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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Serdar Ögel and İlkin Yaran Ögel

Introduction: As internet and communication technologies are getting developed, the commercial transaction is becoming more electronic. This change also brings new…

Abstract

Introduction: As internet and communication technologies are getting developed, the commercial transaction is becoming more electronic. This change also brings new approaches to new payment mechanisms like emergence of crypto currencies. They are virtual and digital currencies which can only be used in electronic environment but they are increasingly treated as a new payment and investment tool. Nevertheless, their use has not spread into the general public, yet. At this point, it will better to take the complex nature of the crypto currencies into consideration because it may still lead to some risks for people and the type of the risks perceived by consumers may influence their attitudes toward and intention to use crypto currencies.

Aim: Accordingly, this study attempts to examine the interaction between perceived risk, attitudes toward and intention to use crypto currencies within the context of Bitcoin, as the first crypto currency.

Method: This study was designed as a causal research. The sample of the study was reached by using convenience sampling method and data were collected with survey. The compiled data were tested with Structural Equation Model.

Findings: A statistically significant and negative relationship was found between perceived financial, time and psychological risk and attitudes toward the use of Bitcoin, and a statistically significant and positive relationship was found between attitudes toward and intention to use Bitcoin. The findings of the study are expected to contribute to both relevant literature and practice by explaining the financial behavior of the individuals within the context of perceived risk theory.

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New Challenges for Future Sustainability and Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-969-6

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2019

Saeed Rouhani and Ehsan Abedin

Crypto-currencies, decentralized electronic currencies systems, denote a radical change in financial exchange and economy environment. Consequently, it would be attractive…

Abstract

Purpose

Crypto-currencies, decentralized electronic currencies systems, denote a radical change in financial exchange and economy environment. Consequently, it would be attractive for designers and policy-makers in this area to make out what social media users think about them on Twitter. The purpose of this study is to investigate the social opinions about different kinds of crypto-currencies and tune the best-customized classification technique to categorize the tweets based on sentiments.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilized a lexicon-based approach for analyzing the reviews on a wide range of crypto-currencies over Twitter data to measure positive, negative or neutral sentiments; in addition, the end result of sentiments played a training role to train a supervised technique, which can predict the sentiment loading of tweets about the main crypto-currencies.

Findings

The findings further prove that more than 50 per cent of people have positive beliefs about crypto-currencies. Furthermore, this paper confirms that marketers can predict the sentiment of tweets about these crypto-currencies with high accuracy if they use appropriate classification techniques like support vector machine (SVM).

Practical implications

Considering the growing interest in crypto-currencies (Bitcoin, Cardano, Ethereum, Litcoin and Ripple), the findings of this paper have a remarkable value for enterprises in the financial area to obtain the promised benefits of social media analysis at work. In addition, this paper helps crypto-currencies vendors analyze public opinion in social media platforms. In this sense, the current paper strengthens our understanding of what happens in social media for crypto-currencies.

Originality/value

For managers and decision-makers, this paper suggests that the news and campaign for their crypto in Twitter would affect people’s perspectives in a good manner. Because of this fact, the firms, investing in these crypto-currencies, could apply the social media as a magnifier for their promotional activities. The findings steer the market managers to see social media as a predictor tool, which can analyze the market through understanding the opinions of users of Twitter.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Anwar Hasan Abdullah Othman, Syed Musa Alhabshi and Razali Haron

This paper aims to examine whether the crypto-currencies’ market returns are symmetric or asymmetric informative, through analysing the daily logarithmic returns of…

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1617

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether the crypto-currencies’ market returns are symmetric or asymmetric informative, through analysing the daily logarithmic returns of bitcoin currency over the period of 2011-2017.

Design/methodology/approach

In doing so, the symmetric informative analysis is estimated by applying the generalised auto-regressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) (1,1) model, whereas asymmetric informative or leverage effects analysis is estimated by exponential GARCH (1,1), asymmetric power ARCH (1,1) and threshold GARCH (1,1) models. In addition, the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity in mean (GARCH-M (1,1)) was applied to examine whether the risk-return trade-off phenomenon was persistent in crypto-currencies market.

Findings

The main findings indicate that bitcoin market return or volatility is symmetric informative and has a long memory to persist in the future. Furthermore, the sympatric volatility is found to be more sensitive to its past values (lagged) than to the new shock of the market values. However, asymmetric informative response of volatility to the negative and the positive shocks do not exist in the bitcoin market or, in other words, there is no leverage effect. This suggests that the bitcoin market is in harmony with the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) with respect to the asymmetric information and violated the EMH with regard to the symmetric information. Hence, the market price or return of bitcoin currency could not be predicted by simply exercising such past market information in the short-run investment. In addition, the estimated coefficient of conditional variance or risk premium (λ) in the mean equation of CHARCH–M (1,1) model is positive however, statistically insignificant. This indicates the absence of risk-return trade-off, in which case the higher market risk will not essentially lead to higher market returns. This paper has proposed that an investment in the crypto-currency market is more appropriate for risk-averse investors than risk takers.

