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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2012

Max Choi, Alan Howard and Nina Krig

This chapter reviews key research on the similarities and differences in leadership and management across different regions of the world. It also looks at similarities and

Abstract

This chapter reviews key research on the similarities and differences in leadership and management across different regions of the world. It also looks at similarities and differences on other relevant aspects, that is, commitment, work values, personality and emotional intelligence. Research has tended to focus on drawing out the differences as that appears to be worthy of news and attracts interest. We also report on the types of errors in research which might actually make real differences appear much larger. The reality is that what we find is a great deal of similarity in leadership and management behaviour across the different regions of the world. Given these similarities, can we develop a management level Situational Judgment Test (SJT) that can be used effectively across different world regions? We believe this can be achieved by identifying SJT items that work consistently across world regions and then assembling a bias-free test with robust psychometric properties.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-002-5

Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Gavriel Meirovich

This theoretical research endeavors to find common ground in the ostensibly inconsistent results of studies on the impact of cultural similarities and differences on…

Abstract

This theoretical research endeavors to find common ground in the ostensibly inconsistent results of studies on the impact of cultural similarities and differences on strategic partnerships. Some findings suggested that partners have to possess similar cultural characteristics in order to achieve success, while others showed that cultural distance had a positive effect on efficiency and the competitiveness of partnerships. I systematically analyze the equivocal evidence of influence of both commonalities and differences on partnerships' outcomes, highlighting conditions under which they can be either beneficial or dysfunctional. Several propositions are formulated in regard to the role of qualitative and quantitative differences in both organizational and national cultures. Further, the theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-196-1

Book part
Publication date: 15 July 2009

Andrea Fischbach

Within the last two decades there has been an increased interest in the issue of work and emotion within work and organizational psychology and related fields. Although…

Abstract

Within the last two decades there has been an increased interest in the issue of work and emotion within work and organizational psychology and related fields. Although the cross-cultural perspective has a long tradition in research on emotions, organizational behavior researches on the dynamic of emotions at work have devoted surprisingly little attention to cross-cultural issues. In this paper, an attempt is made to show how important and useful a cross-cultural perspective is for understanding the role of emotion in the workplace. First, a review of recent publications of cross-national cross-cultural research of emotion at work is presented. In this, the focus is exclusively on cross-national organizational behavior studies of specific emotions with national culture as an explanatory variable. The aim of this is to identify core findings of cross-cultural research on emotion in organizational behavior and some gaps in this burgeoning literature. Second, a review is presented of findings on cross-cultural similarities and differences in emotion, culture-specific norms, and values and their effect on emotion. The aim of this is to identify the implications of these findings for future research on emotion at work. Third, a review of methodological issues in cross-cultural research is presented followed by some recommendations to further advance this area of research.

Details

Emotions in Groups, Organizations and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-655-3

Article
Publication date: 20 May 2009

Arthur Wolak

Although Australia and English Canada share common British colonial origins, they have not evolved into identical cultures. This is likely because they do not share an…

Abstract

Purpose

Although Australia and English Canada share common British colonial origins, they have not evolved into identical cultures. This is likely because they do not share an identical pattern of cultural values. Research has shown that, while common values certainly exist, each nation's dominant values are neither identical for all values nor are specific common values necessarily shared to the same degree. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast seven key values studies and considers their managerial implications.

Design/methodology/approach

This review of comparative values studies helps identify, through analysis and comparison with other cultures, subtle differences between Australian and Canadian cultural values.

Findings

Distinct Australian and Canadian value profiles emerge when each culture is contrasted with other, especially Anglo‐based, cultures. However, the studies in this review do not explore in great detail how such values became prominent cultural markers. This review therefore suggests that the impact of Anglo‐Celtic immigrants during each nation's formative periods may be a primary underlying cause that deserves further study.

Research limitations/implications

The studies rely on various value scales to identify cultural similarities and differences. Such studies are cross‐sectional and do not analyze the results from a longitudinal or historical perspective. Nonetheless, reviewing these values studies contributes to the understanding of contemporary Australia, English Canada, and their respective managerial cultures. This review does not examine French Canadian values studies because of this analysis' focus on Anglo cultures to determine distinctions among dominant values and to suggest reasons for differences among those sharing a common British colonial heritage.

Practical implications

This review informs practicing managers in Australia, Canada, and others considering entering these cultures, which values haven proven culturally important and how local values could impact managerial decision‐making behavior.

