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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

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Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2017

Jeanne Brett

The purpose of this paper is to discuss cultural causes of conflict in the workplace and call for research to address what happens when cultures collide generating…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss cultural causes of conflict in the workplace and call for research to address what happens when cultures collide generating workplace conflict. The author assumes that because cultures differ in terms of functional solutions to problems of social interaction that there will be conflict when people from different cultures are interdependent in the workplace. The author discusses types of culture and their conflict management profiles with respect to three characteristics of conflict management: direct vs indirect confrontation; emotional expression, and third party conflict management. The author proposes what happens when cultures collide and calls for research on those collisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Application of the cultural literature on self-worth to three elements of workplace conflict: direct vs indirect confrontation of conflict, feelings and expressions of negative emotions associated with conflict and timing and type of third party intervention.

Findings

When people from dignity, face, and honor cultures are working together the fundamental differences in the logic of self-worth in these three types of culture may cause conflict. People from dignity and honor cultures are likely to confront conflict directly, while those from face cultures are more likely to confront conflict indirectly. Workplace conflict generates negative emotions, but culture seems to affect whether that emotion is anger, shame or both. The timing of third party intervention into workplace conflict, that is, how managers intervene in workplace conflict has some parallels with how community mediators act in that culture.

Research limitations/implications

There is limited research comparing management of workplace conflict in dignity, face, and honor cultures. The author generates propositions and suggests a research strategy for collecting data to test propositions.

Practical implications

Understanding what is culturally normative in terms of self-worth, confrontation, emotional expression, and managerial intervention can help people involved in workplace conflict understand what they are experiencing. It can also help managers intervene effectively.

Social implications

How people react to workplace conflict varies with culture as does how managers intervene. Knowing this provides people with the first element of cultural intelligence that may help them manage conflict to facilitate a more creative and effective multicultural work environment.

Originality/value

This paper integrates theory and research from cross-cultural psychology, the psychology of emotion and the literature on third party intervention into community conflict to explain the patterns of cultural conflict and conflict management in the workplace. It also suggests what it may take to manage cultural conflict in the workplace successfully.

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Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Boram Lee and Ruth Rentschler

In this chapter, we develop a conceptual framework on how cultural value can be lost in conflict and created by the arts, artists and arts organisations again and how the…

Abstract

In this chapter, we develop a conceptual framework on how cultural value can be lost in conflict and created by the arts, artists and arts organisations again and how the arts may also help victims of conflict. We explore examples of the different ways that the effects of cultural engagement are manifested and articulated in the depiction of armed conflict, especially looking at the civil war in Syria (2011–present as of 2020) and discuss three stages in the life-cycle of cultural value. Our conceptual framework of cultural value in the depiction of armed conflict is based on the multifaceted private, public, intrinsic and instrumental benefits of the arts as well as the cultural value created by arts, artists and arts organisations. We discuss universal value at the first stage of a potential loss of cultural value. The second stage addresses the politics of aesthetic value, as the cultural value created by artists and artistic activities which may evolve during armed conflict with examples of two international war artists, John Keane and Ben Quilty. Finally, we review social value as the impact of the cultural value created in overcoming armed conflict as well as restoring and transforming impaired individuals, communities and societies. Within this context, we reinforce the notion of cultural value as an alternative framework for understanding the value constructs surrounding the creation of art in this chapter.

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Exploring Cultural Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-515-4

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Article
Publication date: 23 April 2020

Junying Liu, Zhipeng Cui, Yingbin Feng, Srinath Perera and Jie Han

Cultural differences have been frequently cited as a major source of risks for international joint ventures (IJVs). Cultural differences may cause extensive conflicts in…

Abstract

Purpose

Cultural differences have been frequently cited as a major source of risks for international joint ventures (IJVs). Cultural differences may cause extensive conflicts in technology, norms and emotion among the international joint venture (IJV) partners. The purpose of this study is to explore the interactive effects of national culture differences (NCDs) and conflict management approaches on the performance of international construction joint ventures (ICJV).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a questionnaire survey method with 143 valid responses. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses.

