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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2007

Markus Vodosek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of intragroup conflict were considered: relationship, process, and task conflict. Cultural diversity was defined as group members' dissimilarity in horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Group outcomes were operationalized as satisfaction with the group and perceived performance of the group. Mediated regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationships with data from 76 science research groups.

Findings

Cultural diversity was positively related to relationship, process, and task conflict. In turn, the three conflict types were associated with unfavorable group outcomes. Further, the three types of conflict were shown to mediate the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Potential limitations of this study include its cross‐sectional design, common method bias, generalizability of findings, and use of three different questionnaire formats. The possible impact of these limitations is addressed.

Practical implications

Although this research implies that culturally homogeneous groups have better outcomes, it is often impossible and undesirable to assemble such groups. The targeted use of cross‐cultural training programs may help individuals function well in culturally diverse groups by lessening conflict and thus allowing more favorable group outcomes.

Originality/value

Previous research has either asserted a relationship between cultural diversity and unfavorable group outcomes or shown a relationship between intragroup conflict and unfavorable group outcomes. The contribution of this study is to show that intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1995

Jan Halvor Natlandsmyr and Jørn Rognes

Previous research on international negotiations has primarily examined cross‐cultural differences in behavioral styles. Supplementing this prior research, we focused on…

Abstract

Previous research on international negotiations has primarily examined cross‐cultural differences in behavioral styles. Supplementing this prior research, we focused on outcome in negotiations. The study examined relationships between culture and outcome in contract negotiations, and analyzed how negotiation behavior mediates between culture and outcome. Sixty Mexican and Norwegian subjects participated in a negotiation simulation with potentially integrative outcomes. The study included 12 Mexican dyads, 12 Norwegian dyads, and 6 cross‐cultural dyads. Two aspects of outcome: joint benefit and distribution of benefit between negotiators, and two aspects of process: progression of offers and verbal communication, were examined Results indicated an effect of culture on integrative results, but not on distribution of benefit. Process differences found were related to the progression of offers over time, and not to verbal communication. Managerial implications are discussed and directions for future research indicated.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Book part
Publication date: 28 October 2005

Vassiliki Papatsiba

The rise of the era of mobility, or at least of a rhetoric on the benefits of mobility for individuals, can closely be connected with the late modernity and optimist views…

Abstract

The rise of the era of mobility, or at least of a rhetoric on the benefits of mobility for individuals, can closely be connected with the late modernity and optimist views of the self's capacity to adapt to the challenges posed by globalisation. Mobility thus becomes an act expressing the individual appropriation of an “enlarged” action-space, supposed to become less constrained by social determinism. According to this assumption, mobility can also be seen as a form of elective biography (do-it-yourself biography) and would favour the emergence of a freer individual. Results of the analysis of 80 student accounts on experiences of Erasmus mobility within Europe have shown that student mobility reinforces the individual belief of being able to face changing environments, to monitor the self and to be monitored as a self, and to take control on one's life-path in a reflexive way, by accepting risks impelling new dynamics. From the students’ perspective, mobility experience seems to release impulses for personal growth and individual autonomy. Yet this advantage, however important it may be, often dominates the other outcomes of a mobility period, such as cultural and political awareness, intercultural competence and enlarged feeling of belonging. This result creates a tension with views and expectations for students to become “culture carriers” and vectors of Europeanisation, since the pro-social and societal dimensions of student mobility outcomes, as an experience supporting cultural awareness and understanding, tolerance and civic conscience were less systematically present at the end of the stay abroad.

Details

International Relations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-244-3

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Yunxia Zhu, Tyler G. Okimoto, Amanda Roan and Henry Xu

To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA…

Abstract

Purpose

To connect students with the real world of management practice, the purpose of this paper is to extend and operationalize the situated cultural learning approach (SiCuLA) through five learning processes occurring within communities of practice. These include integration of cultural contexts, authentic activities, reflections, facilitation, and the construction of a collaborative learning community.

Design/methodology/approach

To investigate the complex processes and principles of cultural learning, a multi-method approach is applied to an extensive comparative study of default and intervened cases within three management classes. Evidence is drawn from multiple sources of qualitative data including class observations, meeting minutes, focus groups, and group interviews with students and instructors.

