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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2020

Jeremy D. Mackey, Charn P. McAllister, Liam P. Maher and Gang Wang

Recently, there has been an increase in the number and type of studies in the organizational sciences that examine curvilinear relationships. These studies are important…

Abstract

Recently, there has been an increase in the number and type of studies in the organizational sciences that examine curvilinear relationships. These studies are important because some relationships have context-specific inflection points that alter their magnitude and/or direction. Although some scholars have utilized basic techniques to make meta-analytic inferences about curvilinear effects with the limited information available about them, there is still a tremendous opportunity to advance our knowledge by utilizing rigorous techniques to meta-analytically examine curvilinear effects. In a recent study, we used a novel meta-analytic approach in an effort to comprehensively examine curvilinear relationships between destructive leadership and followers' workplace outcomes. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an actionable guide for conducting curvilinear meta-analyses by describing the meta-analytic techniques we used in our recent study. Our contributions include a detailed guide for conducting curvilinear meta-analyses, the useful context we provide to facilitate its implementation, and our identification of opportunities for scholars to leverage our technique in future studies to generate nuanced knowledge that can advance their fields.

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Advancing Methodological Thought and Practice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-079-2

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Article
Publication date: 11 January 2021

Gi Ryung Song and Kyoung Seok Kim

Most existing studies treat the relationship between experienced incivility and behavioral responses as linear. However, the current study examines the curvilinear

Abstract

Purpose

Most existing studies treat the relationship between experienced incivility and behavioral responses as linear. However, the current study examines the curvilinear relationships between experienced incivility and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and instigated incivility using conservation of resources (COR) theory and by referring to related studies that have identified typical positive and negative employee nontask behaviors. Furthermore, this study identifies turnover intention as a moderator of these curvilinear relationships.

Design/methodology/approach

All samples were obtained from respondents working for Korean companies listed on the Korean Securities Dealers Automated Quotations (KOSDAQ); 228 samples were used for the analysis. A quadratic regression function was established to analyze the curved relationships according to hierarchical stages.

Findings

Our analysis determined that a U-shaped curvilinear relationship exists between experienced incivility and OCB, and an inverted U-shaped curvilinear relationship exists between experienced and instigated incivility. However, the moderating effect of turnover intention is significant only in the relationship between experienced and instigated incivility.

Originality/value

This study exhibits three points of originality—first, by simultaneously considering two dependent variables as responses to experienced incivility and examining their response patterns; second, by using a curvilinear relationship model to investigate the relationship between experienced incivility and its dependent variables; and finally, by finding a moderator to the curved relationship.

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Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2014

Sut I. Wong Humborstad, Christina G.L. Nerstad and Anders Dysvik

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible curvilinear relationship between empowering leadership and individual in-role and extra-role work performance and…

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7107

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible curvilinear relationship between empowering leadership and individual in-role and extra-role work performance and the potential moderating role of individual goal orientations.

Design/methodology/approach

Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted based on data from 655 certified accountants. Leaders' empowering behavior was measured using Ahearne et al.'s scale. Mastery and performance goal orientations were measured using items from VandeWalle. In-role work performance was measured via a ten-item scale developed and used by Kuvaas and Dysvik. Organizational citizenship behavior was measured using items validated by Van Dyne and LePine.

Findings

Too little empowerment might have a negative or limited impact – or none at all – on individual in-role and extra-role work performance. In addition, individual mastery orientation positively moderates these curvilinear relationships.

Research limitations/implications

Empowering leadership-employee performance relationships are not necessarily linear. The present study provides an alternative explanation to the somewhat inconsistent findings in the current literature.

Practical implications

Due to the curvilinear nature of empowering leadership, leaders should not just casually adopt this leadership style but ensure that they implement it at high levels with clear clarification of the goals and work roles.

Originality/value

Even though empowering leadership is important to individual performance, scant research has explored whether and when empowering leadership could be detrimental. This study provides an additional view to empowerment research by examining the potential curvilinear influence of empowering leadership.

