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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Joaquim Rius-Ulldemolins and Ricardo Klein

During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, debate about the governance and management of national cultural institutions has largely focused on the problematic…

Abstract

Purpose

During the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, debate about the governance and management of national cultural institutions has largely focused on the problematic relationship between art and the economy. However, several more recent changes have made this discussion outdated. These include loss of autonomy in the art world, transformation of cultural production and distribution and instrumentalisation of cultural policies to generate a new context leading to the emergence of art managers.

Design/methodology/approach

In terms of cultural policy, the interplay between the governance and management of national cultural institutions is currently problematic, with the work of art managers now replacing the previous “art versus economy” binomial. Here, we demonstrate the growing centrality of the governance paradigm and generation of public value in the local context, by qualitatively examining the discourses of politicians and national cultural institution managers in Barcelona.

Findings

We concluded that a new interface between policymakers and managers has appeared in twenty-first century cultural institutions, and that this has replaced the previous antagonism between artistic directors and managers. Finally, although there is a consensus that the objective of national cultural institutions should be to enhance public value, we also identified the presence of a symbolic battle over how this public value is defined and who should evaluate it.

Originality/value

This paper reveals the centrality of this new debate: policymakers and managers have developed discourses and strategies so that their vision of public value now predominates. In turn, this debate has become the new “battlefield” of cultural policy and reflects a rebalancing between the artistic and political spheres.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Paolo Ferri, Shannon I.L. Sidaway and Garry D. Carnegie

The monetary valuation of cultural heritage of a selection of 16 major public, not-for-profit Australian cultural institutions is examined over a period of almost…

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2034

Abstract

Purpose

The monetary valuation of cultural heritage of a selection of 16 major public, not-for-profit Australian cultural institutions is examined over a period of almost three decades (1992–2019) to understand how they have responded to the paradoxical tensions of heritage valuation for financial reporting purposes.

Design/methodology/approach

Accounting for cultural heritage is an intrinsically paradoxical practice; it involves a conflict of two opposite ways of attributing value: the traditional accounting and the heritage professionals (or curatorial) approaches. In analysing the annual reports and other documentary sources through qualitative content analysis, the study explores how different actors responded to the conceptual and technical contradictions posed by the monetary valuation of “heritage assets”, the accounting phraseology of accounting standards.

Findings

Four phases emerge from the analysis undertaken of the empirical material, each characterised by a distinctive nature of the paradox, the institutional responses discerned and the outcomes. Although a persisting heterogeneity in the practice of accounting for cultural heritage is evident, responses by cultural institutions are shown to have minimised, so far, the negative impacts of monetary valuation in terms of commercialisation of deaccessioning decisions and distorted accountability.

Originality/value

In applying the theoretical lens of paradox theory in the context of the financial reporting of heritage, as assets, the study enhances an understanding of the challenges and responses by major public cultural institutions in a country that has led this development globally, providing insights to accounting standard setters arising from the accounting practices observed.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2010

Zuraidah Abd Manaf and Aliza Ismail

The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the state of the art of managing digital resources focusing on the availability of risk strategy practice by cultural

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4671

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and understand the state of the art of managing digital resources focusing on the availability of risk strategy practice by cultural institutions in Malaysia, in order to maintain and preserve their digitised resources.

Design/methodology/approach

The multiple case study approach is adopted, where three selected cultural institutions participate.

Findings

One of the significant findings is the ability of the institutions to sustain their digitised resources. The paper discusses the issues related to the risk management of digital resources in Malaysian cultural institutions.

Research limitations/implications

This paper offers a comparative evaluation among three main cultural institutions in Malaysia.

Practical implications

The paper's findings and discovery are significant in highlighting the crucial elements which need to be addressed to ensure the sustainability and successful implementation of any digitisation project.

Originality/value

The findings of this paper contribute towards the dissemination of the new knowledge specifically in the management of digital preservation of cultural resources available in Malaysia.

