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The purpose of this paper is to capitalize on the advantages of an evidence-based lesson analysis while proposing a method of research on teaching that offers…
The purpose of this paper is to capitalize on the advantages of an evidence-based lesson analysis while proposing a method of research on teaching that offers opportunities for deeper reflections. The objective is to examine how well a transnational learning project such as this one can determine the cultural script of a mathematics lesson in Malaysia through the perspective of Japanese educators well trained in the lesson study approach. Emphasis here is on a cross-cultural analysis to view in depth the cultural script of teaching mathematics in Malaysia with particular focus on how teachers respond to students’ mistakes in a mathematics lesson.
This paper draws on data collected by the authors in a lesson study in Malaysia that aimed to provide a cross-cultural analysis of a Malaysian mathematics lesson (grade 10) through the eyes of Japanese educators. Data retrieved should determine the cultural script of a mathematics class in Malaysia with an emphasis on Malaysian teachers’ responses to students’ mistakes in class. The cross-cultural analysis of a lesson is a comparative method that reveals the hidden factors at play by increasing awareness of characteristics in classroom situations that are self-evident to all involved members.
The findings are intended to the cultural script of Malaysia in the context of “classroom culture regarding mistakes” and “mistake management behavior.” The impact on the quality of teaching and learning also discussed in relation to how it can be improved in practice from the following perspectives: the teacher’s attitudes toward student mistakes; how mistakes are treated and dealt with in class; and how learning from mistakes is managed. The data in Table II provide a meta-analysis of evidences of “classroom culture regarding mistakes” and “mistake management behavior” of the teacher from the Malaysian researchers and practitioners’ perspective as well as from the lens of the Japanese educators.
This study realizes that both sets of research studies value the importance of mistakes. It is important to identify the source of students’ mistakes and further learn from them. In order to reveal the overall structure of the cultural script of lessons, we need to realize that various cultural scripts are at work in the production of any given lesson. In the future, the authors hope to develop the potential of this view of culture script of teaching through cross-cultural analysis for lesson study and curriculum research and development.
This study aims to capitalize on the advantages of evidence-based lesson analysis through the lesson study process while proposing a method of research on teaching that offers opportunities for deeper reflections. The objective is to examine how well a transnational learning project such as this one can determine the cultural script of a mathematics lesson in Malaysia through the perspective of Japanese educators well trained in the lesson study methodology.
The authors need to obtain reflective feedback based on concrete facts, and for this reason “lesson study,” a pedagogical approach with its origins in Japan, is attracting global attention from around the world. This study focuses on the discrete nature, the progression, significance, and the context of lessons. That is, by avoiding excessive abstraction and generalization, reflection based on concrete facts and dialogue retrieved from class observations can be beneficial in the process. The mutual and transnational learning between teachers that occurs during the lesson study process can foster the building and sharing of knowledge in teaching practice.
There is currently little empirical research addressing “classroom culture regarding mistakes” which mostly represents how teachers and students learn from mistakes in the classroom. This study focuses on a cross-cultural analysis to view in depth the cultural script of teaching mathematics in Malaysia with particular focus on how teachers respond to students’ mistakes in a mathematics lesson. The following perspectives are examined: the teacher’s attitudes toward student mistakes; how mistakes are treated and dealt with in class; and how learning from mistakes is managed.
Purpose – Using examples from Australia, Finland and The Netherlands, we describe the sociocultural processes that influence farmers. We outline the styles of farming…
Purpose – Using examples from Australia, Finland and The Netherlands, we describe the sociocultural processes that influence farmers. We outline the styles of farming approach as an explanation of diversity (heterogeneity) and the farming scripts approach as an explanation of conformity (continuity and tradition).
Methodology – This chapter is a theoretical comparison that draws on earlier work of the authors. The research into styles of farming used focus groups and interviews, while the research on farming scripts is based on an analysis of biographies submitted for a national writing competition or gained by narrative interview.
Findings – We argue that there are a number of farming scripts that may well be universal, at least within family farming in western cultures. We found that the concept of styles of farming is a useful heuristic device, but that it was difficult to use in practice to use to classify farmers. We conclude that both style and script are needed to account for the full range of sociocultural influences on farmers.