Originality/value

The findings of the study will provide investors with necessary information about the bitcoin market price efficiency, hedging effectiveness and risk management.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Angela S.M. Irwin and George Milad

The purpose of this paper is to look at current discourse on the topic of crypto-currencies, more specifically Bitcoins, and their application to funding acts of terror…

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3386

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look at current discourse on the topic of crypto-currencies, more specifically Bitcoins, and their application to funding acts of terror. The paper clearly establishes the risks posed by this new payment technology and value transfer system to assist in the process of funding, planning and implementing acts of terror.

Design/methodology/approach

Publications, blogs and sites published and administered by terrorists groups and their supporters are examined to determine their interest in leveraging emerging payment and value transfer systems to facilitate the funding, planning and implementation of terror attacks. Press releases and other publications are also examined to determine whether crypto-currencies have been used by these groups in fund raising, fund transfer or recent terror attacks.

Findings

Although it is difficult to find concrete evidence of largescale use of Bitcoins and other crypto-currencies by terrorist groups and their supporters, there is strong evidence to suggest that they have been linked to a number of terror attacks in Europe and Indonesia. Supporters of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), jihadists and terrorist organisations are actively looking to and promoting the use of new and emerging technologies, such as Bitcoin, to mitigate some of the risks associated with traditional fund transfer methods. Some websites associated with terrorist organisations have started to collect donations in Bitcoins. Many Bitcoin ATMs and Bitcoin exchanges are located in countries that have seen significant numbers of foreign fighters join ISIS in the Middle East and are also positioned in countries that have seen increased risk of terror attack. These present a significant risk because they allow for the seamless, anonymous transfer of funds to and from terrorist groups and their supporters. The paper highlights the need for further in-depth research into reliable ways to circumvent the current difficulties experienced in differentiating illicit transactions from legitimate ones and establishing reliable means of attribution.

Originality/value

Using a document published by ISIS, which provides would-be jihadists detailed instructions on how they can get to Syria or Iraq without being detected, a set of models were created showing how this could be achieved using Bitcoins alone. From this scenario, red flag indicators and suspicious behaviour models have been created to determine whether they can be identified during detailed analysis of the Bitcoin blockchain which will be conducted in later stages of research.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Ikhlaas Gurrib

The purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light into whether an energy commodity price index (ENFX) and energy blockchain-based crypto price index (ENCX) can be used to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed fresh light into whether an energy commodity price index (ENFX) and energy blockchain-based crypto price index (ENCX) can be used to predict movements in the energy commodity and energy crypto market.

Design/methodology/approach

Using principal component analysis over daily data of crude oil, heating oil, natural gas and energy based cryptos, the ENFX and ENCX indices are constructed, where ENFX (ENCX) represents 94% (88%) of variability in energy commodity (energy crypto) prices.

Findings

Natural gas price movements were better explained by ENCX, and shared positive (negative) correlations with cryptos (crude oil and heating oil). Using a vector autoregressive model (VAR), while the 1-day lagged ENCX (ENFX) was significant in estimating current ENCX (ENFX) values, only lagged ENCX was significant in estimating current ENFX. Granger causality tests confirmed the two markets do not granger cause each other. One standard deviation shock in ENFX had a negative effect on ENCX. Weak forecasting results of the VAR model, support the two markets are not robust forecasters of each other. Robustness wise, the VAR model ranked lower than an autoregressive model, but higher than a random walk model.

Research limitations/implications

Significant structural breaks at distinct dates in the two markets reinforce that the two markets do not help to predict each other. The findings are limited by the existence of bubbles (December 2017-January 2018) which were witnessed in energy blockchain-based crypto markets and natural gas, but not in crude oil and heating oil.

Originality/value

As per the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to analyze the relationship between leading energy commodities and energy blockchain-based crypto markets.

Details

Studies in Economics and Finance, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1086-7376

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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 July 2020

Amol Thakre, Fadi Thabtah, Seyed Reza Shahamiri and Suhel Hammoud

Bitcoin is among the highest rated digital crypto-currency in financial investment markets. This technology relies on a backbone of distributed data architecture and…

Abstract

Bitcoin is among the highest rated digital crypto-currency in financial investment markets. This technology relies on a backbone of distributed data architecture and peer-to-peer networking model called Blockchain. Unlike the current digital economy, which is governed centrally by financial institution or governments, Blockchain is fully autonomous without any third-party involvement. The exorbitant success of Bitcoin has attracted investors, scholars as well as organizations to peek into this lucrative technology for the possible application to other areas apart from crypto-currency. Blockchain can adopt Smart Contracts, which are digitally enabled contracts that can be executed and enforced fully or partially using pre-defined notions. The aim of this research is to investigate the synergy between Smart Contract and Blockchain to propose a digital framework for an academic paper publication model that has the capability to automate the entire process and challenge the existing system. It can also bring together all the stakeholders under the same system. The proposed model can further hold the stakeholders accountable for breach of contracts and/or reward them for executing the successes of terms pre-configured in the Smart Contract. The proposed model, called Digital Smart Publication or DSP (as referred in the document), is highly secure and ensures balance in distributing rewards to the involved stakeholders while keeping data integrity and security as paramount features.