Details

Library Review, vol. 59 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2020

Vicki Oliveri, Glenn Porter, Pamela James, Jenny Wise and Chris Davies

This paper aims to explore how stolen Indian antiquities were purchased by a major Australian collecting institution, despite cultural protection policies designed to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore how stolen Indian antiquities were purchased by a major Australian collecting institution, despite cultural protection policies designed to prevent such inappropriate acquisitions. Using the acquisition of the Dancing Shiva as a case study, the purpose of this paper is to examine how collecting institutions such as the National Gallery of Australia experience difficulty when determining legal title through provenance research. The impact of incautious provenance research produces significant risk to the institution including damaging its social responsibility credentials and reputation when the acquisition is discovered to be stolen.

Design/methodology/approach

This research applies a qualitative case study method and analysis of sourced official policy documents, personal communication with actors involved with the case, media reports and published institutional statements.

Findings

This work identifies four contributing factors that resulted in the National Gallery of Australia’s acquisition of stolen Indian artefacts: a misguided level of trust of the art dealer based on his professional reputation; a problematic motivation to expand the gallery’s Asian art collection; a less transparent and judicious acquisition process; and a collaboration deficiency with cultural institutions in India. Crime preventative methods would appear to be a strategic priority to counter art crime of this nature.

Research limitations/implications

Additional research into how collecting institutions can be effectively supported to develop and implement crime preventative methods, especially less-resourced institutions, can potentially further enhance cultural heritage protection.

Practical implications

Fostering a higher degree of transparency and institutional collaboration can enhance cultural heritage protection, develop a greater level of institutional ethics and social responsibility and identify any potential criminal activity. Changing the culture of “owning” to “loaning” may provide a long-term solution for cultural heritage protection, rather than incentivising a black market with lucrative sums of money paid for artefacts.

Social implications

Art crime involving the illegal trade of antiquities is often misinterpreted as a victimless crime with no real harm to individuals. The loss of a temple deity statue produces significant spiritual anguish for the Indian community, as the statue is representative not only of their God but also of place. Collecting institutions have a social responsibility to prioritise robust provenance policy and acquisition practices above collection priorities.

Originality/value

Art crime is a relatively new area within criminology. This work examines issues involving major collecting institutions acquiring stolen cultural heritage artefacts and the impact art crime has on institutions and communities. This paper unpacks how motivations for growing more prestigious collections can override cultural sensibilities and ethical frameworks established to protect cultural heritage. It highlights the liabilities associated with purchasing antiquities without significant due diligence regarding provenance research and safeguarding cultural heritage. It also emphasises the importance for collecting institutions to establish robust acquisition policies to protect the reputation of the institutions and the communities they represent.

Details

Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-3841

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Article
Publication date: 6 June 2019

Daniel J. McCarthy, Sheila M. Puffer and Daniel M. Satinsky

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dramatically changed role of Russia in the global economy since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the Soviet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the dramatically changed role of Russia in the global economy since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, as the Soviet institutions collapsed and were either reformed or replaced in a new Russian institutional landscape. The paper presents a fact-based and balanced view of Russia’s evolving role in the global economy, as distinguished from the sometimes one-sided view presented by some Western commentators. The authors establish that the two countervailing views are fundamentally based on different cultural perspectives about institutions, primarily the roles of business and government.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is developed as a perspectives article drawing upon the decades of academic and business experience of all three authors with Russian business, management and the economy. The paper focuses on the structure of Russian institutional change and places it within the historical context of the challenges of various periods of time from the late 1980s to the present. The authors posit that cultural foundations complicate that institutional evolution.

Findings

Russia will remain a major player in world markets for energy, raw materials and armaments for the near future at least. Principal institutional questions facing Russia have to do with how to reduce the country’s overall dependence on raw material exports, with its vulnerability to world market fluctuations, and how to modernize Russian economic and political institutions. The degree of success in addressing these questions will depend largely upon the ability of the new and reformed economic institutions to show the flexibility to respond to changes in the global order, on whether political considerations will continue to supersede economic issues, and how markedly cultural traditions will continue to impede positive changes.