Practical implications – Our chapter seeks to expand understanding of the social lives of farming families and to increase the realisation that farming is a sociocultural practice. Efforts to change agriculture need to be mindful of this fundamental dimension of farming practice if they are to be successful.
Originality – The analysis we have undertaken is the only theoretical comparison of these approaches.
The paper assesses the impact of social capital on the dynamics of Sino‐northern European business negotiations. It is argued that, while conflicting negotiation styles…
The paper assesses the impact of social capital on the dynamics of Sino‐northern European business negotiations. It is argued that, while conflicting negotiation styles create interactional difficulties between the Chinese and the northern Europeans, the impact of the interactional difficulties on the processes and outcomes of negotiations is critically dependent on the pre‐existing level of social capital among the negotiators. Social capital has three major components, namely cognitive, relational, and structural. The cognitive dimension highlights the level of shared understanding among the actors; the relational dimension focuses on the affective bonding among the actors; while the structural dimension highlights the nature of interconnectedness among the actors. This is an exploratory study conducted through in‐depth interviews with 24 northern Europeans and 15 Chinese managers, who have been negotiating with each other for several years. We highlight the linkages between the different dimensions of social capital and negotiation processes and outcomes, and conclude with implications for research and practice.
Much enthusiasm exists for using video in teacher education and professional development. As this volume attests to, video-based resources are being used in a variety of…
Much enthusiasm exists for using video in teacher education and professional development. As this volume attests to, video-based resources are being used in a variety of teacher-learning contexts. Many educators are discussing their use of video; however, a problem receiving less attention is what it takes to design usable video-based curriculum for teacher learning. This chapter addresses a specific problem faced in using video as a tool for teacher professional development. The problem that is often overlooked is that video in of itself is not a curriculum. We cannot consider video a curriculum perhaps anymore than we can consider a whiteboard and markers a curriculum. Video is rather a medium which can be developed into a resource and used in specific ways to enhance learning. Video can become a part of a curriculum for learning if it is designed to be used in intentional ways towards intentional learning goals. The question then is – what does it take to actually assemble a usable video-based curriculum for teacher learning? Answering this question demands consideration of what and how teachers are intended to learn with this curriculum, and what opportunities the medium of video affords.
This paper sets out to analyse both the dominant constructions of childhood and the prevailing sexual scripts embedded in international reports on the sexualisation of…
This paper sets out to analyse both the dominant constructions of childhood and the prevailing sexual scripts embedded in international reports on the sexualisation of childhood debate.
Four international reports from the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States are analysed using Foucauldian Discourse Analysis whereby the sexual subjecthoods made available to children and images of childhood itself can be interrogated.
This paper finds that a broad-brush approach to sexualisation renders consumption and embodiment as ‘sexualised’ and problematic. Gender remains unproblematised and sexuality as an issue is palpable by its absence. The reports show a lack of attention to the voices of children and a denial of their moral agency. Innocence is constructed as a fundamental yet unstable feature of childhood which requires protection from the insidious external forces of 21st century sexual cultures. Childhood thus functions as a motif for the state of society as a whole.
Identifying the dominant constructions of childhood, sexualisation, gender and sexuality, by analysing how these concepts are defined, understood and talked about within international responses to the issue of the sexualisation of childhood, light can be shed upon the sanctioned ways made available to ‘do’ sex, gender and sexuality and to ‘be’ a child, a boy, a girl, a ‘sexual’ or a ‘sexualised’ being. In addition, this enables evaluation of the ways in which images of the child are mobilised for policy and political agendas and how childhood functions as both a barometer for, and symbol of, the well-being of a society.
In last few decades, the native anthropology has been highlighted for its potential to immediately grasping cultural familiarity, contextual sensitivity, and rapport…
In last few decades, the native anthropology has been highlighted for its potential to immediately grasping cultural familiarity, contextual sensitivity, and rapport building. Nevertheless, detachment from the native context is also seen as a challenge for the native researcher. This paper aims to provide invaluable information about the fieldwork experience of the author as a native researcher in rural Punjab Pakistan. The author presents and reflects the fieldwork challenges faced and the strategies used to overcome the challenges. The primary objective of this paper is to discuss the methodological strategies to face the challenges of doing at-home ethnography.
This paper is based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in native context.