Findings

Results indicated that in default cases, little explicit attention was given to a situated perspective of culture, or to the rich sources of cultural knowledge available among members of the classroom community. In contrast, following the intervention cases where SiCuLA was applied, there was strong evidence that much more attention was given to enhancing student contextual knowledge. Nonetheless, there were some challenges in applying these processes within the classroom context.

Originality/value

This is the first study to extend and operationalize SiCuLA in a classroom setting. More importantly, the evidence forms the empirical basis for deriving theoretical principles for cross-cultural management (CCM) education and training. It contributes to studying cultural contexts as sources of knowledge for learning through active co-participation. It also contributes to positive CCM learning with an emphasis on human agency that encourages students to take more responsibility and ownership of their cultural learning.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 59 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Wiliam H. Murphy, Ismail Gölgeci and David A. Johnston

This paper aims to explain the effects of national and organizational cultures of boundary spanners on their choices of using three archetype power-based behaviors …

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the effects of national and organizational cultures of boundary spanners on their choices of using three archetype power-based behaviors – dominance, egalitarian and submissive – with supply chain partners. Improved outcomes for global supply chain (GSC) partners are anticipated due to the ways that cultural intelligence affects these culturally guided decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on multiple streams of literature and focusing on boundary spanners in GSCs, the authors build a conceptual framework that highlights cultural antecedents of predispositions toward power-based behaviors and explains the moderating role of cultural intelligence of boundary spanners on behaviors performed.

Findings

The authors propose that boundary spanners’ national and organizational cultural values influence predispositions toward applying and accepting power-based behaviors. They also discuss how cultural intelligence moderates the relationship between culturally determined predispositions and power-based behaviors applied by partners. The cultural intelligence of boundary spanners is argued to have a pivotal role in making power-based decisions, resulting in healthier cross-cultural buyer–supplier relationships.

Originality/value

This paper is the first paper to advance an understanding of the cultural antecedents of boundary spanners’ power-based behaviors that are exercised and interpreted by partners in GSCs. Furthermore, the potential role of cultural intelligence in inter-organizational power dynamics and power-based partner behaviors in supply chains has not previously been discussed.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Günter K. Stahl and Andreas Voigt

This paper provides a review of theoretical perspectives and empirical research on the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions [M&A], with a particular focus on the…

Abstract

This paper provides a review of theoretical perspectives and empirical research on the role of culture in mergers and acquisitions [M&A], with a particular focus on the performance implications of cultural differences in M&A. Despite theoretical and anecdotal evidence that cultural differences can create major obstacles to achieving integration benefits, empirical research on the performance impact of cultural differences in M&A yielded mixed results: while some studies found national or organizational cultural differences to be negatively related to measures of M&A performance, others observed a positive relationship or found cultural differences to be unrelated to M&A performance. We offer several explanations for the inconsistent findings of previous research on the performance impact of cultural differences in M&A and develop a model that synthesizes our current understanding of the role of culture in M&A. We conclude that the relationship between cultural differences and M&A performance is more complex than previously thought and propose that, rather than asking if cultural differences have a performance impact, future research endeavors should focus on how cultural differences affect M&A performance.

Details

Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-172-9

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Günter K. Stahl, Christof Miska, Hyun-Jung Lee and Mary Sully De Luque

The purpose of this paper is to encourage scholars to look at commonly considered phenomena in international business and cross-cultural research in new ways and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to encourage scholars to look at commonly considered phenomena in international business and cross-cultural research in new ways and to theorize and explore how cultural diversity, distance, and foreignness create value for global organizations. These considerations should result in a more balanced treatment of culture in cross-cultural management (CCM) research.

Design/methodology/approach

The idea that there are negative consequences associated with cultural differences is pervasive in hypotheses formulation and empirical testing in international business and CCM literature, as reflected in widely used constructs such as “cultural distance,” “cultural misfit,” “foreignness,” and related concepts. Consistent with a Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) perspective on culture and cultural differences, the authors emphasize the positive role of distance and diversity across national, cultural, institutional, and organizational dimensions. In addition, they provide an overview of the contributions to the special issue.

Findings

Examining the positive side of culture is not only beneficial theoretically in terms of filling the existing gaps in the literature, but is also crucial for the practice of international and global business. Accordingly, the contributions to the special issue highlight how explicitly considering positive phenomena can help better understand when and how cultural diversity, distance, and foreignness can enhance organizational effectiveness and performance at multiple levels. They include five research papers, a Distinguished Scholar Essay by Kim Cameron, the Founder of the POS movement, and an interview piece with Richard Nisbett, a Pioneer Researcher in culture and cognition.

