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1 – 10 of over 2000
Article
Publication date: 19 June 2017

Yanhang Zhao, Jingang Wang, Shoupeng Ban, Xueqi Hu and Diancheng Si

The purpose of this paper is to design a current transformer model based on the principle of B-dot. It can reflect the change of transmission line current and meet the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to design a current transformer model based on the principle of B-dot. It can reflect the change of transmission line current and meet the requirement of automation and intelligence for current measurement in power system.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a new type of current transformer is designed on the principle of B-dot, which has the structure of the inverse series of planar air core coils and the form of printed circuit board (PCB). With this structure, the current transformers can induce magnetic field quite well. The finite element simulation for the current transformer with n layers structure is conducted in the Maxwell, which help to optimize the design of the current transformer.

Findings

By setting up the experimental platform, the experiment of the current transformer is carried out. The results of the test show that the measurement accuracy can satisfy the requirement of measurement. Besides, the new current transformer has good transient characteristics and can meet the needs of the development of smart grid.

Originality value

The new type of current transformer is based on the principle of B-dot, which is designed with a new type of non-contact PCB hollow coil current transformer. It has no iron core, no ferromagnetic effect and the phenomenon of ferromagnetic resonance. It has great progress in its insulation performance, volume and bandwidth response. In addition, the planar hollow coil of the inverse series structure can make the structure more accurate.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2021

Willem D. Pieters and Raynitchka Tzoneva

This paper aims to focus on the implementation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850–9-2 standard based process bus with merging units (MUs) and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus on the implementation of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 61850–9-2 standard based process bus with merging units (MUs) and sampled values (SV) to improve the protection and control systems. The digital process interface is important to be included on the process bus level.

Design/methodology/approach

The IEC 61850–9-2 process bus standard is not extensively used in regard to SV when the IEC 61850 standard is implemented by power utilities. Many protection and control intelligent electronic devices (IEDs) are connected to a substation communication network, routers and switches using fibre-optic linked Ethernet. However, inductive current transformers (CTs) and voltage transformers (VTs) secondary circuits are still hardwired to the IEDs. The paper highlight issues with the copper wires for currents signals and how these issues can be eliminated by using the MUs and the SV protocol. The voltage regulator control IED of each transformer is required to regulate the voltage level of the secondary side bus bar it is connected to. All the regulating IEDs of parallel-connected transformers are required to communicate with each other to share information. They collectively control the bus bar voltage depending on the switching configuration of the parallel transformers.

Findings

It is shown that process bus information such as the high voltage switchgear status information of primary plant in the yard, can be used to improve the substation protection and control systems. The power transformer protection and voltage regulator control are focused on.

Research limitations/implications

The deliverables of the research work can be applied in: The Centre for Substation Automation and Energy Management systems of the Department of Electrical Engineering, power utilities and other establishments using power systems and digital substations in the electrical supply industry. The research work on the thesis led to the development of a laboratory test-bench where students can learn and understand the basics of the IEC 61850–9-2 SVs principles. The test-bench components such as the IEDs, real-time digital simulator, standalone MUs and Ethernet equipment can be used for future research applications. The test-bench can be used to demonstrate during course work for students at the University, the basics of digital substations using a process bus network with IEDs, MUs and Ethernet equipment.

Practical implications

The research work showed where lab equipment is getting outdated and future equipment will be required for research work in IEC 61850–9-2 process bus.

Originality/value

Power utilities can benefit from implementing the IEC 61850 part 9–2 of the standard and by using MUs and other process interface information in substations. A cost reduction in high voltage equipment, substation installation and commissioning costs and better performance of protection and control system can be achieved.

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2011

Vahid Behjat and Abolfazl Vahedi

Interturn winding faults, one of the most important causes of power transformers failures, cannot be detected by existing detection methods until they develop into…

Abstract

Purpose

Interturn winding faults, one of the most important causes of power transformers failures, cannot be detected by existing detection methods until they develop into high‐level faults with more severe damage to the transformer. The purpose of this paper is to describe development of a new discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based approach for detection of winding interturn faults.

Design/methodology/approach

The following approach was accomplished for development of the proposed fault detection method in this study. The DWT was first applied to decompose the terminal current signals of a transformer, which in turn were obtained from simulations using a finite elements method model of the transformer, into a series of wavelet components. Based on the characteristic features associated with interturn faults extracted from the decomposed waveforms of the terminal currents, a detection scheme was developed. An experimental setup was used to validate the proposed detection method.

Findings

The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of DWT applied on terminal currents of the transformer to identify interturn faults on the windings well before such faults lead to a catastrophic failure. It is believed that, based on the present findings, there definitely exists scope for improving interturn fault diagnosis with wavelet transform.

Research limitations/implications

Performing more detailed studies to find all relevant characteristics of the wavelet transform in this application, identifying the location of the faulted turns along winding, applying the method for indicating early stages of turn insulation deterioration and evaluating other type of wavelets for this application would be some future directions of this research.