Originality/value

Given a lack of research directly comparing Australian and Canadian cultural and/or managerial values, this review of significant comparative values studies helps identify distinctions worthy of further investigation. The critical discussion considers limitations of the current literature, as well as areas for future research that include ethno‐cultural factors in organizational research that are important for domestic enterprises and multinational corporations entering each market.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Rodoula H. Tsiotsou

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a…

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Abstract

Purpose

Cross-cultural research constitutes a pivotal topic for marketing; however, the literature indicates that there are a few studies analyzing social media reviews from a cross-cultural perspective using cultural proximity (supra-national level) as a proxy of culture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify cross-cultural differences in service evaluations and specifically, in hotel appraisals among tourists from Central, Eastern (including Post-Soviet States), Northern and Southern Europe.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach has been taken by studying online user-generated ratings of hotels on Trip Advisor. In total, 1,055 reviews of five hotels in Greece were used for the study.

Findings

Multivariate analysis of variance and analysis of variances results confirm cultural differences in overall service evaluations and attributes (value, location, sleeping quality, rooms, cleanliness and service) of tourists from various European regions. Specifically, Eastern Europeans uploaded more reviews than any other European group, whereas Northern Europeans were more generous in their appraisals than Eastern, Southern and Central Europeans.

Practical implications

The results of the study could be used for segmentation purposes of the European tourism market and for recognizing, which aspects of their services need to be improved based on the segments they serve. Moreover, managers should encourage Northern and Eastern Europeans to upload their reviews as both groups are more generous in their evaluations. Moreover, the findings are useful to marketers of other services.

Originality/value

To the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that examines cross-cultural differences in hotel appraisals from a supra-national perspective including developed (Northern and Western Europe), developing (Southern Europe) and emerging tourism markets (Eastern Europe).

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 33 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2019

Jeanne M. Brett and Tyree Mitchell

This study aims to address three important but under-researched questions in the trust and negotiation literature: What do negotiators do to determine the trustworthiness…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to address three important but under-researched questions in the trust and negotiation literature: What do negotiators do to determine the trustworthiness of a potential business partner? What trust criteria motivate their search and help them interpret the information their search reveals? Whether there are systematic cultural differences in search and criteria, and if different, why?

Design/methodology/approach

This study used qualitative methodology. The data are from interviews with 82 managers from 33 different national cultures in four regions of the world identified by cultural levels of trust in negotiation and tightness-looseness. Interviews focused on how negotiators determined the trustworthiness of potential business partners in intracultural negotiations.

Findings

Analyses revealed four search activities negotiators use to gather information about a potential business partner: due diligence, brokerage, good will building and testing; and five criteria for determining the trustworthiness of a new business partner: respect, mutual values, competence, openness and professionalism. Quotes illustrate how these search activities and criteria manifest in different cultures.

Research limitations/implications

This study used multiple cases to build a longitudinal picture of the process. It did not follow a single case in depth. The study focused on identifying cultural central tendencies at the same time recognizing that there is always variability within a culture.

Practical implications

Knowing what is culturally normative allows negotiators to anticipate, interpret and respect their counterpart’s behavior. Such knowledge should facilitate trust development.

Originality/value

This study provides an in-depth understanding of cultural similarities and differences in the process of trust development in negotiating new business relationships.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Fredi Garcia, Diana Mendez, Chris Ellis and Casey Gautney

This article aims to investigate the differences and similarities among cross-cultural, values and ethics between the USA and Asian countries. This article analyzes the…

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Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to investigate the differences and similarities among cross-cultural, values and ethics between the USA and Asian countries. This article analyzes the degree of cultural distance between USA and Asian countries and the impact it has in companies. It examines the comparison between the USA and China’s value system. It also assesses how idealism and relativism impact individual ethical decision-making. In addition, this article examines the impact that globalization, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade have in the Chinese culture and other countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this research paper were collected from the following models: Ethics Position Questionnaire of Forsyth, Rokeach Values Survey, Hofstede model, GLOBE model and Wilcoxon test. The main sources used for this research were the Journal of Technology Management in China and the EBSCO database.