Research limitations/implications

The entire system of international trade is under question, disrupted by the growing nationalism that is threatening the globalization that became institutionalized over decades in the wake of the Second World War. Russia’s future role is partially dependent upon how new patterns of international trade develop in response to the current disruption of established trade regimes, and by how political conflicts are expressed economically. The authors observe that Russia’s historical and cultural traditions, especially acquiescence to a highly centralized government with a strong autocratic leader, limit the country’s options. The authors explore how Russia’s reactions to Western sanctions have led to a new strategic approach, moving away from full engagement in the global economy to selective economic, and sometimes political, alliances with primarily non-Western countries, most notably China. The authors contrast Russia’s situation with that of China, which has been able to make substantial economic progress while still embracing a strong, centralized political institutional structure.

Originality/value

Many Western analysts have viewed Russian institutional evolution very critically through the lens of Western politics and sanctions, while Russia has continued along its own path of economic and institutional development. Each view, the authors argue, is based upon differing cultural perspectives of the roles of business and government. As a result, a distinct difference exists between the Western and Russian perspectives on Russia’s role in the world. This paper presents both points of view and explores the future of Russia’s position in the world economy based upon its evolving strategy for national economic policy. The authors contrast the situations of Russia and China, highlighting how Western-centric cultural views have affected perceptions of each country, sometimes similarly and at times with decided differences.

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Article
Publication date: 27 April 2010

Roswitha Poll

The purpose of this paper is to present results of NUMERIC, a project of the European Commission that started out to define measures and methods for assessing the current…

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3866

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present results of NUMERIC, a project of the European Commission that started out to define measures and methods for assessing the current state of digitisation in Europe's cultural institutions (archives, libraries and museums). The central task of the NUMERIC project was to develop a framework for the collection of statistical data that would be most suitable to give a national overview of digitisation.

Design/methodology/approach

The project developed definitions and data collection methods for the intended survey. After testing the survey in a number of archives, libraries and museums, the project team collaborated with nominated experts in each member country for choosing an adequate sample of cultural institutions throughout Europe.

Findings

In spite of all differences between countries and institutions, the project attempted an estimate of the present state of digitisation in Europe. According to the statements of the responding institutions in the sample, only about 19 per cent of the analogue collections in cultural institutions have as yet been digitised, for about 30 per cent the institutions do not plan digitisation, and at least 50 per cent of the analogue collections in cultural institutions are still waiting digitisation.

Research limitations/implications

As many questions in the survey could only be answered by some of the institutions, some results – especially usage data – are not statistically valid. Different samples of cultural institutions in the countries, different completion rates of answers for each question and differing interpretations of “digitisation” have affected the results.

Originality/value

The paper acquaints professionals in culture statistics and in digitisation projects with the set of well‐defined statistical data that was tested in the NUMERIC project. It also shows the problems and limitations of these data.

Details

Program, vol. 44 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0033-0337

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Aleksandra Tešin, Sanja Kovačić, Tatjana Pivac, Miroslav D. Vujičić and Sanja Obradović

The main objective of the study is to analyse the perception of accessibility to cultural for different age groups (children, teenagers, adults and seniors) in the city of…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of the study is to analyse the perception of accessibility to cultural for different age groups (children, teenagers, adults and seniors) in the city of Novi Sad (Serbia). Additional goals were to reveal which cultural contents in the city are the most important to which particular age group and to measure the level of compatibility with their needs.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sample consisted of 170 respondents of different age groups used for comparison purposes. Data were collected through an online questionnaire and analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics (descriptive statistical analysis and ANOVA test).

Findings

The results of this research showed that a gap is evident between the current cultural offer and the needs and preferences of visitors of different age groups. One of the significant obstacles that emerged is the inadequate promotion of cultural contents in the city to different age groups of visitors (children, teenagers, adults and seniors). The study also identified the age groups of visitors to whom the cultural offer was least adapted, as well as mapping the cultural institutions which are least accessible to audiences of different ages.

