness and collaboration

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Haydn Shaughnessy

This article introduces the concept of a industry phase change. Phase-changes are historical transitions, ones that create a new industry and consumer ecosystem. They are

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1389

Abstract

Purpose

This article introduces the concept of a industry phase change. Phase-changes are historical transitions, ones that create a new industry and consumer ecosystem. They are not merely disruptive technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

A phase-change is marked by a complex transformation in human behavior produced by a new way to satisfy consumption needs. The Kodak case is described.

Findings

A current phase-change sweeping many business sectors is driven by the growing search for competitive advantage through connected ecosystems of stakeholders that co-create value – customers, innovators, partners and communities.

Practical implications

Co-creative ecosystems are a phase-change that requires a new set of executive and management skills, a different culture, a new approach to information, as well as new forms of leadership.

Originality/value

Explains the success factors of the four major types of modern ecosystems: scale ecosystems; creative commons/open source ecosystems; customer ecosystems; and systemic ecosystems. Shows how Kodak was disrupted by its lack of understanding of ecosystems management.

Details

Strategy & Leadership, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1087-8572

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