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Robert Weech-Maldonado, Mona Al-Amin, Robyn Y. Nishimi and Fatema Salam

According to the Census, racial/ethnic minority populations are growing at such a fast rate that by 2050 more than 50% of the population will belong to a minority group…

Abstract

According to the Census, racial/ethnic minority populations are growing at such a fast rate that by 2050 more than 50% of the population will belong to a minority group (US Census, 2001). The increasing diversity of the U.S. population is one of the many changes that health care delivery organizations need to proactively address in order to better serve their community and improve their performance. In this paper, we argue that cultural competency not only is important from a societal perspective, i.e., reducing health disparities, but can also be a strategy for health care organizations to improve quality, lower cost, and attract customers. We provide detailed recommendations for health care leaders and managers to adopt in order to successfully serve a diverse patient population.

Details

Organization Development in Healthcare: Conversations on Research and Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-709-4

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Article

Mitchell F. Rice

The dramatic population growth of Hispanics and immigrants, combined with the issue of diversity, in the United States population raises several important questions about…

Abstract

Purpose

The dramatic population growth of Hispanics and immigrants, combined with the issue of diversity, in the United States population raises several important questions about the future role of public administration and the delivery of culturally appropriate and culturally responsive public programs and public services in the post modern era of diversity. What is cultural competency in public programs and public service delivery? Can public agencies become culturally competent organizations? What is a cultural competency model for public administration and public service delivery? Aims to answer these questions that point to the need for a “new” kind of public servant and public service agency provider– one who possesses explicit cultural competency skills to work with racial/ethnic and cultural/linguistic groups in the delivery of public programs and public services.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing a literature review approach, the paper examines the concept of culture in public administration and argues that “culture” and “competency” must be tied together thereby leading to a contemporary standard and operational framework for advancing cultural competency in public administration and public service delivery. The article argues that cultural competency can enhance public administration/public service delivery normative values by increasing an agency's ability to work efficiently, effectively, and equitably in the context of cultural differences.

Findings

The paper concludes that there are five reasons for incorporating cultural competency into the study and practice of public administration/public service delivery and moving a public agency toward cultural competence.

Practical implications

Embracing cultural competency in public service delivery recognizes the salience of understanding the cultural context in which any direct public service encounter occurs. Advancing cultural competency presents an opportunity to address the incomplete and often times inaccurate public services and public programs provided to minority populations. A focus on cultural competency increases the relevancy of a public agency's administration, services and programs to the groups that can best utilize them. Having knowledge, awareness, and skills in cultural competency, service delivery professionals are better prepared to do their jobs.

Originality/value

This paper should be of value to both academics and practitioners as they grapple with diversity and immigration issues, public administration, public programs and public service delivery.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article

Jasmin Mahadevan

This article aims to suggest implementing an integrated approach – named intercultural engineering – at university level. Engineering today often takes place across…

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to suggest implementing an integrated approach – named intercultural engineering – at university level. Engineering today often takes place across cultures, locations and organizations. As a result, many companies have included cross-cultural training activities into their internal human resource development program. However, current practice neglects the engineering context and might enable sophisticated stereotyping.

Design/methodology/approach

This article presents the case of a German bachelor study program in International Industrial Engineering and the theoretical foundations of its design.

Findings

Engineering education needs to move beyond simplistic comparative cross-cultural management theory. It needs to acknowledge cultural complexity in engineering through an integrated development of competencies for utilizing the benefits of cultural diversity.

Originality/value

The contribution of this article lies in providing a practical example of how to develop integrated competencies for cultural diversity in engineering, as based on latest theory.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article

Robert J. Emmerling and Richard E. Boyatzis

Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied…

Abstract

Purpose

Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. While the field has continued to expand over the preceding decades, research has often trailed application, especially as it relates to cross‐cultural validity. The purpose of this introductory essay to this special issue of CCM serves to focus on cultural issues related to applied use of competencies in diverse cultures.

Design/methodology/approach

Emotional and social intelligence competencies are defined and an overview provided for the papers that will follow, with original research linking these constructs to performance in various occupations and cultures, as well as issues related to their development.

Findings

Emotional and social intelligence competencies are found to represent a practical and theoretically coherent, reliable and valid approach to assessing and developing individuals in diverse cultures.

Research limitations/implications

As an introductory essay, the paper lays the foundation for the following articles in this special issue.