Dealing with contextual complexity and sensitivity with the author’s native learning, the author used native knowledge as a useful resource to investigate insider’s perspective on infant care belief practices. Furthermore, the author addressed the challenges related to building rapport, gaining friendly access to the families and children, and setting aside presumptions. The author discusses the strategies opted, such as selecting a research assistant, gaining access to the field, planning fieldwork and bracketing native presumptions.
This paper provides important insight of at-home ethnography and technical understanding to conduct fieldwork in native contexts.
Based on my ethnographic fieldwork, this article contributes in contemporary debates on the challenges in doing at-home ethnography.
Narrative criminology has continued to expand as an important theoretical and methodological contribution to the study of crime and justice. However, the vast majority of…
Narrative criminology has continued to expand as an important theoretical and methodological contribution to the study of crime and justice. However, the vast majority of narrative work focuses on the narrative development of those identified as criminal offenders, and little research has explored the narratives of those employed within the criminal justice system. This chapter examines the importance of police storytelling and the unique narratives vital to the cultural life and institution of policing. Police stories are an important part of the ‘meaning-making structure’ in policing and often convey particular power well beyond the limitations of formal organizational or agency policy. Police stories frequently influence understandings of the nature of social problems; community change and decay; and even understandings of race, class, and gender. Police narratives and stories also offer some unique methodological challenges for narrative scholars. Analysis of police stories must focus on the underlying plot details while still analysing the themes or metaphors provided by the narrative. This may require specific attention to the role the story plays in police culture, training, and development of organizational cohesion. Furthermore, narrative researchers must explore the shared narratives distinctive to the profession, while still examining unique meanings that stories convey to different departments and even specialized units. Finally, access to police organizations and individual officers can represent unique challenge for narrative researchers. By examining police narratives, we gain unique insight into the production and maintenance of police authority and culture accomplished through the storytelling process.
Research demonstrates that social class affects where high-achieving students apply to college, but the processes through which such effects come about are not well…
Research demonstrates that social class affects where high-achieving students apply to college, but the processes through which such effects come about are not well understood. This chapter draws on 46 in-depth interviews with high-achieving students in the Bay Area to examine how social class impacts college application decisions. I argue that the upbringing and experiences associated with students’ social class shape their narratives regarding how much autonomy or constraints they perceive in making college decisions. Higher-SES students present a narrative of independence about what they have done to prepare themselves for college and where to apply. In contrast, lower-SES students speak of experiences and considerations that reflect a narrative of interdependence between themselves and their parents that is grounded in the mutual concern they have for one another as the prospect of college looms. As a result, higher-SES students frame college as an opportunity to leave their families and immerse themselves in an environment far from home while lower-SES students understand college as a continuation of family interdependence. Consequently, higher-SES students are more likely to apply to selective private universities in other parts of the country, while lower-SES students tend to limit their choices to primarily selective and nonselective public colleges closer to home. This research enhances our understanding of the mechanisms by which social class differences in family experiences contribute to the perpetuation of social inequality.
Combining insights from the traditional literature on police culture with insights from the broader literature on organisational culture and on grid-group cultural theory…
Combining insights from the traditional literature on police culture with insights from the broader literature on organisational culture and on grid-group cultural theory (Douglas, 1970), the purpose of this paper is to introduce a new 15-dimensional framework of “organisational culture in the police” and test this framework via a survey instrument. This new conceptualisation is broader than the traditional police culture concept and allows for comparisons of the police with other organisations.
A newly developed instrument to measure the 15-dimensional framework, called the “Leuven Organisational Culture Questionnaire (LOCQ)”, was tested in 64 local police forces in Belgium (n=3,847).
The hypothesised 15-dimensional model is largely confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. Assessments of between-unit variation show that the LOCQ is sufficiently sensitive to identify differences between work units in police organisations. The authors also find that traditional police culture characteristics tend to vary slightly less between units than the other characteristics. Also, there is less variation for characteristics related to police work (e.g. law enforcement orientation and citizen orientation) than for characteristics associated with the unit level (e.g. weak supervisory support and internal solidarity) or the organisational level (e.g. rule orientation and results orientation).
This paper expands the traditional “police culture” concept to a more generic and theory-driven conceptualisation of “organisational culture in the police”. The survey instrument offers a standardised way to map and compare culture within police organisations, and to compare it with the culture of other organisations both within and outside law enforcement.