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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Phyllis Moen and Francille M. Firebaugh

Titmus defines “policy” as “the principles that govern action directed towards given ends”. Höhn and Lüscher define family policy as “public activities, measures, and…

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Abstract

Titmus defines “policy” as “the principles that govern action directed towards given ends”. Höhn and Lüscher define family policy as “public activities, measures, and organizations that attempt to recognize, support, complement, and thus influence or even enforce specifically or generally defined achievements of the family”. Thus family policy can include a wide range of activities of governments and organizations, including private associations, that seek to transform families and increase family well‐being.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 14 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Yair Holtzman

To describe research and development (R&D) as a tool of strategic growth. The world's top performing companies share a common characteristic: their superior ability to…

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3760

Abstract

Purpose

To describe research and development (R&D) as a tool of strategic growth. The world's top performing companies share a common characteristic: their superior ability to develop and introduce new products faster and cheaper than their competitors. As a matter of fact, effective product innovation is the key to growth, even survival, for almost any business.

Design/methodology/approach

The author discusses how innovation in R&D could serve as a differentiating strategic business tool. The paper is based upon the authors 15 years of experience in the area of R&D and new product development. The paper is very creative in two respects. First, it looks at strategic R&D as the differentiating strategic “weapon” companies can use to separate themselves from the competition. Second, it uses many of the manufacturing, operations management tools and methodologies and applies these to innovation in R&D. The paper discusses methods to optimize a company's R&D efforts.

Findings

The executives emphasized the importance and criticality of organic growth and innovation as a major business concern and opportunity for their companies' future success. While strategies including acquisitions and continuous process improvement have proven successful but very difficult to sustain, expensive and risky to integrate, “Innovation, and innovation in research and development” in particular, can provide the advantage that world class organizations need to create the sustainable growth year after year. Innovation in R&D can be a strategic weapon in which top companies employ definable strategies and practices to catalyze high levels of organic growth, support above average margins even in mature businesses, and separate themselves from the competition.

Originality/value

This paper is a very interesting read for high‐level managers and executives interested in the field of R&D and new product development.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 27 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Book part
Publication date: 21 August 2015

Catherine E. Harnois

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing research tends to conceptualize age- and gender-based discrimination as distinct and unrelated social phenomena. A growing body of scholarship, however, highlights the importance of conceptualizing ageism as potentially gendered, and gender discrimination as inherently shaped by age. Using an intersectional theoretical perspective, this chapter examines how gender and age combine to shape women’s and men’s experiences of workplace mistreatment.

Methodology/approach

The data are obtained from the U.S. General Social Survey. The analysis begins with descriptive statistics, showing how rates of perceived age and gender mistreatment vary for men and women of different age groups. Multivariate logistic regressions follow.

Findings

Experiences of workplace mistreatment are significantly shaped by both gender and age. Among both men and women, workers in their 30s and 40s report relatively low levels of perceived age-based discrimination, compared to older or younger workers. It is precisely during this interval of relatively low rates of perceived age-based discrimination that women’s (but not men’s) perceptions of gender-based mistreatment rises dramatically. At all ages, women are significantly more likely to face either gender- or age-based discrimination than men, but the gap is especially large among workers in their 40s.

Originality/value

Women tend to perceive age- and gender-based mistreatment at different times of life, but a concurrent examination of gender- and age-based mistreatment reveals that women’s working lives are characterized by high rates of mistreatment throughout their careers, in a way that men’s are not. The results highlight the importance of conceptualizing gender and age as intersecting systems of inequality.

Details

At the Center: Feminism, Social Science and Knowledge
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-078-4

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Article
Publication date: 24 January 2019

Luc Benda, Ferry Koster and Romke J. van der Veen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how active labour market policy (ALMP) training programmes and hiring subsidies increase or decrease differences in the…

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1635

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how active labour market policy (ALMP) training programmes and hiring subsidies increase or decrease differences in the unemployment risk between lesser and higher educated people during an economic downturn. A focus is put on potential job competition dynamics and cumulative (dis)advantages of the lesser and higher educated.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses multi-level data. The fifth wave (2010) of the European Social Survey was used and combined with macro-level data on labour market policies of the OECD. The sample consisted of 18,172 observations in 19 countries.

