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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2019

Diana Farcas and Marta Gonçalves

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inductively develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation for emerging adult self-initiated expatriates (SIEs).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 18 Portuguese emerging adult SIEs, aged between 18 and 29 years, residing in the UK from 5 months to 2 years. The analysis of these interviews through a grounded theory, using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (Atlas.ti), allowed describing what constitutes participants’ cross-cultural adaptation and what are its determinants.

Findings

Five dimensions of cross-cultural adaptation emerged (cultural, emotional, social, practical and work), along with 18 determinants related with four different levels: personal, interpersonal, societal and situational. These determinants are related with the pre- and post-relocation phases of participants’ expatriation experience and some of them act as buffers, capturing a more integrative picture of the cross-cultural adaption process.

Research limitations/implications

In order to enhance the validity of the inductively identified relationships between cross-cultural adaptation and its determinants, the authors consider that they could be empirically tested.

Originality/value

This study points to several contributions in the fields of cross-cultural adaptation, emerging adulthood and self-initiated expatriation. By considering this study’s sample, the authors contributed to Farcas and Gonçalves’ (2016) call for more research focusing on emerging adult SIEs. In doing so, the authors simultaneously addressed the gap in the emerging adulthood literature regarding the focus on non-university samples of emerging adults. The methodology of this study can also be considered a contribution. By conducting interviews with emerging adult SIEs and analyzing them through a grounded theory approach, the authors were able to develop a model of cross-cultural adaptation. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first model which was inductively developed, enabling a broad understanding of emerging adult SIEs’ cross-cultural adaptation, in terms of what constitutes and influences it.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2004

Xiaohua Lin

The study examined cultural adaptive behavior in international joint ventures, its key relationship contexts (e.g. relationship commitment and relative dependence), and…

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2974

Abstract

The study examined cultural adaptive behavior in international joint ventures, its key relationship contexts (e.g. relationship commitment and relative dependence), and influence of national culture. The hypotheses are tested with Chinese and US joint venture managers. Survey results show that cultural adaptation is driven by relationship commitment and relative dependence among both Chinese and US joint venture partners. However, the association between relative dependence and cultural adaptation is stronger among the Chinese than among the US managers. The findings have important implications for relationship management in international business.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Alfred Presbitero

The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into religious expatriates’ cultural intelligence, adaptation and the role of motivation. Drawing mainly from the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide new insights into religious expatriates’ cultural intelligence, adaptation and the role of motivation. Drawing mainly from the theory of intelligence (Sternberg, 1999) and theory of self-determination (Deci and Ryan, 2000), the study posits that cultural intelligence of a religious expatriate is positively and significantly related to his or her psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Moreover, the study hypothesizes that intrinsic motivation, as a type of motivation, plays a significant role in moderating the relationship between cultural intelligence and adaptation (both psychological and sociocultural).

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 110 religious expatriates from various religious communities were surveyed. They were asked to rate their cultural intelligence, intrinsic motivation and adaptation (i.e. psychological and sociocultural).

Findings

The results demonstrate that cultural intelligence is positively and significantly related to both psychological and sociocultural adaptation. Furthermore, results show that intrinsic motivation, as a type of motivation, moderates the relationship between cultural intelligence and adaptation (both psychological and sociocultural).

Originality/value

The study contributes to the limited studies on non-corporate expatriation focusing mainly on religious expatriation. In addition, it adds value by generating new insights into the importance not only of cultural intelligence but also of intrinsic motivation in ensuring high levels of psychological and sociocultural adaptation. It further offers a number of practical insights that can be relevant for both corporate and non-corporate expatriates.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2010

Fu Jia and Christine Rutherford

This paper aims to add a cultural‐relational dimension to the supply chain risk management (SCRM) literature.

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3990

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to add a cultural‐relational dimension to the supply chain risk management (SCRM) literature.

Design/methodology/approach

Inter‐firm learning and cultural adaptation literatures are reviewed, missing themes identified and a conceptual model proposed.

Findings

The authors define the problem of supply chain relational risk (SCRR) and explain the cultural differences between China and the West, which form a subset of SCRR. They then propose cultural adaptation as the solution to this problem. Two missing themes are identified concerning the process of cultural adaptation between China and the West and the causal relationship between cultural adaptation and partnership performance.

Research limitations/implications

This is a conceptual paper based on secondary data.