Practical implications

With the proposed method, it is becoming possible to detect early signs of the fault occurrence, so that the necessary corrective actions can be taken to prevent long‐lasting outages and reduce down times of the faulty power transformer. The method will be particularly useful as a complement for the classical protection devices of the power transformers.

Originality/value

Some recent studies have been carried out regarding the application of DWT for discrimination between an internal fault and other disturbances such as magnetizing inrush and external faults. This paper extends those studies for the detection of interturn faults using more quantitative and qualitative characteristics features.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Mohammad Ali Taghikhani and Zahra Taghikhani

Using appropriate solution techniques for transformer inrush current transient study is of great prominence owing to the inevitable inclusion of differential equations…

Abstract

Purpose

Using appropriate solution techniques for transformer inrush current transient study is of great prominence owing to the inevitable inclusion of differential equations leading to complicated analysis procedures. This study aims to propose an analytical-numerical method to accurately analyze the three-phase three-limb core-type transformer inrush current in different cases considering the nonlinear behavior of the iron core.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed method focuses on acquiring equations for inrush current and also the magnetic core flux by the application of a simulation-based iterative approach. In this regard, multiple integral equations are solved taking the time intervals into account. Then several derivations and integrations of matrix terms are substituted into the obtained results so as to simplify the solution process.

Findings

The method provides notable enhancements in computation time and also excellent qualities of accuracy compared with conventional numerical methods.

Practical implications

The proposed method is simulated for two three-phase transformers via MATLAB software. The obtained simulation results have been also compared with experimental tests.

Originality/value

Actually, the analytical-numerical method is capable of computing higher number of iterations in a shorter time efficiently, while making use of the conventional numerical procedures may not result in expected convergences. The simulation results of the proposed analytical-numerical technique illustrate a close agreement with the experimental test, and hence, verify the method preciousness.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 November 2007

Okan Ozgonenel, David W.P. Thomas and Christos Christopoulos

The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique for modeling transformer internal faults using transmission line modeling (TLM) method. In this technique, a model for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe a technique for modeling transformer internal faults using transmission line modeling (TLM) method. In this technique, a model for simulating a two winding single phase transformer is modified to be suitable for simulating an internal fault in both windings.

Design/methodology/approach

TLM technique is mainly used for modeling transformer internal faults. This was first developed in early 1970s for modeling two‐dimensional field problems. Since, then, it has been extended to cover three dimensional problems and circuit simulations. This technique helps to solve integro‐differential equations of the analyzed circuit. TLM simulations of a single phase transformer are compared to a custom built transformer in laboratory environment.

Findings

It has been concluded from the real time studies that if an internal fault occurs on the primary or secondary winding, the primary current will increase a bit and secondary current does not change much. However, a very big circulating current flows in the shorted turns. This phenomenon requires a detailed modeling aspect in TLM simulations. Therefore, a detailed inductance calculation including leakages is included in the simulations. This is a very important point in testing and evaluating protective relays. Since, the remnant flux in the transformer core is unknown at the beginning of the TLM simulation, all TLM initial conditions are accepted as zero.

Research limitations/implications

The modeling technique presented in this paper is based on a low frequency (up to a few kHz) model of the custom‐built transformer. A detailed capacitance model must be added to obtain a high‐frequency model of the transformer. A detailed arc model, aging problem of the windings will be applied to model with TLM + finite element method.

Originality/value

Using TLM technique for dynamical modeling of transformer internal faults is the main contribution. This is an extended version of an earlier referenced paper of the authors and includes inductance calculation, leakages calculation, and BH curve simulation while the referenced paper only includes piecewise linear inductance values. This modeling approach may help power engineers and power system experts understand the behavior of the transformer under internal faults.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

K. Wiak

Discusses the 27 papers in ISEF 1999 Proceedings on the subject of electromagnetisms. States the groups of papers cover such subjects within the discipline as: induction…

Abstract

Discusses the 27 papers in ISEF 1999 Proceedings on the subject of electromagnetisms. States the groups of papers cover such subjects within the discipline as: induction machines; reluctance motors; PM motors; transformers and reactors; and special problems and applications. Debates all of these in great detail and itemizes each with greater in‐depth discussion of the various technical applications and areas. Concludes that the recommendations made should be adhered to.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 November 2008

Lieven Degroote, Lieven Vandevelde, Bert Renders and Johan Gyselinck

The aim is to develop a nonlinear transformer model to achieve an accurate model to obtain the frequency components of the magnetizing current based on the harmonic…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim is to develop a nonlinear transformer model to achieve an accurate model to obtain the frequency components of the magnetizing current based on the harmonic voltages at the primary and secondary side. So, it can easily be implemented in a harmonic load‐flow program.

Design/methodology/approach

The transformer model is based on the harmonic balance method. The electric and magnetic equations of the transformer are derived from the electric and magnetic equivalent circuits.