Findings

The results show that higher levels of participation and spending on training policies are related to a smaller difference in the unemployment risks of the educational groups. Higher training policy intensity is associated with a lower unemployment risk for the lesser educated and a higher unemployment risk for the higher educated. This implies that the lesser educated are better able to withstand downward pressure from the higher educated, thereby, reducing downward displacement during an economic downturn. Hiring subsidies do not seem to be associated with the impact of education on unemployment.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the discussion on ALMP training and hiring subsidies that are primarily rooted in the human capital theory and signalling theory. Both theories ignore the social context of labour market behaviour. The job competition theory and cumulative (dis)advantage theory add to these theories by focussing on the relative position of individuals and the characteristics that accompany the social position of the individual.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 39 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2002

John Donovan and Eamonn Murphy

The Duane reliability growth model has a number of inherent limitations that make it unsuitable for monitoring reliability improvement progress. These limitations are…

Abstract

The Duane reliability growth model has a number of inherent limitations that make it unsuitable for monitoring reliability improvement progress. These limitations are explored and a model based on variance‐stabilizing transformation theory is explained. This model retains the ease of use while also avoiding the disadvantages of the Duane model. It represents a more useful graphical model for portraying reliability improvement at development team meetings. Computer simulations have shown that the new model provides a better fit to the data over the range of Duane slopes normally observed during a reliability growth program. The instantaneous mean time between failures (MTBF) equation for the new model is developed. Computer simulations show that its use results in higher values of instantaneous MTBF than that achieved by the Duane model. The new model also reduces the total test time for achieving a particular specified instantaneous MTBF. Finally, software failure data from an actual project illustrates the calculations and benefits of the new model.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Book part
Publication date: 29 July 2009

Sally Lindsay

There is growing evidence to suggest that childhood deprivation is linked to social inequalities and has important consequences for health in later life. Past studies tend…

Abstract

There is growing evidence to suggest that childhood deprivation is linked to social inequalities and has important consequences for health in later life. Past studies tend to focus on the influence of cumulative deprivation on the risk of developing a particular disease. This study adds to the literature by exploring how deprivation in childhood may be linked to how people (who already have a disease) self-manage their condition in later life. Questionnaires and focus groups were analysed to explore this relationship (n=91) among coronary heart disease patients living in a deprived urban area of Northern England. The results suggest that childhood deprivation may influence health behaviours and lifestyle in later life especially with regard to diet, health locus of control and doctor visits.

Details

Social Sources of Disparities in Health and Health Care and Linkages to Policy, Population Concerns and Providers of Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-835-9

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Book part
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Nathan T. Dollar

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market…

Abstract

This chapter proposes that efforts to improve our understanding of factors affecting migrant health and longevity in the United States must consider migrants’ labor market incorporation and the structural conditions under which they work. I use public-use death certificate data to examine whether there is a mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in the secondary sector industries of agriculture and construction. I focus on the decade of the 1990s for two contextual and empirical reasons: (1) the decade was characterized by economic restructuring, restrictive immigration policy, increased migration, and dispersion of migrants to new geographic destinations; and (2) the 1990s is an opportunistic decade because 19 states coded the industry and occupation of the decedent during this time. These numerator mortality data and Census denominator data are used to compare all-cause mortality rates between working-age (16–64 years) US-born and foreign-born agricultural and construction workers, the overall foreign-born population, and foreign-born workers in health care – an industry where the foreign-born tend to work in well-paid occupations that are well-regulated by the state. The results show a clear mortality penalty for foreign-born workers in agriculture and construction compared to the overall foreign-born population and foreign-born healthcare workers. The results also show the mortality penalty for foreign-born secondary sector workers varies by industry. These findings support the argument that bringing work into our analyses is critical to understanding the contextual and structural factors affecting migrant health and survival.

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Qurra-tul-ain Ali Sheikh, Mahpara Sadaqat and Muhammad Meraj

The purpose of this paper is to obtain empirical evidence on the impacts of socio-economic and demographic factors on the fertility decisions taken by a common family in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain empirical evidence on the impacts of socio-economic and demographic factors on the fertility decisions taken by a common family in developing countries like Pakistan. Also, this study contravenes the conventional orthodoxy of childbirth decisions of a family by enlarging the canvas and conjectures the fundamental nexus amongst female’s education, fertility and contraceptive use.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on micro-level data, obtained from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey (2012-2013) which is the third survey carried out in Pakistan. Demographic and socio-economic profiles of 13,558 ever-married women, aged 15-49 years, were randomly selected from Gilgit Baltistan and the four provinces of Pakistan. Three dependent variables are used in empirical analysis i.e. current use of contraceptives, total fertility and cumulative fertility. In order to estimate the probability of contraceptive use maximum likelihood, Probit technique is employed with ordinary least squares on reduced form specifications of total fertility and cumulative fertility models.