Originality/value

The overemphasis on adverse outcomes associated with cultural differences in existing research has hindered the understanding of the processes and conditions that help organizations leverage the benefits of cultural differences in a wide range of contexts. This introductory paper together with the contributions included in the special issue showcases the positive dynamics and outcomes associated with cultural differences, distance, and diversity in a wide range of international business contexts.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2011

Caitlin Daniel, Eleni Arzoglou and Michèle Lamont

Purpose – This concluding essay suggests how contemporary developments in cultural sociology can enrich and extend the American sociology of work. While recent studies in…

Abstract

Purpose – This concluding essay suggests how contemporary developments in cultural sociology can enrich and extend the American sociology of work. While recent studies in the sociology of work consider more fully the role of sense making and representations in workers’ lives, we propose additional possibilities for conceptual and theoretical cross-pollination. We propose questions that a cultural sociologist might ask about European workers in the age of neo-liberalism.

Methodology/approach – We examine how authors in this volume and its companion (Brady, 2011), and other students of workers approach culture-related phenomena. In particular we focus on how they use culture as explanans and explananda. Borrowing from Lamont and Small (2008) and Small, Harding, and Lamont (2010), we present a set of analytical tools that cultural sociologists use widely. We then draw from culturally focused studies of workers to illustrate how researchers have used these concepts.

Findings – Research on European workers documents important political and economic trends that affect this group, but it examines less frequently how individuals understand, experience, and respond to these changes. With tools from cultural sociology, we can explore these understudied aspects of the conditions and lives of European workers.

Originality/value of paper – To our knowledge, this is the first systematic discussion of how concepts from contemporary cultural sociology can enrich research on European workers.

Details

Comparing European Workers Part B: Policies and Institutions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-931-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 March 2013

Muhammad Nazrul Islam

The underlying objective of this literature review was to investigate what kinds of semiotics researches have been employed in user interfaces design and usability…

Abstract

Purpose

The underlying objective of this literature review was to investigate what kinds of semiotics researches have been employed in user interfaces design and usability evaluation, and how were they employed.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows a systematic literature review process that consists of three key stages: planning the review, conducting the review, and reporting the review. Starting with an initial set of about 1,000 research articles, 65 were selected for this review, using an inclusion and exclusion criteria. Qualitative and quantitative data were extracted from the selected literatures following a data extraction strategy in six themes of data extraction. The extracted data were synthesized to formulate the stated research questions to obtain the review goals.

Findings

This systematic review identified research strengths, gaps, and challenges. Apart from this, further research possibilities were also explored in this review. For research, the review showed clear needs for more researches to increase both the number and the quality of studies that can be focused on the research gaps identified by this systematic review related to: outcome validation; cultural issues consideration; user interfaces of mobile applications and websites; semiotics perception in usability evaluation; and further improve the value and applicability of research ideas. For practice, the review showed the significance of semeiotics in user interface design and usability evaluation to develop users' intuitive interfaces for boosting the system's usability.

Originality/value

Based on a systematic literature review, the paper not only depicts the current status of semiotics research in user interface design and evaluation, but also provides a number of implications for research and practice. Thus, the review contributes to the scientific community of user interface design and evaluation, as well as suggesting the actual advances in the state of the practice in semiotics research on user interface.

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

R. Bruce Hull, Courtney Kimmel, David P Robertson and Michael Mortimer

This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe, explain and evaluate a graduate education program that provides international project experiences and builds competencies related to collaborative problem-solving, cultural capacity to work globally and sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative analysis of survey data from 28 students supplemented by observation and interviews conducted before, during and after a multi-week project and a ten-day trip to China in 2014. Supplemental data and contextual information were provided by a series of related projects and trips led by the authors in other cultural contexts including Brazil, China, India, South Africa and Turkey.

Findings

Six pedagogic practices were perceived as effective by students and generate learning outcomes desired by faculty: authentic problems, learning cycles, shared inquiry, transdisciplinarity, exploration and engagement.

Practical implications

The pedagogy was effective, especially the engagement pedagogy in which students interviewed peers, professionals, residents and others in China.

Originality/value

These learning outcomes and pedagogies have been studied before, but not in this particular combination or as applied to a mix of business, non-governmental organization and government mid-career professionals seeking professional development in leadership for sustainable development.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

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