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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2021

Revti Raman Sharma, Matevz (Matt) Raskovic and Balwinder Singh

Contrary to the widely held belief in the linear positive effects of business relationships (BRELs) on performance outcomes, the authors posit that the quality of a…

Abstract

Purpose

Contrary to the widely held belief in the linear positive effects of business relationships (BRELs) on performance outcomes, the authors posit that the quality of a manager's BRELs with a foreign business partner has an inverted curvilinear effect on managing challenges arising out of institutional differences between two countries, which the authors define as institutional success. The authors further propose that managers' global role complexity (GRC) negatively impacts institutional success and dampens the inverted curvilinear effects of BRELs on institutional success.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed model is tested using questionnaire survey data from 186 senior Indian managers doing business with New Zealand.

Findings

The authors find significant support for the inverted curvilinear effects of BRELs and the negative effects of GRC on institutional success. They did not find significant results for the moderating role of GRC on the inverted curvilinear relationship between BRELs and institutional success. However, significant linear interactive effects of GRC and BREL are evident.

Practical implications

The key managerial implication is that managers should focus on building BRELs of appropriate quality with their overseas counterparts to keep producing relational rents. They should, however, also be sensitive to when such relational rents start to be eroded by internal and external factors and treat them as a dynamic equilibrium rather than a static one.

Originality/value

The study findings challenge the assumption of linear positive effects of BRELs within the relational view. They highlight the significance of BRELs, even for emerging economy managers doing business in advanced economies.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Devin Bin, Keo Mony Sok, Phyra Sok and Sonariddh Mao

Prior studies have mainly advanced the understanding of a linear relationship between leadership humility and employee work outcomes, mediated and/or moderated by various…

Abstract

Purpose

Prior studies have mainly advanced the understanding of a linear relationship between leadership humility and employee work outcomes, mediated and/or moderated by various individual, team and organizational variables. This study attempts to advance prior knowledge by investigating a potential curvilinear relationship between leadership humility and frontline service employee (FSE) performance and the role of FSE's psychological capital (PsyCap) in attenuating this curvilinear relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were drawn from a survey sample of 273 FSEs working in the hospitality industry of the United States of America. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was used to test the proposed hypotheses.

Findings

The results uncover the existence of a tipping point in the relationship between leader humility and FSE performance; that is, humble behaviors expressed by leaders positively influence FSE performance up to the tipping point beyond which FSE performance starts to diminish. However, this curvilinear effect is attenuated when FSE's PsyCap is high but not when it is low.

Practical implications

The findings provide service managers with insights into the importance of balancing their humble behaviors to yield optimal FSE performance. Furthermore, the paper points to the need for FSE's PsyCap cultivation within service firms so that FSEs are less dependent on their supervisors and can deliver highly satisfactory results.

Originality/value

This research is one of the very first to investigate the curvilinear relationship between leader humility and FSE performance and the moderating role of PsyCap in attenuating the curvilinear effect.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2019

William Ansah Appienti and Lu Chen

Drawing upon the “too-much-of-a-good-thing (TMGT)” effect and conservation of resources (COR) theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the mediation mechanism…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon the “too-much-of-a-good-thing (TMGT)” effect and conservation of resources (COR) theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine the mediation mechanism between empowering leadership and employee job performance. Specifically, the authors propose a curvilinear relationship between empowering leadership and job performance, and also suggest that employee harmonious and obsessive work passions mediate the curvilinear relationship between empowering leadership and job performance. Further the moderation role of collectivism orientation (CO) in the relationship between empowering leadership and job performance is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires are used to obtain survey data from 256 supervisor–subordinate dyads in three companies in the communication sector of Ghana. A follow-up interview was also conducted to enhance explanation of research findings. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to analyze the associations among the variables.

Findings

The results revealed that the significant inverted U-shaped relationship between empowering leadership and subordinate job performance is mediated by both harmonious and obsessive passion for work. A significant moderation effect of CO in the empowering leadership–job performance relationship could not be established.