Findings

The empirical results proved the hypotheses that educated females practice more family planning through modern contraceptives which leads to a decrease in total fertility rates. Some significant links among females’ education, contraceptive use and fertility define the quantity – quality trade-off and opportunity cost of time. Evidently, female education provides maturity and awareness of family size which is necessary to take crucial economic decisions.

Research limitations/implications

The empirical evidence suggests that maximum efforts should be made toward women’s education. The current standard of education in Pakistan is not enough to overcome the long-standing problem of excessive child birth. This could be done with the help of public – private partnership as the measures taken by the government alone are insufficient. The government should initiate some adequate measures such as education and awareness about contraceptive usage at the secondary school level that could be a vivacious step to support fertility reduction.

Practical implications

The framework used in this study provides a broader intra-household income–expenditure approach. With a smaller family size, the household’s income would be shared among fewer individuals. It is highly probable that parents would be more attentive if they need to look after a few children. That is the best way to progress their children with limited resources.

Social implications

From the socioeconomic perspectives, educated parents plan the ideal family size which allows them to spend more on their children’s upbringing.

Originality/value

This study captures the magnitude of fertility decisions with the relevance of the wife’s education because the present practice in Pakistan does not allow higher education for married women. This is why this study could be used as a benchmark for further study in the same area.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1994

Jack S. Cook and Laura L. Cook

Change is an essential business trait. Manufacturing particularly istransforming at an unprecedented pace. Adopting effective managementpractices, capable of keeping pace…

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2424

Abstract

Change is an essential business trait. Manufacturing particularly is transforming at an unprecedented pace. Adopting effective management practices, capable of keeping pace with the changing technological environment, is particularly important to success in global markets. Manufacturers employing advanced manufacturing technology (AMT) are often more flexible than their traditional counter‐parts since AMT permits the integration of product design and production processes. Consequently, this synergistic effect facilitates achievement of world‐class manufacturing objectives. Despite obvious advantages, sparse research exists concerning achieving AMT competitive advantages. To incorporate AMT organizationally, management must be cognizant of the requirements for successful AMT implementation. Provides managerial requirements for successfully achieving AMT competitive advantages. Assuming management understands the “how” of doing things right and incorporates the necessary corporate cultural changes to embrace AMT, manufacturing strategic planning can lead the organization towards “what” are the right things to pursue. Therefore, strategic planning is given substantial consideration.

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Book part
Publication date: 15 October 2020

Koji Chavez

Are White and Asian job applicants advantaged in access to professional jobs relative to Black and Latinx job applicants at the initial screening stage of the hiring…

Abstract

Are White and Asian job applicants advantaged in access to professional jobs relative to Black and Latinx job applicants at the initial screening stage of the hiring process? And, are the mechanisms of advantage for White applicants different than the mechanisms for Asian applicants? In this chapter, the author proposes a theoretical framework of “parallel mechanisms” of White and Asian advantage during hiring screening – that White and Asian applicants are advantaged compared to Black and Latinx applicants, but that the mechanisms of advantage subtly differ. The author focuses specifically on mechanisms related to two important factors at the hiring interface: referrals and educational attainment. The author applies the concept of parallel mechanisms to a case study of software engineering hiring at a midsized high technology firm in Silicon Valley. The author finds that at this firm, White applicants are advantaged at initial screening relative to Black and Latinx applicants due to average racial differences in applicant characteristics – namely having a referral – as well as differences in treatment by recruiters. For Asian applicants, average racial differences in possession of elite educational credentials, as well as racial differences in recruiter treatment, explain the racial disparity in callbacks. The author discusses the implications of parallel mechanisms of advantage for racial inequality in a multiracial context, and for organizational policy meant to address racial disparities during organizational hiring processes.

Details

Professional Work: Knowledge, Power and Social Inequalities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-210-9

Keywords

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