Originality/value

Although competencies are in widespread use around the world, issues related to cross‐cultural validation are seldom studied empirically. This introductory essay and subsequent articles will help clarify emotional and social competencies as a behavioral approach to applying emotional intelligence to the practical needs of organizations.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article

Annachiara Scapolan, Fabrizio Montanari, Sara Bonesso, Fabrizio Gerli and Lorenzo Mizzau

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behavioural competencies of directors and managers working for cultural organizations and their relationship with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the behavioural competencies of directors and managers working for cultural organizations and their relationship with organizational performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopts an ESC competency modelling process and the technique of the Behavioural Event Interview as the primary source of data collection. In particular, the authors interviewed 14 directors and managers of six performing arts organizations operating in Emilia-Romagna, a region located in Northern Italy.

Findings

Findings show that directors and managers of cultural organizations are characterized by a specific set of social and emotional (e.g. persuasion and empathy), whereas cognitive competencies, such as quantitative analysis, are less frequent. Findings highlight also that a balanced portfolio of behavioural competencies emerges as importantly correlated with high organizational performance.

Practical implications

Findings offer relevant managerial implications for the design and implementation of a coherent set of human resource management practices, which allow cultural organizations to reach above-average performance.

Originality/value

This study contributes to a better understanding of the relationship between managerial competencies and the performance of cultural organizations, taking into account specific kinds of competencies – namely, behavioural competencies – which have been neglected by the previous literature.

Objectivo

Este estudio pretende investigar las competencias comportamentales de los directores y managers que trabajan en las organizaciones culturales, y la relación entre estas competencias y la el desempeño organizacional.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio usa el proceso ESC competency modelling y la técnica de la Behavioral Event Interview. Sobre todo, entrevistamos 14 directores y managers de seis organizaciones de espectáculos en vivo que operan en Emilia-Romagna, una región del Norte de Italia.

Hallazgos

Encontramos que los directores y managers de las organizaciones culturales muestran un conjunto especifico de competencias sociales y emocionales (persuasión, empatía, etc.), mientras que las competencias cognitivas son menos frecuentes. Hallazgos muestran también que un portfolio balanceado de competencias comportamentales está correlacionado con alto desempeño organizacional.

Implicaciones prácticas

Los Hallazgos ofrecen relevantes implicaciones administrativas por el diseño y la implementación de un sistema coherente de prácticas de recursos humanos, que permite a las organizaciones culturales conseguir un alto rendimiento organizacional.

Originalidad y valor

Este articulo contribuye a una mejor comprensión de la relación entre las competencias de los managers y el desempeño de las organizaciones culturales, sobre todo considerando competencias específicas (las competencias comportamentales) que los estudios pasados han descuidado.

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Book part

Paula Caligiuri and Ibraiz Tarique

In this chapter we examine the individual-level accelerators of global leadership development as they affect the acquisition of cross-cultural competencies through both…

Abstract

In this chapter we examine the individual-level accelerators of global leadership development as they affect the acquisition of cross-cultural competencies through both cross-cultural training and developmental cross-cultural experiences. Individuals’ cognitive ability, prior knowledge, and personality traits will accelerate the knowledge they gain from cross-cultural training. Their personality characteristics, language skills, motivation, and prior experience will facilitate the development of cross-cultural competencies from high-quality international experiences. We highlight an aptitude × treatment interaction approach whereby the level of a given individual-level attribute affects how global leaders will respond to instructional methods, cross-cultural experiences, or developmental opportunities. The chapter suggests that global leaders’ individual differences can accelerate (or possibly impede) the developmental gains in their cross-cultural competencies.

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Book part

Jörg Hruby, Rodrigo Jorge de Melo, Eyden Samunderu and Jonathan Hartel

Global Mindset (GM) is a multifaceted construct that has received broad interest among practitioners and academics. It is a fragmented construct at this point in time, due…

Abstract

Global Mindset (GM) is a multifaceted construct that has received broad interest among practitioners and academics. It is a fragmented construct at this point in time, due to definitional overlap with other constructs such as global leadership and cultural intelligence. This overlap has created complexity for research that attempts to understand GM in isolation. Lack of clear boundaries in defining and conceptualizing this construct challenges researchers who are attempting to capture fully what constitutes GM. Our work seeks to better understand and explain what underlines the individual GM construct and how does this impact the development of global competencies in individual managers.