Details

Applied Computing and Informatics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2634-1964

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Ehsan Nikbakht, Manuchehr Shahrokhi and Alford Corriette

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of blockchain to determine its feasibility for electronic transfer payments. An integrated conceptual framework…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the emergence of blockchain to determine its feasibility for electronic transfer payments. An integrated conceptual framework is developed for blockchain electronic transfer. The three “markers” of classic money (store of value, medium of exchange and unit of account and efficiency) are assessed in the case of blockchain technology. A survey is also conducted among the executives of financial vs manufacturing sectors with respect to five major variables for the emerging distributed financial data based on blockchain.

Design/methodology/approach

Conducting a literature review and using prior knowledge from the works of those well-versed and knowledgeable in the field. This research is also supported by collecting and analyzing the results of a behavioral survey of the executives in two different industries.

Findings

Blockchain technology has the potential to have widespread change in how firms operate and implement a new method for electronic payments transfer through cryptocurrencies. Although the community for blockchain technology is deregulated and has drawbacks, it is expected that the limitations will gradually be mitigated through its growth. The results of the behavioral survey show that there are significant differences between the expectations/perceptions of participants in the sectors of finance vs manufacturing. Namely, the knowledge/awareness of participants about blockchain, the value-added convenience for end users, and participants’ willingness to embracing and accepting new applications are significantly different between the two sectors.

Originality/value

The reach and applications for Blockchain are not limited to business or any particular sector. Blockchain technology may contribute to the operations of different types of organizations and industry sectors. Since the perception of participants about blockchain is different between selected industries, this research suggests the need for more education and building awareness among the participants in different sectors of the economy.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

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Book part
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Kevin Chen

There has been a financial revolution lead by technology firms over the past decade. Many large established technology giants, from Google, Apple to Amazon in the US are…

Abstract

There has been a financial revolution lead by technology firms over the past decade. Many large established technology giants, from Google, Apple to Amazon in the US are entering the financial service industry. Smaller start-ups, in particular robotic advisors, a.k.a. Robo-Advisors, have been taking market shares from traditional asset management firms. In China, firms like Tencent and Alibaba have created a whole new field of online finance. At the center of our study is a critical examination of the key components of the financial innovation over the past 10 years. Mobile banking was the beginning, followed by trading, investment, and insurance business. We study innovation through several cases. Due to the size and number o firms in Financial technology (FinTech) space, the US and China are the focus of the chapter. Artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning are included for discussion in this chapter. We emphasize a market approach in our study, albeit, incorporating the historical and cultural perspectives in our analysis. Our goal is to develop a thorough understanding of the art and science of financial innovation, from both bottom-up market indicators and a top-down holistic view. We want to demonstrate that the technological changes are just the beginning of a new world of financial services. Unprecedented changes are still yet to come and it is crucially important to be prepared and even embrace the changes. A special discussion was devoted to the phenomenon of FinTech boom in Asia. Lastly, many new technologies are being developed to combat fraudulent activities in the FinTech space.

Details

Banking and Finance Issues in Emerging Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-453-4

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Jeffrey Simser

This paper aims to explore the challenge posed by Bitcoin to regulators, particularly anti-money laundering regulators. Bitcoin is a crypto-currency based on open-source…

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3869

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the challenge posed by Bitcoin to regulators, particularly anti-money laundering regulators. Bitcoin is a crypto-currency based on open-source software and protocols that operates in peer-to-peer networks as a private irreversible payment mechanism. The protocol allows cross-border payments, for large and small items, with little or no transactional costs.

Design/methodology/approach

Case studies and case law are examined as are relevant reports by regulators.

Findings

Bitcoin is based on complex computer code supported by a robust community in a peer-to-peer network. Unlike other virtual currencies, Bitcoin appears to have obtained purchase and as such poses unique challenges to regulators.

Research limitations/implications

Bitcoin is at a nascent stage and the evolution of the virtual currency is difficult to predict.

Practical implications

Those who study financial systems, anti-money laundering regimes and asset forfeiture laws will have an interest in this topic.

Originality/value

This is a new and emerging currency; there is limited literature on the implications of this currency to anti-money laundering systems.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2021

Abstract

Details

New Challenges for Future Sustainability and Wellbeing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-969-6

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