Findings

The research found that Western cultures tend to be more individualistic, while Asian countries tend to be very collective. This study also found that the type of value system that each culture holds depends on the type of government. This research also found that researchers have discovered that American managers are more loyal to their ethical beliefs, rather than to their superior’s or company’s ethical beliefs. While eastern Asian cultures focus more on the importance of acting in the best interests of the company’s superior. The study also found that it is extremely important for foreigners to build a relationship with Chinese business professionals before they do business negotiations. In addition, the study found that globalization, FDI and trade do make a significant cultural difference in some cultural dimensions.

Originality/value

It contributes to the literature by analyzing the different measurements in value, ethics and cultural differentiation. This research wants to demonstrate the importance of cultural differences, ethics and values across different countries and cultures. It also provides factual evidence that it’s important to understand these differences to be a successful global manager. In addition, it contributes to this literature by analyzing the effect that globalization, FDI and trade have in national cultures.

Details

Journal of Technology Management in China, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8779

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 October 2009

Yasin Boylu, Asli D.A. Tasci and William C. Gartner

The purpose of this paper is threefold: measure the differences in importance of cultural values between Turkish hosts and European guests; measure perceived cultural

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: measure the differences in importance of cultural values between Turkish hosts and European guests; measure perceived cultural difference (distance) to see if importance of cultural values are commensurate with cultural distance perception; and identify potential influence of perceived cultural distance on job satisfaction for Turkish service providers (hosts) and trip satisfaction for European consumers (guests).

Design/methodology/approach

A survey research was conducted in tourist towns in the Southwest part of Turkey to gather data from Turkish hosts (service providers) and European tourists. Two stepwise regression analyses were conducted to assess the magnitude of the relative impact of several variables on job satisfaction for hosts and trip satisfaction for guests.

Findings

Although results revealed differences in cultural values, cultural distance perception and satisfaction, the stepwise regression analyses did not reveal any influence of perceived cultural distance on satisfaction for either hosts or guests.

Research limitations/implications

The findings of this study may not apply to all tourism consumption settings since respondents were surveyed in a general tourism setting context rather than limiting them to a certain consumption setting such as a restaurant, a hotel or a cruise ship.

Originality/value

By shedding light on cultural distance and its influence on both demand and supply side aspects, this study addresses a long‐neglected aspect in literature. Although several studies provide discussions on the impact of culture on both service providers' and consumers' attitude and behavior, there is a lack of empirical studies on the relationship between cultural distance and satisfaction.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 64 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Jiaxun He

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the key dimensions reflecting the differences between Chinese and foreign brands, evaluate different consumption generations, and

920

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the key dimensions reflecting the differences between Chinese and foreign brands, evaluate different consumption generations, and provide evidence for studying differences and similarities of brand personality dimensions from a cross‐cultural perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a questionnaire survey among a large sample of people in three cities of China, brand personality of Chinese and foreign brands was measured by an indigenous scale. Principal component analysis and nonparametric tests were used to analyze the data.

Findings

Two key dimensions of humanity and trendiness were found and compared with Aaker's scale. Differences in dimensions of brand personality were also identified through comparing foreign brands with local brands as well as consumption by the younger and older generations. In conclusion, China's local brands show a higher level of humanity but a lower level of trendiness. The young generation has significantly higher demands for trendiness than the old generation.

Research limitations/implications

In order to test the robustness of the conclusions of this paper, a more popular interval variable type is needed for further study. In addition, the conclusions drawn from this may not be completely suitable for other industries or categories.

Practical implications

The results have some important implications for building the image of China's local brands, especially time‐honored brands. The key approach is to create a trendiness association while keeping points of difference association on humanity.

Originality/value

Previous research has demonstrated cross‐cultural differences and similarities in the evaluations of brand personality, but there are no studies in the context of the Chinese market. The findings of this paper support the argument that the key dimensions of brand personality exist across different cultures.

Details

Journal of Chinese Entrepreneurship, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-1396

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Spero C. Peppas

States that the end of the last century brought dramatic changes in the composition of the workforce and heightened awareness of cultural diversity in the USA. Highlights…

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Abstract

States that the end of the last century brought dramatic changes in the composition of the workforce and heightened awareness of cultural diversity in the USA. Highlights the need to identify and understand similarities and differences as we move from the “melting pot” concept to ward off the notion of a multicultural society where subcultures exist and function using specific values. Compares attitudes of African Americans and Euro Americans with respect to ten cultural value statements. Discovers significant differences between the two groups.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 27000