We systematically review and analyze the individual GM literature thematically to provide an overview of the extant research from a broad array of scholarly sources dating from 1994 to 2017. Our work offers a thematic analysis that provides a visual guide to GM by tracking the corpus of individual-level GM studies. We categorize the research according to its theoretical groundings and basic concepts and proceed review how GM has been operationalized at the individual level and measured. Next, we integrate major dimensions in the GM research and propose a framework to enhance understanding of the phenomenon. Finally, we discuss the implications of our review for the development of GM for practitioners, coaches and trainers.

Details

Advances in Global Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-297-6

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Book part

Nicholas Banks

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite…

Abstract

Research suggests that African-Caribbeans are less likely than their white British counterparts to ask for mental health support (Cooper et al., 2013). This is despite research identifying that minority groups as a whole, when compared to the white majority, report higher levels of psychological distress and a marked lack of social support (Erens, Primatesta, & Prior, 2001). Those who do request support are less likely to receive antidepressants (British Fourth National Survey of Ethnic Minorities, 1994; Cooper et al., 2010) even when controlling for mental health symptom severity, with African-Caribbeans less likely to make use of medication for depression even when prescribed (Bhui, Christie, & Bhugra, 1995; Cooper et al., 2013). Studies reporting on reasons for black people being less likely to attend for mental health consultation with their GP suggest a variety of explanations why this may be, focussing both on the suspicion of what services may offer (Karlsen, Mazroo, McKenzie, Bhui, & Weich, 2005) and the concern of black clients that they may experience a racialised service with stigma (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different understandings and models of mental illness may also exist (Marwaha & Livingstone, 2002). Different perspectives and models of mental health may deter black people from making use of antidepressants even when prescribed. Despite a random control trial showing that African-Caribbean people significantly benefit from targeted therapy services (Afuwape et al., 2010), the government, despite a report by the Department of Health in 2003 admitting there was no national strategy or policy specifically targeting mental health of black people or their care and treatment has not yet built on evidence-based success. One important aspect recognised by the Department of Health (2003), was that of the need to develop a mental health workforce capable of providing efficacious mental health services to a multicultural population. Although there were good strategic objectives little appeared to exist in how to meet this important objective, particularly in the context of research showing that such service provision could show real benefit. The Department of Health Guidelines (2003) focussed on the need to change what it termed as ‘conventional practice’, but was not specific in what this might be, or even how this could improve services to ethnic minorities. There was discussion of cultural competencies without defining what these were or referencing publications where these would be identified. There was a rather vague suggestion that recent work had begun to occur, but no indication that this had been evaluated and shown to have value (Royal College of Psychiatrists, 2001). Neither British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy nor British Psychological Society makes mention of the need for cultural competencies in organisational service delivery to ethnic minority clients. This chapter will describe, explore and debate the need for individual and organisational cultural competencies in delivering counselling and psychotherapy services to African-Caribbean people to improve service delivery and efficacious outcomes.

Details

The International Handbook of Black Community Mental Health
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-965-6

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Abstract

Details

Global Leadership Talent Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-543-6

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Article

Jeremy Michael Clark, Louis N. Quast, Soebin Jang, Joseph Wohkittel, Bruce Center, Katherine Edwards and Witsinee Bovornusvakool

The purpose of this study is to explore patterns of importance ratings of managerial competencies in 22 countries in different regions around the globe, to guide…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore patterns of importance ratings of managerial competencies in 22 countries in different regions around the globe, to guide specificity in assessing and developing managers in multiple geographies. Additionally, this study examined the utility of clustering countries based on shared culture, as defined by House et al. (2004), to determine whether such clustering aids in interpreting and acting on any differences identified.

Design/methodology/approach

The PROFILOR® for Managers contains 135 behavioral items, grouped into 24 competency scales. The instrument was developed from a review of the management and psychology literatures, exhaustive analysis of a large database (Sevy et al., 1985), job analysis questionnaires and interviews of hundreds of managers representing many functional areas and most major industries.

Findings

Results suggest that clustering countries together for the purpose of providing prescriptive guidance for the development of individuals planning expatriate assignments does not clarify such guidance; in fact, it masks unique differences in competency priorities as measured on a country-by-country basis.

Research limitations/implications

The participants for this study come from mid- to large-size organizations in 22 countries around the world. The organizations represented sought out management consulting services from a large, highly respected private-sector consultancy. As such, these findings are likely to be generalizable to managers from similar organizations. No attempt has been made to generalize these findings to entrepreneurial start-ups, small local organizations or organizations not inclined to seek Western-style management consulting services.

Originality/value

This study is one of the first to examine the effectiveness of the GLOBE clusters as they relate to managerial competencies in multicultural workforces.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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