Findings

It was found that ICJV performance declined with a high degree of NCDs. The negative effect of NCDs on ICJV performance was mitigated by adopting the cooperative conflict management approach; while it was aggravated by adopting the competitive conflict management approach. The findings may provide an alternative way (i.e. adopting the cooperative conflict management approach rather than avoiding or competitive approaches) to address the cultural conflicts in the multicultural project management teams.

Practical implications

Firstly, as NCD negatively impacts performance of ICJVs, project managers should pay attention to cultural issues and learn how to manage them; Secondly, as cooperative and competitive conflict management approaches have different moderating effects on the relationship between NCD and ICJV performance, project managers must choose appropriate conflict management styles in multination teams. Thirdly, as the avoiding approach has no significant moderating effect on the negative relationship between NCD and ICJV performance, it is important for Chinese partners not to employ avoiding approach to deal with conflicts in ICJV.

Originality/value

This study uniquely adds to the literature on cultural issues in managing ICJVs by integrating the moderating effects of conflict management approaches. The interactive effects of conflict management approaches and national cultural differences on ICJV project performance may contribute to the theories regarding conflict management theory in the context of cross-cultural management.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 27 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ying Zhang, Xialing Wei and Wei Zhou

This paper aims to examine the asymmetric effect of cultural distance on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment through the mechanisms of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the asymmetric effect of cultural distance on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment through the mechanisms of conflict management styles.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conceptualizes a model depicting the interplay between culture intelligence, conflict management styles, cultural flows and expatriate adjustment.

Findings

The authors argue that the integrating style aggravates the positive effects of cultural intelligence on expatriate adjustment, while the avoiding style may undermine such effects. There is also a possible moderating effect of cultural distance asymmetry on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment such that, the positive influence of cultural intelligence on adjustment is reinforced when the expatriate is sent from a loose cultural environment to adjust to a tight cultural environment, and that the positive influence of cultural intelligence on adjustment is diminished when the expatriate is sent from a tight cultural environment to adjust to a loose cultural environment.

Originality/value

This paper explicates the mediating effect of conflict management styles and the moderating roles of cultural distance asymmetry on the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adjustment. The authors suggest that the level of adjustment is contingent on the direction of cultural flows that the assignment operates in.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 23 November 2007

Markus Vodosek

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Three types of intragroup conflict were considered: relationship, process, and task conflict. Cultural diversity was defined as group members' dissimilarity in horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Group outcomes were operationalized as satisfaction with the group and perceived performance of the group. Mediated regression analysis was used to test the hypothesized relationships with data from 76 science research groups.

Findings

Cultural diversity was positively related to relationship, process, and task conflict. In turn, the three conflict types were associated with unfavorable group outcomes. Further, the three types of conflict were shown to mediate the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

Potential limitations of this study include its cross‐sectional design, common method bias, generalizability of findings, and use of three different questionnaire formats. The possible impact of these limitations is addressed.

Practical implications

Although this research implies that culturally homogeneous groups have better outcomes, it is often impossible and undesirable to assemble such groups. The targeted use of cross‐cultural training programs may help individuals function well in culturally diverse groups by lessening conflict and thus allowing more favorable group outcomes.

Originality/value

Previous research has either asserted a relationship between cultural diversity and unfavorable group outcomes or shown a relationship between intragroup conflict and unfavorable group outcomes. The contribution of this study is to show that intragroup conflict mediates the relationship between cultural diversity and group outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2018

Leigh Anne Liu, Wendi L. Adair, Dean Tjosvold and Elena Poliakova

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on the state of the field in intercultural dynamics on competition and cooperation at the individual, team, and organizational levels. The authors integrate previous studies from multiple disciplines to articulate the contextual importance of intercultural dynamics. The authors also suggest three overarching themes to expand the field of research on intercultural dynamics.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use an integrative literature review to articulate the importance of intercultural dynamics, provide an introduction to the new contributions in this special issue, and propose new directions for future research.