Findings

The transformer model can be easily implemented in a harmonic load‐flow program. The accuracy of the model has been shown by comparing it with a finite element simulation. The transformer model can be used with asymmetrical supply voltages, because different saturation levels of the phases can occur. There is a coupling between the phases which can be concluded out of the asymmetrical currents in the transformer under symmetrical supply voltages.

Research limitations/implications

The transformer model does not consider the iron losses and the interharmonics. In future work the transformer model will be used to study the harmonic losses in distribution networks, so the transformer losses due to these harmonics have to be considered. This can be achieved with a postcalculation process where the magnetic flux density is used to calculate the eddy current losses and the magnetic field intensity will be applied in a static Preisach model to quantify the hysteresis losses.

Practical implications

The model can be used in a harmonic load‐flow program in order to obtain more accurate simulations for the power system analysis and design.

Originality/value

The model presented in this paper is more detailed than similar papers found in literature (saturation of the yokes, coupling between the phases, interaction between different harmonics) and still it takes a brief simulation time.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Ramezan Ali Naghizadeh, Behrooz Vahidi and Seyed Hossein Hosseinian

The purpose of this paper is to propose an accurate model for simulation of inrush current in power transformers with taking into account the magnetic core structure and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an accurate model for simulation of inrush current in power transformers with taking into account the magnetic core structure and hysteresis phenomenon. Determination of the required model parameters and generalization of the obtained parameters to be used in different conditions with acceptable accuracy is the secondary purpose of this work.

Design/methodology/approach

The duality transformation is used to construct the transformer model based on its topology. The inverse Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model is used to represent the magnetic core behavior. Measured inrush waveforms of a laboratory test power transformer are used to calculate a fitness function which is defined by comparing the measured and simulated currents. This fitness function is minimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm which calculates the optimal model parameters.

Findings

An analytical and simple approach is proposed to generalize the obtained parameters from one inrush current measurement for simulation of this phenomenon in different situations. The measurement results verify the accuracy of the proposed method. The developed model with the determined parameters can be used for accurate simulation of inrush current transient in power transformers.

Originality/value

A general and flexible topology-based model is developed in PSCAD/EMTDC software to represent the transformer behavior in inrush situation. The hysteresis model parameters which are obtained from one inrush current waveform are generalized using the structure parameters, switching angle, and residual flux for accurate simulation of this phenomenon in different conditions.

Details

COMPEL: The International Journal for Computation and Mathematics in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2021

Sergey E. Zirka, Yuriy I. Moroz and Cesare Mario Arturi

Despite its well-founded criticism and lack of proper justification under core saturation conditions, the T-equivalent transformer model (Steinmetz scheme) is obviously…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite its well-founded criticism and lack of proper justification under core saturation conditions, the T-equivalent transformer model (Steinmetz scheme) is obviously championing in the literature. This educational paper aims to explain in a simple manner the limitations of the T-model of a low-frequency transformer and critically analyses some attempts to improve it.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a simplified examination of magnetic fluxes in the core and windings and using the modeling in ATPDraw, it is shown that transient transformer models with the indivisible leakage inductance allow circumventing the drawbacks of the T-model.

Findings

The authors show the absence of valid grounds for subdividing the leakage inductance of a transformer between its primary and secondary windings. The connection between the use of individual leakage inductances and inaccurate prediction of inrush current peaks is outlined as an important example.

Practical implications

The presented models can be used either as independent tools or serve as a reference for subsequent developments.

Social implications

Over generations, the habitual transformer T-equivalent is widely used by engineers and Electromagnetic Transients Program experts with no attention to its inadequacy under core saturation conditions. Having studied typical winding configurations, the authors have shown that neither of them has any relation to the T-equivalent.

Originality/value

This educational paper will contribute to the correct understanding of the transients occurring in a transformer under abnormal conditions such as inrush current or ferroresonance events, as well as during an out-of-phase synchronization of step-up generator transformers.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering , vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Elzbieta Lesniewska and Bogdan Tulodziecki

The purpose of this paper is to consider a constructional solution of the combined instrument transformer: constructed so that the voltage part is a column transformer

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider a constructional solution of the combined instrument transformer: constructed so that the voltage part is a column transformer, which means that the magnetic circuit of it is open and situated into a composite insulator. The aim of this research was to achieve optimal configuration of open magnetic circuit of the column voltage transformer.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors made analyses of electromagnetic field distribution and computed the voltage error and phase displacement for many different cases of magnetic circuits of the column voltage transformers. The analyses of the electromagnetic field distribution and computations were carried out using the 3D field‐circuit method based on the finite‐element numerical method. The results were compared with tests of a real‐life model.

Findings

The result of research is the selection of the best constructional version of the column voltage transformer; the research also gives some guidelines for design and manufacture of this construction of combined transformers.

Originality/value

The paper is meant for constructors of instrument transformers and presents results of research into new constructional solutions of combined transformer.

Details

COMPEL - The international journal for computation and mathematics in electrical and electronic engineering, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0332-1649

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 2000