Practical implications

Cultural differences between China and the West impact the relational risks facing Western buyers and their Chinese suppliers. To create a mutually beneficial partnership, it is necessary for both parties to understand the cultural differences and the process of cultural adaptation. Ultimately, the paper will help firms mitigate the relational risks associated with cultural differences.

Originality/value

The paper extends prior work in the area of SCRM by adding a relational‐cultural dimension. With a view to mitigation of SCRRs, the authors develop a conceptual process model, which describes a relationship‐building process incorporating cultural adaptation for the creation of a mutually beneficial partnership, which features a hybrid cultural interface.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Book part
Publication date: 31 October 2012

Simone Volet and Cheryl Jones

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally…

Abstract

This chapter provides a critical analysis of the literature on individuals in cultural transitions in higher education, namely, international students in culturally unfamiliar contexts; teachers of international students and culturally more diverse classrooms; and local students in increasingly culturally diverse classes. All these individuals are actors exposed to new and shifting cultural experiences expected to impact their motivation and engagement. Two broad perspectives emerging from the literature were used to organize the chapter: a perspective of adaptation representing research grounded in unilateral, bilateral or reciprocal conceptualizations, and a perspective of transformation, capturing experiential learning research leading to personal and academic development. The analysis highlights how motivation is a critical, yet under-examined construct. This leads to numerous suggestions for future research including: addressing the neglected role of agency in research on international students' sociocultural adaptation and the lack of research on successful processes of adaptation; examining the confounding issue of socialization into new cultural-educational environments and level of proficiency in the medium of instruction, which impacts on engagement; and scrutinizing the posited link between deep-level motivated engagement in cultural transitions and the emergence of transformative experiences. A case is made for research on individuals' engagement and motivation in cultural transitions to be conceptually and methodologically stronger and broader, moving from studies of single groups of individuals in need of adaptation, to investigations of the co-regulated, reciprocal adaptations of actors and agents operating in complex sociocultural contexts where power dynamics related to knowledge and language affect participation and engagement with cultural 'others'.

Details

Transitions Across Schools and Cultures
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-292-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Arno Haslberger

The management literature on cross‐cultural adaptation has used a conceptualisation and measurement approach developed by Black and Stephens. Their work has led to…

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4829

Abstract

Purpose

The management literature on cross‐cultural adaptation has used a conceptualisation and measurement approach developed by Black and Stephens. Their work has led to significant development in the field. Now it is time to move beyond and use a more refined tool. This paper proposes such a tool and compares its characteristics with those of the older instrument.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on a sample of 204 expatriates, who were surveyed using the older and the proposed instrument. It uses confirmatory factor analysis to compare the two instruments. Independent variables include cultural difference and language skills.

Findings

This study demonstrates that a more refined measurement of adaptation outcomes, which distinguishes cognitive and affective factors and four non‐work facets, is superior to measurement based on the older instrument. The new scale also provides a case for the improvement of cross‐cultural adaptation theory.

Research limitations/implications

The paper is based on a cross‐sectional sample and sample size is relatively small for confirmatory factor analysis. Additional research is necessary to corroborate the evidence presented here about the superiority of the proposed measure. The paper provides researchers with a new tool for use in cross‐cultural adaptation studies.

Originality/value

The paper describes a new, empirically developed measurement tool for cross‐cultural adaptation.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Gøril Voldnes and Kjell Grønhaug

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyers and sellers in cross-cultural business relationships manage cultural differences to ensure functional, successful…

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1024

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how buyers and sellers in cross-cultural business relationships manage cultural differences to ensure functional, successful business relationships. Failure to consider specific cultural issues may lead to the failure of business ventures crossing national borders. To succeed in today’s global business market, it is critically important to understand and manage cultural differences. Adapting to each other’s cultures is one way of managing cultural differences between business actors.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative, explorative approach examining both sides of the exchange dyad was adopted to obtain insight into adaptation as perceived by both buyer and seller.

Findings

The results of this study indicate that mainly Norwegian sellers adapt to the Russian culture and way of conducting business. This is explained by power asymmetry between partners, as well as cultural barriers and lack of cultural sensitivity from the Norwegian partners. Still, the business relationships function well.

Practical implications

Knowledge of and applying strategies for managing cultural differences should be helpful for business managers engaged or planning to engage in business ventures with Russia and Norway – especially those doing so for the first time.