Originality/value

This study adapts the “TMGT” effect and COR theory in the explanation of an integrated model including empowering leadership, job performance, employee passion for work, and CO in the Ghanaian context.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 41 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Ding Hooi Ting

This study focuses on service quality and satisfaction judgments of customers in banking institutions throughout Malaysia. The study attempts to determine the relationship…

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4249

Abstract

This study focuses on service quality and satisfaction judgments of customers in banking institutions throughout Malaysia. The study attempts to determine the relationship between service quality and satisfaction, where service quality is the independent variable and satisfaction is the dependent variable. On top of this, the inclusion of ownership as a moderator has also been studied. Findings show that service quality is the antecedent of satisfaction. The findings also support a curvilinear relationship for the variables under study. The results also show that bank‐ownership moderates the relationship between service quality and satisfaction. Hierarchical moderator regression is used to test the moderating effect. Implications and future research are also discussed.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 22 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2017

Gordon Liu, Wai Wai Joyce Ko, Isaac Ngugi and Sachiko Takeda

Drawing from resource-based theory, the authors aim to study how and under what conditions small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) capitalise on their proactive…

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1420

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from resource-based theory, the authors aim to study how and under what conditions small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) capitalise on their proactive entrepreneurial behaviour (PEB) to achieve new product development (NPD) performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ data were drawn from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 401 UK-based SMEs in the manufacturing sector.

Findings

The authors identify an upward curvilinear relationship between PEB and NPD performance. Taking a step further, the authors propose and confirm that this curvilinear association arises from, in part, SMEs’ innovation capability, which in turn translates into NPD performance. The authors also find that this upward curvilinear relationship between PEB and innovation capability flips to a downward curvilinear relationship when firms pursue a customer and competitor orientation.

Originality/value

This paper looks beyond the linear relationship that exists among entrepreneurial behaviour, market orientation and innovation outcomes.

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Lei Xie, Shaoping Qiu and Xinyi Bian

Building on social exchange theory and selection, optimization and compensation theory, this study aims to examine a moderated curvilinear relationship between servant…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on social exchange theory and selection, optimization and compensation theory, this study aims to examine a moderated curvilinear relationship between servant leadership (SL) and work-family conflict (WFC).

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were 329 female workers recruited from a Chinese small business in the service Industry. A three-step hierarchical regression was conducted to examine the relationships among the variables and the incremental contribution of SL and age and the squared term of SL.

Findings

Study results confirmed a curvilinear relationship between SL and WFC and the moderating effect of age. When younger female employees perceived a moderate range of SL from their supervisors, they reported higher WFC compared to the low or high level of perceived SL. On the contrary, senior female employees reported a lower level of WFC when they perceived a moderate level of SL than when they perceived very low or high levels.

Originality/value

SL research has experienced a period of exponential growth in the past decade. This study advanced the field of leadership by arguing that SL perceived by female employees is curvilinearly related to WFC and the curvilinear relationship is moderated by age.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 53 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2018

Ci-Rong Li, Chun-Xuan Li, Chen-Ju Lin and Jing Liu

The purpose of this paper is to explicate the influence of diverse team on team-level ambidexterity and its curvilinear assessment, and test the mediating role of team…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explicate the influence of diverse team on team-level ambidexterity and its curvilinear assessment, and test the mediating role of team reflexivity and the moderating role of shared meta-knowledge in the curvilinear relationship between team diversity and team ambidexterity.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors collected multisource and temporally separated data on 206 R&D teams within 28 high-tech firms in Taiwan.

Findings

This study found a complex, curvilinear, moderated mediation relationship that functional background diversity has with team ambidexterity. Furthermore, consistent with the notion from categorization-elaboration model, the authors found the curvilinear relationship that functional background diversity has with both team ambidexterity and team reflexivity. Finally, the authors also found that the curvilinear relationship between functional background diversity and team reflexivity was moderated by shared meta-knowledge, such that the positive relationship was strengthened and the negative relationship weakened, in higher shared meta-knowledge in teams rather than lower.

Originality/value

The results demonstrate that team diversity-team ambidexterity relationship is much more complicated than previous works have assumed or suggested. Overall, the authors contribute to a novel understanding about the importance of team diversity in ambidextrous teams by opening the black box of how and when functional background diversity and team ambidexterity.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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