Findings

Intercultural dynamics research has the potential to expand in three overarching areas: constructive controversy, collaborative communication, and global competency and identity at multiple levels.

Research limitations/implications

Intercultural dynamics is still a nascent field emerging from cross-cultural and strategic management. The authors hope the review lays the groundwork for more studies on intercultural dynamics at the interpersonal, team, organizational, and mixed levels of analysis in both theory building and empirical works.

Practical implications

Understanding intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation can help individuals and managers in multinationals and born global organizations navigate cultural complexity and foster cooperation.

Social implications

The authors hope the ideas on intercultural dynamics can facilitate collaboration and reduce conflict in intercultural encounters at the individual, organization, and societal levels.

Originality/value

This paper offers an overview on the state of the field and lays groundwork for more systematic inquiries on intercultural dynamics in competition and cooperation.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Xuejian Yu

This paper presents an analysis of interview data and field notes from participant observation collected during a four‐month period to discover different work‐related…

Abstract

This paper presents an analysis of interview data and field notes from participant observation collected during a four‐month period to discover different work‐related cultural assumptions between Chinese and American co‐workers in a multicultural organization. The paper also addresses how those different cultural assumptions which guide the ways Chinese and American workers conceptualize their jobs and job behaviors lead to conflict as the employees go about their daily business. The contrasting cultural assumptions discussed in the paper are (1) Chinese and American views of the role of manager and the practice of “managing,” (2) Chinese and American conceptualizations of good service, and (3) Chinese and American perspectives of compensation. Finally, the paper discusses some theoretical and methodological implications of the current study and its research method for future studies of cultural and conflict in multicultural contexts.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 18 October 2011

Claude‐Hélene Mayer and Lynette Louw

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate insights into cross‐cultural conflict, identity and values amongst selected managers within a South African management context…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate insights into cross‐cultural conflict, identity and values amongst selected managers within a South African management context. It aims to increase the understanding of these complexities from an academic managerial perspective, thereby providing in‐depth information which can lead to the development of managerial training tools for improving diversity and conflict management in the described context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors selected qualitative data from a case study that was conducted in the international South African automotive industry. The case study was based on the post‐modernist premise by considering phenomenological and interpretative paradigms most relevant.

Findings

Findings show conflicts in managerial communication and treatment, position and competition, organisation, race and gender and are often defined as “cross‐racial” conflict fuelled by the society's past.

Research limitations/implications

The generalisability is limited to this specific context and needs to be proven by follow‐up studies which expand the context and the methodological approach of the study.

Practical implications

Practical suggestions address the implementation of training tools, coaching and counselling in cross‐cultural conflict management. They are anticipated to create awareness on managing the present challenges and are aimed at managers and international organisations investing in South Africa.

Originality/value

The paper provides new insights into the discussion on human resource management in a specific South African management context by referring to the highly important topics of cross‐cultural conflict, values and identities.

Details

European Business Review, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

Judith Y. Weisinger and Paul F. Salipante

This study examines the method of scenario analysis as a means of exposing hidden assumptions which cause misattributions that lead to multicultural conflict and as a way…

Abstract

This study examines the method of scenario analysis as a means of exposing hidden assumptions which cause misattributions that lead to multicultural conflict and as a way of assessing cross‐cultural understanding. Results from thirty‐five critical incident interviews of technical professionals and semi‐structured scenario questionnaires from graduate business and engineering students are presented. The results provide support for the use of scenarios as a method of exposing hidden assumptions leading to multicultural conflict and as a process which helps participants deal with the conflict. Implications for organizational research and practice are discussed, including the use of scenario analysis as an evaluation and measurement tool for culturally‐related conflict in organizations.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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