Originality/value

The study provides new and important information about West-East business relationships and how to manage cultural differences in cross-cultural business relationships. The study shows that business relationships can function well in spite of the absence of some factors previously found to have detrimental effects on these relationships. In addition, the study investigates both sides of the buyer-seller dyad, which is a limitation in previous studies of adaptation.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2007

Peter Townsend and Caroline Wan

This research sets out to assess the relevance and impact of interpersonal contact, in the form of multicultural experience, in the development of socio‐cultural adaptation

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3968

Abstract

Purpose

This research sets out to assess the relevance and impact of interpersonal contact, in the form of multicultural experience, in the development of socio‐cultural adaptation for international students studying in their new country. The original contribution of this research is the application of a statistical methodology to this subject area in the Asia Pacific Basin.

Design/methodology/approach

The data analysis consisted of quantitative, longitudinal and cross‐sectional studies, from a sample consisting of students studying an international business degree, in the categories of living in national home culture or out of national home culture. Longitudinally, 88 students were sampled at the beginning of the semester and four months later. The cross‐sectional study of 380 students, over three years, was for students in these same categories, on the Australian and Malaysian campuses.

Findings

The analysis identified that socio‐cultural adaptation statistically demonstrates an initial negative relationship with multicultural experience, but develops beyond this period with a positive increase and relationship at the end of three years. There were no significant differences for socio‐cultural adaptation and multicultural experience between students studying in or out of their national home culture.

Research limitations/implications

The results statistically demonstrated a continuous increase of multicultural experience but also a U curve shape of socio‐cultural adaptation, thereby confirming previous qualitative research on the culture shock phenomena.

Originality/value

This is the only statistical research to date on the U curve phenomena in the Asia Pacific Basin.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 21 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ying Zhang, Yuran Li, Mark Frost, Shiyu Rong, Rong Jiang and Edwin T.C. Cheng

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the critical role played by cultural flow in fostering successful expatriate cross-border transitions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop and test a model on the interplay among cultural intelligence, organizational position level, cultural flow direction and expatriate adaptation, using a data set of 387 expatriate on cross-border transitions along the Belt & Road area.

Findings

The authors find that both organizational position level and cultural flow moderate the relationship between cultural intelligence and expatriate adaptation, whereby the relationship is contingent on the interaction of organizational position status and assignment directions between high power distance and low power distance host environments.

Originality/value

Previous research has shown that higher levels of cultural intelligence are positively related to better expatriate adaptation. However, there is a lack of research on the effect of position difference and cultural flow on such relationship. Our study is among the first to examine how the interaction between cultural flow and organizational position level influences the cultural intelligence (CI) and cultural adjustment relationship in cross-cultural transitions.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

Yadong Luo

Contrasting local adaptation, which focusses on foreign multinationals learning about and adapting to local (host country) culture and environment, reverse adaptation

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2251

Abstract

Purpose

Contrasting local adaptation, which focusses on foreign multinationals learning about and adapting to local (host country) culture and environment, reverse adaptation refers to the case where an MNE’s local employees learn, assimilate and modify their personal behavior (e.g. values, norms) and professional competence (e.g. standards, goals, language, knowledge, capabilities) in order to fit the MNE’s global mindset and global competence set so that they can be internationally reassigned. The purpose of this paper is to take the first step toward addressing this nascent phenomenon and practice.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses combined inductive and ethnographic methods to explore the importance, process and practice of reverse innovation. This study defines reverse adaptation, illustrates the major driving forces underlying reverse adaptation, and suggests how MNEs should prepare for it. As reverse adaptation is a promising area for research, this paper also proposes a research agenda for international management scholars.

Findings

MNEs need to act at both local and global levels in a way that recognizes the interdependence between the two. Too often global companies have approached their local talent needs in an uncoordinated and unproductive way. Reverse adaptation view suggests that MNEs can create a competitive advantage by taking a global approach to talent. Cultivating and transforming local talent to become global talent necessitates endeavor from a wide range of corporate, subsidiary and individual levels, in cultural, professional, structural, informational and organizational aspects.

Originality/value

Reverse adaptation is a promising area of research because it provides the opportunity to enrich mainstream theories and literatures in a number of areas. This nascent phenomenon has not yet been studied, and this paper represents the first effort to do so. From both academic and practice viewpoints, reverse adaptation has a significant impact on global talent management, knowledge flow across borders, capability catchup and global integration design. Today’s glocalized business world, with heightened integration of world economy, creates an expectation for the continuing growth of reverse adaptation.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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