Originality/value

The paper addresses the knowledge gap related to accessibility to cultural for different generations. It focuses on topics that have not been previously researched – comparison of the needs of different generations concerning the actual offer in cultural institutions, addressing the importance of certain elements of a cultural offer to different age groups and the level of accessibility of such features to different age groups.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Pandora L. Kay, Emma Wong and Michael Jay Polonsky

The purpose of this paper is to draw together the previous academic and industry research on non‐attendance of cultural attractions, followed by qualitative in‐depth…

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3062

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to draw together the previous academic and industry research on non‐attendance of cultural attractions, followed by qualitative in‐depth interviews to identify commonalities or gaps in the previous research on barriers, constraints and inhibitors, as well as to propose linkages between these.

Design/methodology/approach

A multi‐method approach is used – where barriers, constraints and inhibitors are identified by means of thematic content analysis of the literature. A set of probing questions is developed based on these themes and is then examined in in‐depth interviews with individuals that had not visited cultural attractions in the past two years, in an attempt to triangulate data, as well as to identify connections between barriers.

Findings

From the literature, eight interconnected barriers to visitation are identified: physical access; personal access; cost; time and timing; product; personal interest and peer group; socialisation and understanding; and information. The in‐depth interviews generally support these, although it is also identified that there are complex interrelationships between the issues.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the neglected question of why people do not attend cultural attractions by triangulating thematic findings from the content analysis of diverse literature with in‐depth interview responses from one non‐visitor segment. This results in an interconnected model of barriers that can be used to assist managers to develop strategies addressing low visitation rates within targeted segments.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 27 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2008

Zuraidah Abd Manaf

The purpose of this study is to uncover the perceptions of information professionals with regards to the establishment of a National Digital Cultural Heritage Repository…

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5009

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to uncover the perceptions of information professionals with regards to the establishment of a National Digital Cultural Heritage Repository Center (NDCHR) in Malaysia.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts a modified Delphi study to identify the factors that contribute towards the establishment of an NDCHR in Malaysia. A three‐round modified Delphi study was used in this study to obtain consensus among the experts with regards to the factors that contribute towards the establishment of the central repository.

Findings

The establishment of an NDCHR requires collaboration efforts among the different types of cultural institution in Malaysia. The aspiration of the establishment to improve accessibility, resource discovery, preservation and promotion of the nation's cultural heritage information would contribute toward restructuring some common grounds and thinking among the different types of cultural institutions with respect to effective approaches to managing and organising the nation's digital cultural heritage information.

Practical implications

Findings and discovery of the study are significant in providing a general framework to establish an NDCHR in Malaysia

Originality/value

The outcome of the study will contribute toward the establishment of a central repository for digital cultural heritage information in Malaysia.

Details

Library Review, vol. 57 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2010

Tyler O. Walters and Katherine Skinner

This paper aims to examine the emerging field of digital preservation and its economics. It seeks to consider in detail the cooperative model and the path it provides…

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2839

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the emerging field of digital preservation and its economics. It seeks to consider in detail the cooperative model and the path it provides toward sustainability as well as how it fosters participation by cultural memory organizations and their administrators, who are concerned about what digital preservation will ultimately cost and who will pay.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors cast light on the decisions that administrators of cultural memory organizations are making on a daily basis – namely, to preserve or not to preserve their digital collections. They assert that either way, a decision is being made, costs are incurred, and consequences are being levied. The authors begin by exploring the costs incurred by cultural memory organizations if they do not quickly establish digital preservation programs for their digital assets. They move then to look to the digital preservation field's preliminary findings regarding the costs of preserving digital assets and who should ideally subsidize this investment.

Findings

The authors describe one economically sustainable digital preservation model in practice, the MetaArchive Cooperative, a distributed digital preservation network that has been in operation since 2004. The MetaArchive has built its economic sustainability model and has experienced successes with it for over five years.

Originality/value

There are very few studies or articles in the literature that review studies on the economics of digital preservation and apply them to digital preservation initiatives in action. This article provides that application and further articulates why cultural memory organizations should invest themselves and learn how to provide for the preservation of their own digital collections.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

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